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Effective Removal of Pavement Markings (2013)

Chapter: Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C - State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2013. Effective Removal of Pavement Markings. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22474.
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C-1 A P P E N D I X C State Pavement Marking Removal Specifications STATE REMOVAL SPECIFICATION Alabama http://www.dot.state.al.us/conweb/doc/Specifications/2008%20Standard%20Specifications%20for%20 Highway%20Construction.pdf 6. REMOVAL OF TEMPORARY STRIPE. A temporary solid line stripe of marking tape used on an underlying pavement layer, or any type temporary stripe of marking tape used on a wearing surface shall be removed. A temporary solid or broken line stripe of paint used on a wearing surface shall be removed if it is not to be completely covered with a Class 1H or 2 permanent stripe. Other types of temporary stripe may remain in place if the temporary stripe will be covered by the placement of paving layers or permanent stripe. (i) REMOVING STRIPE AND MARKERS. Existing traffic stripe (permanent or temporary), markers and adhesive shall be removed by a method that will not damage or disfigure the appearance of surfaces that will be visible at the completion of construction. Burning or painting over the old stripe will not be permitted. Removal of traffic stripe, existing or temporary, will be paid for as a separate item of work. Alaska http://www.dot.state.ak.us/stwddes/dcsspecs/assets/pdf/hwyspecs/english/2004sshc.pdf 670-3.04 PAVEMENT MARKING REMOVAL. Remove all existing traffic markings that are in conflict with the striping details shown on the Plans, an approved TCP, or any temporary striping as directed. Do not paint over existing markings. Do not use open flame on the final paving lift. Remove pavement markings to the fullest extent possible without materially damaging the pavement surface, color, or texture. As the work progresses, remove sand or other material deposited on the pavement as a result of removing markings. Remove accumulations of sand or other material that might interfere with drainage or constitute a hazard to traffic. Before making any change in the traffic pattern, remove or obliterate pavement markings that may create confusion to motorists. Where using blast cleaning to remove pavement markings or objectionable material within 10 feet of a lane occupied by public traffic, immediately remove the residue (including dust) after contact between the sand and the surface being treated. For such removal, use a vacuum attachment operating concurrently with the blast cleaning operation or by other approved methods. Repair any damaged pavement or surfacing caused by the pavement marking removal operation.

C-2 Arizona http://www.azdot.gov/Highways/ConstGrp/Contractors/PDF/2000_Standard_Spec/Sec701_737.pdf 701-3.06 Obliteration of Existing Pavement Markings: Pavement marking obliteration shall be accomplished by the contractor as indicated on the plans or as directed by the Engineer. Pavement markings shall be removed to the fullest extent possible from the pavement by any method that does not materially damage the surface, color, or texture of the usable pavement. Abrasive blasting, using air or water, is an acceptable method for removing pavement markings, however, other methods may be approved by the Engineer. Overpainting of markings with paint or asphalt will not be permitted. Sand or other material deposited on the pavement as a result of removing pavement markings shall be removed as the work progresses. Accumulations of sand or other material, which might interfere with drainage or might constitute conditions adverse to traffic safety, shall be removed by the contractor. Where blast cleaning is used for the removal of pavement markings or for removal of objectionable material, the residue, including dust, shall be removed immediately after contact between the sand and the surface being treated. Such removal shall be by a vacuum attachment operating concurrently with the blast cleaning operation, or by other methods approved by the Engineer. Blast cleaning shall not be used within 12 feet of a lane occupied by public traffic unless a suitable barrier separates traffic from the area being cleaned. Obliteration or removal of raised pavement markers shall include removal of the marker and adhesive pad, or adhesive pad alone if the marker is missing. Any damage to the pavement caused by pavement marking removal shall be repaired by methods acceptable to the Engineer. When asphalt slurry is used to repair damage to the pavement caused by pavement marking removal or the obliteration of the marks remaining after the markings have been removed, the asphalt slurry shall be placed parallel to the new direction of travel and shall be at least two feet in width. If obliteration of lead-based striping is necessary, it shall be accomplished by a method that is in compliance with 29 CFR, Lead Exposure in Construction, Interim Final Rule. If lead exposure prevention measures are required, the contractor shall ensure that all contractor personnel, subcontractors, and ADOT personnel present on the job site are notified of the activity and advised of precautions necessary to avoid contamination by lead compounds. The contractor shall submit a lead exposure plan to the Engineer for review at least 48 hours prior to the start of any striping obliteration activities. Payment for additional work to remove lead-based striping shall be in accordance with Subsections 104.02 or 109.04. Arkansas http://www.arkansashighways.com/standard_spec/2003/03-600.pdf http://www.arkansashighways.com/standard_spec/2003/final700.pdf Conflicting pavement markings shall be removed to prevent confusion to drivers. Removal of pavement markings shall leave a minimum of pavement gouging. Unless otherwise specified, painting over conflicting markings as a means of line removal will not be allowed. Line removal as specified on the plans shall be performed in such a manner that no conflicting pavement marking will be left in place. Removal of the pavement marking by a means that will gouge the surface will not be permitted. Conflicting pavement markings that exist shall be removed by blasting with water and/or sand or by grinding. This blasting or grinding is considered pavement marking removal. Line removal as specified on the plans shall be performed in such a manner that no conflicting pavement marking will be left in place. Removal of the pavement marking by a means that will gouge the surface will not be permitted. California http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/esc/oe/specifications/std_specs/2006_StdSpecs/2006_StdSpecs.pdf 15-2.02B Traffic Stripes and Pavement Markings Traffic stripes and pavement markings shall be removed by any method that does not materially damage the existing pavement. Pavement marking images shall be removed in such a manner that the old message cannot be identified. Where grinding is used, the pavement marking image shall be removed by grinding a rectangular area. The minimum dimensions of the rectangle shall be the height and width of the pavement marking. Residue resulting from removal operations shall be removed from pavement surfaces by sweeping or vacuuming before the residue is blown by the action of traffic or wind, migrates across lanes or shoulders, or enters into drainage facilities. Traffic stripes shall be removed before any change is made in the traffic pattern.

C-3 Colorado http://www.coloradodot.info/business/designsupport/construction-specifications/2005-construction- specs/2005book/sec201-307.pdf/view 202.05 Pavement Markings. Pavement markings shall be removed from the pavement to the maximum extent possible, by methods that do not materially alter or damage the surface or texture of the pavement, to the satisfaction of the Engineer. The proposed method of pavement marking removal shall be designated by the Contractor at the preconstruction conference, and approved by the Engineer. Operations that do not produce the desired result, damage the pavement, or may constitute a hazard to the traveling public will not be permitted. Materials deposited on the pavement as a result of removal of pavement markings shall be promptly removed so as not to interfere with traffic or roadway drainage. Pavement markings, designated to be removed, shall be removed before any change is made in traffic patterns. Temporary marking tape sections longer than one foot shall be removed before placement of the final pavement course. All tape shall be removed on sections where tape conflicts with revised traffic lanes prior to opening of new lanes to traffic. Connecticut http://www.ct.gov/dot/lib/dot/documents/dpublications/816/012004/2004_816_original.pdf SECTION 12.11 REMOVAL OF PAVEMENT MARKINGS 12.11.03—Construction Methods: Pavement markings shall be removed from the pavement by any method that does not materially damage the surface or texture of the pavement. Any damage to the pavement surface caused by pavement marking removal shall be repaired by the Contractor at its expense by methods acceptable to the Engineer. Sand or other material deposited on the pavement as a result of removing pavement markings shall be removed as the work progresses. Accumulations of sand or other material which might interfere with drainage or might constitute a hazard to traffic will not be permitted. Protection of the work area shall be as indicated in the Specification for “Maintenance and Protection of Traffic.” SECTION 12.12 TEMPORARY PLASTIC PAVEMENT MARKING TAPE 12.12.01—Description: This item shall consist of furnishing, installing and removing temporary plastic pavement marking tape of the color and width specified at the locations shown on the plans or as directed by the Engineer. 12.12.02—Materials: Materials for this work shall be commercially available pavement marking tape designed and suitable for the purpose intended and readily removable, when required. The tape shall be reflective with the use of glass beads throughout the pigments. 12.12.03—Construction Methods: Removal shall be accomplished without the use of heat, solvents, grinding or sandblasting and in such a manner that no damage to the pavement results. SECTION 12.14 PREFORMED BLACK LINE MASK PAVEMENT MARKING TAPE 12.14.01—Description: This item shall consist of furnishing, installing, and removing preformed, patterned, black line mask pavement marking tape of the width specified to temporarily cover existing pavement markings in accordance with this section and in conformance with the plans and as directed by the Engineer. The preformed, patterned, black line mask pavement marking tape shall be a highly durable, skid resistant, nonreflective, pliant polymer tape designed for the temporary covering of existing pavement markings. The black line mask pavement marking tape shall be removed when no longer needed, unless directed otherwise by the Engineer. The black line mask pavement marking tape, when applied according to the recommendations of the manufacturer, shall provide a neat, durable masking that will not flow or distort. The black line mask pavement marking tape shall be weather resistant and, through normal traffic wear, shall show no lifting or shrinkage which will significantly impair the intended usage of the tape throughout its useful life and show no significant tearing or other signs 12.14.03—Construction Methods: The patterned, black line mask pavement marking tape shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations, and shall mask the existing markings being covered. of poor adhesion.

C-4 Delaware http://www.deldot.gov/information/pubs_forms/manuals/standard_specifications/pdf/division_700.pdf http://deldot.gov/information/pubs_forms/manuals/standard_specifications/pdf/supplemental/supplementa l_specifications_2006-05-15.pdf Subsection 748.09 Application. (f) Removal of Pavement Markings when they are not properly applied. When it is necessary to remove pavement markings the following shall apply: (1.) For paint and epoxy resin, shot/abrasive grit blasting or water blasting equipment shall be used. (2.) For alkyd thermoplastic, in addition to the removal techniques discussed for paint and epoxy, burning or grinding equipment may be used. The removal operation shall be performed in a manner that will not damage the pavement surface to a depth more than 1/8 inch. The contractor must satisfactorily demonstrate his/her proposed equipment and method of removal. Alternative equipment and methods will be considered if satisfactory results can be demonstrated. The contractor shall collect and dispose of all shot/abrasive grit and pavement marking materials removed from the pavement surface. Washing or sweeping such materials to the roadside will not be permitted. (3.) After removal of striping on bituminous concrete pavement, approved flat black paint or asphalt sealer shall be used to cover any exposed aggregate or embedded paint. Price and payment will also include payment for black paint or asphalt sealer. Florida ftp://ftp.dot.state.fl.us/LTS/CO/Specifications/SpecBook/2010Book/102.pdf http://www.dot.state.fl.us/statemaintenanceoffice/SMSP%2001-01-10/ME7107000.doc http://www.dot.state.fl.us/statemaintenanceoffice/SMSP%2001-01-10/ME7117000.doc 102-5.8 Conflicting Pavement Markings: Where the lane use or where normal vehicle paths are altered during construction, remove all pavement markings (paint, tape, thermoplastic, raised pavement markers, etc.) that will conflict with the adjusted vehicle paths. Use of paint to cover conflicting pavement markings is prohibited. Remove conflicting pavement markings using a method that will not damage the surface texture of the pavement and which will eliminate the previous marking pattern regardless of weather and light conditions. Remove all pavement markings that will be in conflict with “next phase of operation” vehicle paths as described above, before opening to traffic. ME710-70.2 Paint Removal Requirements. Remove existing pavement markings by water blasting, sandblasting, or other method approved by the Engineer. Do not use chemicals for the removal of painted traffic stripes and/or markings. Provide positive means to control dust and accumulation of debris from the removal operations. Remove all pavement marking materials from the pavement surface. Remove accumulated piles of any debris as a result of the removal operation from the right of way and dispose of in accordance with applicable Federal, State, and Local regulations, at no additional cost to the Department. ME710-70.3 Protection of Existing Pavement Surfaces. Conduct removal operations in a manner that will not damage existing pavement surfaces (concrete or asphalt) or damage pavement joint materials. Repair, to the satisfaction of the Engineer, any damage as a result of the removal operations. Do not paint over existing pavement markings to blackout, hide, or disguise markings. ME711-70.2 Thermoplastic Removal Requirements. Remove existing pavement marking by water blasting, grinding, sandblasting, or other method approved by the Engineer. Do not use chemicals for the removal of thermoplastic traffic stripes and/or markings. Provide positive means to control dust and accumulation of debris from the removal operations. Remove all pavement marking materials from the pavement surface. Remove accumulated piles of any debris as a result of the removal operation from the right of way and dispose of in accordance with applicable Federal, State, and Local regulations, at no additional cost to the Department. ME711-70.3 Protection of Existing Pavement Surfaces. Conduct removal operations in a manner that will not damage existing pavement surfaces (concrete or asphalt) or damage pavement joint materials. Repair, to the satisfaction of the Engineer, any damage as a result of the removal operations. Do not paint over existing pavement markings to blackout, hide, or disguise markings.

C-5 Georgia http://www.dot.state.ga.us/doingbusiness/TheSource/specs/ss656.pdf 656.3.05 Construction: Remove pavement markings before changing the traffic pattern. This Specification does not relieve the Contractor of the responsibilities in Section 150 or Subsection 107.07. Utilize blasting, such as sand blasting or water blasting, grinding, or other approved methods to completely remove pavement markings without materially damaging the pavement surface or texture. Repair (at the Contractor’s expense) damage to the pavement or other surface from removing the markings. Use repair methods acceptable to the Engineer. A. Blast Cleaning Do not allow sand and other debris to accumulate and interfere with drainage or create a traffic hazard. 1. When blast cleaning within 10 ft (3 m) of a lane occupied by public traffic, immediately remove residue and dust when the sand hits the pavement surface. 2. Use a vacuum attachment operating simultaneously with blast cleaning, or use other methods approved by the Engineer. 3. Ensure that sand for blast cleaning conforms to Section 804. Hawaii http://hawaii.gov/dot/highways/specifications2005/specifications/specspdf/specspdf-626-640/629_Print.pdf Removal of Existing Pavement Markings: Remove and dispose of existing pavement markings before performing the following activities: applying temporary or permanent traffic paint, thermoplastic extrusion pavement marking, or preformed pavement marking tape; and making changes in traffic pattern. Dispose of material in accordance with Subsection 201.03(F) - Removal and Disposal of Material. Use one of the following removal methods: (1) Grinding. Feather edges of grinding to make smooth transition to existing roadway surface. Limit feathering to 3 inches beyond edge of existing striping to be removed. Vary feathered edges to differentiate them from traffic stripes. Coat ground asphalt pavement with rapid-setting slurry. (2) Burning. Burn off existing painted pavement markings using excess oxygen method. (3) Sandblasting. As work progresses, immediately remove sand and other material deposited on pavement. (4) Other. Remove preformed pavement marking tape by methods recommended by manufacturers. Eradication of existing markings by painting over them will not be allowed. Idaho http://itd.idaho.gov/manuals/Online_Manuals/Traffic/Traffic.htm 203.04 Pavement Marking Removal. Removal of painted pavement markings, plastic pavement marking tape, thermoplastic pavement markings, and raised pavement markings shall be with a method that completely removes old marking material and leaves minimal pavement scars or surface texture differences that could be confused with pavement markings regardless of road conditions or time of day. Painting over existing pavement markings with any obliteration product is an unacceptable method of pavement marking removal. The prerequisite for determining the best method of pavement marking removal is that treatment which has the least negative effect on the roadway surface. Illinois http://www.dot.il.gov/desenv/spec2007/div700.pdf 783.03 Removal of Conflicting Markings. Existing pavement markings that conflict with revised traffic patterns shall be removed as directed by the Engineer and shall be scheduled immediately to facilitate a change in lane assignments which requires removal of conflicting markings. If darkness or inclement weather prohibits the removal operations, such operations shall be resumed the next morning or when weather permits. In the event of removal equipment failure, such equipment shall be repaired, replaced, or leased so removal operations can be resumed within 24 hours. (a) Pavement Markings. The existing pavement markings shall be removed from the pavement by a method that does not materially damage the surface or texture of the pavement or surfacing. Very small particles of tightly adhering existing markings may remain in place, if in the opinion of the Engineer, complete removal of the small particles will result in pavement surface damage. Any damage to the pavement or surfacing caused by pavement marking removal shall be repaired by methods acceptable to the Engineer. The shape of the obliterated strip shall be disguised so the pattern of the removed marking is not retained. Where mechanical means of marking removal have been employed, flat paint of a color matching the pavement surface or an asphaltic seal coat may be used if necessary as a means of covering contrasting pavement texture. The use of flat paint to cover conflicting pavement markings will not be allowed. (b) Pavement Markers. The removal of existing markers shall consist of the reflective element and the base casting complete. On those improvements where no pavement rehabilitation is required, the pavement shall be repaired with material according to Article 406.05 to the satisfaction of the Engineer. When permanent raised reflective pavement markers are present and conflict with the revised traffic patterns, only the reflectors shall be removed.

C-6 Indiana http://www.in.gov/indot/files/HAChapter_11.pdf Pavement markings which conflict with revised traffic patterns and confuse motorists should be removed before or immediately after the change in traffic patterns is made. Pavement markings may be removed by sandblasting, waterblasting, grinding, or other approved mechanical methods. The removal methods should, to the fullest extent possible, cause no significant damage to the pavement surface. Grooving is not permitted and grinding is permitted only for removing thermoplastic or epoxy pavement markings. Painting over existing markings to obliterate the markings does not work and is not permitted. When a blast method is used to remove pavement markings, the residue, including sand, dust, and marking material, is required to be vacuumed concurrently with the blasting operation or removed by other approved methods. Any damage to the pavement caused by pavement marking removal is repaired by approved methods with no additional payment. Iowa http://www.iowadot.gov/erl/current/GS/content/2527.pdf C. Removal of Pavement Markings. 1. Promptly remove, on the same day new lines are placed, all existing pavement markings in the newly marked traffic lanes that are confusing, conflicting, or misleading to traffic. The Engineer may designate other pavement markings for removal to maximize the effectiveness of the traffic control plan. 2. Upon completion of the project, remove all new pavement markings which are applied according to this specification and would change the color or placement of existing standard pavement markings. Removal may also be required during progress of the work if lines that are no longer needed cause confusion in traffic delineation. 3. Remove existing painted pavement markings so that 90% or more of the pavement is visible. Tightly adhering markings may remain in the bottom of the tining and other depressions on the pavement surface but shall not be visible to the motorist during daytime or night time. Remove tape markings according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Ensure removal processes do not cause functional damage to the transverse or longitudinal joint sealant materials. 4. Conduct pavement marking removal operations in a manner so that the finished pavement surface is not damaged or left in a pattern that may mislead or misdirect the motorist. When the operations are completed, power broom the pavement surface. Remove all marking removal debris from the pavement surface before the pavement is open to public traffic. 5. Perform pavement marking removal to a width no less than the width of the existing or new pavement markings plus 1 inch (25 mm). When symbols or legends are removed, remove the entire area of the existing symbol or legend; in a rectangular shape so no directionality may be observed from the removed symbol or legend. 6. Removal will not be required prior to being covered by a construction process unless specified in the contract documents. Removal of pavement markings may be by vacuum blasting, vacuum dry grinding, wet grinding, shot blasting, or high pressure water blasting. Open abrasive blasting or dry grinding without containment will not be allowed. 7. In lieu of physical removal, existing pavement markings may be covered by removable, nonreflective, preformed tape that is prequalified according to Materials I.M. 483.06 and meets the requirements of Articles 2527.02, D, 7, and 4183.06, D. 8. Ensure pavement marking removal equipment: a. Operates without the release of dust, b. Recovers all removed material, and c. Includes a waste collection and transfer system and for dry wastes, ensure the system incorporates HEPA methods and equipment. 9. Removal operations may be halted if the process and final result is not acceptable to the Engineer. 10. Remove collected material and dispose of according to applicable Federal and State regulations. 11. Remove temporary delineators, posts, and raised pavement markers when their need no longer exists or when directed by the Engineer.

C-7 Kansas http://www.ksdot.org/burConsMain/specprov/2007/DIVISION-800.pdf 808.3 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS a. Removal of Existing Stripes and Symbols. Remove the existing pavement markings and symbols without damaging the pavement surface. As the work progresses, remove all material deposited on the pavement as a result of the removal operations. When blast cleaning within 10 feet of the traveling public, continuously remove all residue and dust. When replacement of the removed existing markings is a part of the Contract Documents, follow the manufacturer’s requirements for the new pavement markings as to the method of removal of the existing markings, or surface preparation requirements. c. Repair. Use methods approved by the Engineer to repair all pavement damaged during the pavement marking removal operations. Kentucky http://transportation.ky.gov/construction/spec/2004/2004_SpecBook.pdf 714.03.02 Surface Preparation. 1) Remove existing pavement markings and clean grease, oil, mud, dust, dirt, grass, loose gravel, or other deleterious material from the surface where pavement markings are to be applied, as directed by, and by methods acceptable to, the Engineer. 2) Remove the existing pavement markings until a minimum of 90 percent of the pavement surface is uniformly exposed throughout. Ensure that the pavement surface is in proper condition for successful bonding of the pavement markings and provides a neat appearance. Do not leave any loose or flaking existing pavement markings. 3) When removing the existing pavement markings, ensure that the finished pavement surface is not damaged or left in a condition that may mislead or misdirect the motorist. Repair any damage to the pavement, pavement joint materials, or the pavement surface caused by the removal of the existing pavement markings in a manner acceptable to the Engineer. After completing these operations, use compressed air to blow clean the pavement surface of residue and debris resulting from the removal of existing pavement markings. 4) When removal of existing pavement markings and objectionable materials obscures existing pavement markings of a lane occupied by public traffic, immediately remove the residue, including dust, from the surface being treated. Obtain the Engineer’s approval of the removal methods. 714.03.07 Marking Removal. Remove all markings made in error or not conforming to the traffic operation in use. Remove markings by either an abrasion or burning process to the satisfaction of the Engineer. Do not paint with asphalt binder or other material to obliterate the markings. Louisiana http://www.dotd.la.gov/highways/specifications/documents/2006%20Standard%20Specifications%20for %20Roads%20and%20Bridges%20Manual/11%20-%202006%20-%20Part%20VII%20- %20Incidental%20Construction.pdf Removal of Existing Markings: Existing thermoplastic markings that are not flaking or peeling will not require removal prior to placement of 40 mil (1.0 mm) thick thermoplastic. Existing thermoplastic markings, regardless of condition, shall be removed prior to placement of 90 mil (2.3mm) thick or greater thermoplastic except on asphalt pavements. When thermoplastic markings replace existing painted markings, the existing painted markings will not require removal prior to applying new thermoplastic markings, provided the existing painted markings are not flaking or peeling. When preformed plastic markings (tape) replace any existing markings, the existing markings shall be removed prior to applying the preformed plastic markings. Removal of markings shall be accomplished by methods that will not damage the pavement or bridge deck. Removal shall be to such extent that 75 percent of the pavement surface or bridge deck under the markings is exposed. After the markings are removed, compressed air or a power blower shall be used to blow clean the pavement surface of residue and debris resulting from the removal. At the end of each day's operations the engineer may direct that temporary pavement markings complying with Section 713 be used in areas where existing markings have been removed and new markings not placed. Temporary pavement markings shall be satisfactorily removed prior to resuming thermoplastic marking operations. All markings made in error or not conforming to the traffic operation in use shall be removed by either an abrasion or burning process to the satisfaction of the engineer. Markings shall not be obliterated by painting with asphalt binder or other material. The removal of temporary pavement markings, if required, shall be in accordance with the requirements for the type of permanent marking being used. There shall be no objectionable staining of pavement surface as a result of the removal procedure.

C-8 Maine http://www.state.me.us/mdot/contractor-consultant-information/ss_division_600.pdf 627.08 Removing Lines and Markings. When it is necessary to remove pavement lines and markings, it shall be done by grinding, high temperature flame, sand blasting, solvent or other acceptable means. The method chosen must be capable of completely eradicating the existing line or marking without damage to the pavement. Burning and grinding to remove temporary markings from final pavement or from existing pavement not to be resurfaced will not be permitted. Maryland http://apps.roads.maryland.gov/businesswithsha/contBidProp/ohd/constructContracts/ifb/HA2705171.pdf 565.01 DESCRIPTION. Remove existing pavement markings (lines, letters, numbers, arrows, and symbols) during temporary or permanent traffic shifts, and repair any roadway areas damaged during the removal process. This Specification does not apply to raised or recessed pavement markers. Temporary blackout tape shall be applied when existing pavement markings will require salvaging for reuse after completion of temporary traffic shifts necessary to perform work specified in the Contract. 565.03.01 Quality Control/Quality Assurance. At least two weeks prior to the start of pavement markings removal, the Contractor shall submit a Quality Control Plan (QCP) to the Engineer for review. The QCP shall contain (as a minimum) the following information: (a) How the Contractor proposes to perform the work while ensuring conformance with the Specifications. (b) Proposed method of removal based on road conditions, type and number of equipment to be used, manpower expectations, and time frame to complete the work based on maintenance of traffic (MOT) restrictions. (c) Location and quantity of markings to be removed. (d) Protective shielding plan and containment system, particularly in the case of markings that may contain toxic materials. The QCP shall also detail when, how, and what corrective actions will be taken for unsatisfactory construction practices and deviations from the Contract Documents. Any deviation from the QCP shall be cause for immediate suspension of work. 565.03.02 Quality Control Test Strip. Prior to the beginning of work, the Contractor shall demonstrate the removal method to the Engineer for approval. A minimum of 100 ft of existing pavement markings shall be removed as a test strip at a location determined by the Engineer. If the method does not work or shows signs of damaging the road surface, then another method shall be tried. Additional control strips will be required. The preferred method is that which least damages the roadway and completely removes the markings. 565.03.03 Methods of Removal. The following removal methods are based on the pavement condition and type of marking material: (a) Manual. A scraper or putty knife shall be used to lift tape from the pavement surface. Open flame for tape removal is prohibited. (b) High Pressure Water Blasting. A high pressure water blast shall be used to break the bond between the marking material and the pavement surface. The water blast may contain fine grit. (c) Alternate Methods. Abrasive blasting or grinding methods shall be submitted for approval to the Office of Materials Technology prior to use. 565.03.04 Cleaning Pavement Surfaces. Immediately behind the removal operation, a vacuum equipped street sweeper capable of removing all loose material shall be used to remove all dust and debris generated by the removal process prior to returning the area to traffic. The Contractor shall prevent debris from draining into inlets and waterways, and all debris shall be collected and disposed of on an approved spoil area or landfill. 565.03.05 Alignment. Removal shall be performed in a straight and uniform manner, and shall follow the longitudinal alignment of the markings with a lateral deviation of no more than 1 in. in any 10 ft section. Affected area shall not exceed 1/2 in. on either side of the existing marking. The depth shall be uniform throughout, 1/8 in. or less, with no gouge areas in the pavement surface. If a second pass is necessary to completely remove the markings, the edges of the groove shall be feathered to a width of 1.25 in. on each side for every additional 1/8 in. of depth. 565.03.06 Corrective Action. Any pavement surface damaged beyond the requirements specified herein by the Contractor’s operations shall be repaired or repaved as determined by the Engineer at no additional cost to the Administration.

C-9 Massachusetts http://www.mhd.state.ma.us/downloads/manuals/1995Mspecs.pdf 850.48 Pavement Marking Removal. Pavement marking removal methods shall not cause damage to the pavement or cause drastic change in texture, which could be construed as delineation at night, and shall be approved by the Engineer. It is not permissible to paint over existing markings in lieu of removal. 850.69 Pavement Marking Removal. Pavement markings shall be removed to the fullest extent possible by an approved method. Any damage to the pavement or surfacing caused by pavement marking removal shall be repaired by the contractor at his/her expense by methods acceptable to the Engineer. Approved methods include but are not limited to: 1. Sand blasting using air or water. 2. High pressure water. 3. Steam or superheated water. 4. Mechanical devices such as grinder, sander, scrapers, scarifiers and wire brushes. Painting over a pavement marking line by use of asphaltic liquids or paints will not be permitted. Inappropriate pavement markings shall be removed before any change is made in the traffic pattern. Material deposited on the pavement as a result of removing markings shall be removed as the work progresses. Accumulations of sand or other material which might interfere with drainage or could constitute a hazard to traffic will not be permitted. Where blast cleaning is used for the removal of pavement markings and such removal operation is being performed within 3 meters of a lane occupied by traffic, the residue including dust shall be removed immediately after contact between the sand and the surface being treated. Such removal shall be by a vacuum attachment operating concurrently with the blast cleaning operation, or by other methods approved by the Engineer. Michigan http://mdotwas1.mdot.state.mi.us/public/dessssp/spss_source/03SP811K.pdf Pavement Marking Removal. Remove pavement markings that conflict with proposed temporary traffic markings before making any changes in the traffic pattern. Place temporary pavement markings when pavement markings are removed or obscured for more than 24 hours before a change in the traffic pattern. Type R markings must be placed according to subsection 812.03.F.9 before the close of the workday. Where blast cleaning is used for marking removal, and the removal location is within 10 feet of an open lane, immediately remove residue and dust. Use a vacuum attachment operating concurrently with the blast cleaning operation for removal of residue and dust. Properly dispose of collected residue and dust. 1. Removal of Less than 5000 Feet per Stage. Remove pavement markings causing as little damage as possible to the surface texture of the pavement and by methods approved by the Engineer. Methods that can provide acceptable results are: sandblasting using air or water; shot blasting; high- pressure water; steam or superheated water; mechanical devices such as grinders, sanders, scrapers, scarifiers, and wire brushes. The contractor is responsible to immediately clean up any debris that is generated. Continuous vacuuming equipment is not required. 2. Removal of Greater than 5000 Feet per Stage. Remove pavement markings using self-propelled truck mounted removal equipment. The equipment must be capable of continuously vacuuming up the removal debris as the operation progresses. If the amount of debris generated during the removal process is greater than the vacuuming capability of the removal truck, a self-propelled sweeper operating immediately behind the removal equipment is required. The removal truck must be capable of eliminating the airborne dust while operating. Remove pavement markings causing as little damage as possible to the surface texture of the pavement and by methods approved by the Engineer: a. Asphalt Surfaces. Contractor may use any type of self-propelled truck mounted removal equipment except water blasting, provided that the equipment is capable of continually vacuuming the removal debris. b. Concrete Surfaces to be Removed During Construction. Contractor may use any type of self- propelled truck mounted removal equipment provided that the equipment is capable of continually vacuuming the removal debris. c. Concrete Surfaces to Remain in Place. A self-propelled truck mounted water blaster must be used to minimize the scarring of the concrete surface. Use equipment capable of continually vacuuming the removal debris. Do not use paint or bituminous bond coat to cover existing and inappropriate pavement markings. Use tape only when authorized by the Engineer.

C-10 Minnesota http://www.dot.state.mn.us/pre-letting/spec/2005/2021-2360.pdf 2102.1 DESCRIPTION This work shall consist of the removal of pavement markings that conflict with revised traffic patterns. The markings will usually be in the form of 100 mm (4 inches) wide widths, in solid line or skip line lengths, but may include other patterns or widths and the type will be as (one) of the following: A) Pavement Marking Removal: this work shall consist of the removal of non-durable pavement markings such as paint type markings. B) Pavement Marking Removal - Temporary: this work shall consist of the removal of Temporary Reflectorized Pavement Marking Tape or Removable Preformed Plastic Pavement Markings. C) Pavement Marking Removal - Permanent: this work shall consist of the removal of durable pavement markings. 2102.3 REMOVAL REQUIREMENTS Before effecting a change in traffic pattern, the Contractor shall remove all conflicting pavement markings approved by the Engineer, using methods and equipment that will not significantly damage the pavement structure or surface texture. Should the removal operations result in significant damage, as determined by the Engineer, the Contractor shall repair the damaged areas as the Engineer directs at no expense to the Department. Whatever methods of removal are employed, the Contractor shall control or restrict operations to avoid exposing traffic to hazardous or detrimental conditions. Any expended materials or agents used in the removal process shall not be allowed to accumulate on the pavement surface but shall be promptly removed by suction or other approved methods as the work progresses. Linear paint markings shall be removed so as not to leave a distinguishing pattern of removal. Where unsatisfactory results are achieved, the Contractor shall obliterate any deceptive lines remaining by applying a color-matched paint or asphalt sealer that will blend with the surface texture satisfactorily. Mississippi http://www.gomdot.com/Divisions/Highways/Resources/Construction/pdf/2004StandardSpecs/specboo k.pdf 619.03.2—Temporary Stripe. Temporary paint stripe requiring removal shall be removed by carefully controlled blast cleaning, approved grinding or other approved methods in such a manner that the surface to which the stripe was applied will not be unnecessarily marred or damaged. Preformed tape is to be removed in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Temporary paint stripe which has been placed on the final pavement course may be left in place and covered with permanent stripe of the same color provided the temporary stripe has been satisfactorily placed in the proper location. Under this condition, any remaining temporary paint stripe not covered by the permanent stripe shall be removed at no additional cost to the State. Painted traffic stripe which has been removed from the final asphalt pavement surface shall be sealed with an approved sealant. The Engineer may wave the sealant requirement when the area to be sealed is insignificant. This sealing operation shall be performed at no additional costs to the State. Existing pavement markings conflicting with temporary markings shall be removed. Removal of such materials (paint, tape, marker, etc.) will be measured and payment made under Section 202. When measuring removal of pavement markings for payment, the skips will not be included in the measurement.

C-11 Missouri http://epg.modot.org/index.php?title=620.1_General_%28MUTCD_Chapter_3A%29 620.1.13 Obliteration of Pavement Markings This work consists of removing all existing or temporary pavement marking which is conflicting or might mislead traffic. The exception is short term marking tape which should be in place two weeks or less. During the process of detouring traffic around construction and maintenance areas and incorporating changes in traffic movements, it may be necessary to remove or obliterate inappropriate pavement markings on the roadway. If this is not done properly the original markings can misdirect traffic, resulting in possible conflicts for both motorists and workers. Standard. The use of asphalt or black paint to cover conflicting markings shall not be allowed. All removal methods must comply with EPA and MDNR regulations concerning air quality and material disposal. Guidance. Provisions should be made on the TCP for the removal of all conflicting or misleading markings. Pay items should be provided for removal of pavement marking when required. Removal or obliteration of inappropriate pavement markings should be performed by one of the following procedures: 1. Mechanical devices, such as grinders, sanders, scrapers, wire brushes or shot blasters. 2. High temperature burning with excess oxygen. 3. Sandblasting. Where pavement markings have been obliterated, nighttime inspections should be made to verify that the marking is no longer visible and does not interfere with the new pavement markings. Options. Where mechanical means of marking removal have been employed to completely remove the pavement marking, paint of a color matching the pavement surface or liquid asphalt materials may be used as a temporary means of covering contrasting pavement texture Montana http://www.mdt.mt.gov/other/contract/external/standard_specbook/2006/2006_stand_specs.pdf 620.03.10 Pavement Marking Removal Remove existing temporary and final pavement markings using any of the following: • Sand blasting with air or water; • High-pressure water; • Steam or super-heated water; or • Mechanically grinding, sanding, scraping, brushing. Submit the method or methods to be used. The Contractor may submit written proposals for other removal methods. An approved method may be subsequently disapproved if it damages the marking surface or inadequately removes existing markings. Remove sand or other material on the surface left by the removal as the work progresses. Satisfactorily repair surfaces damaged by marking removal at Contractor expense. Nebraska http://www.dor.state.ne.us/ref-man/specbook-2007.pdf 15. Pavement Marking Removal: The Contractor shall remove conflicting permanent (not “temporary”) pavement markings as shown in the plans or as required by the Engineer. 2. When markings are no longer needed, the Contractor shall remove them at no additional cost. If removing markings from the final wearing surface, the removal process shall not mar or damage the surface. Removed marking shall no longer be visible on the final wearing surface. 2. a. Temporary pavement marking tape, Type II, shall be a mixture of high quality polymeric materials and pigments with glass beads throughout the pigmented portion of the film and reflectized with glass beads bonded to the top surface. c. A nonmetallic medium shall be incorporated to facilitate removal either manually or with a recommended roll-up device. The tape shall be capable of being easily removed from asphalt and portland cement concrete surfaces intact (or in large pieces), at temperatures above 41°F (5°C). d. Removal shall be accomplished without the use of heat, solvents, grinding, or sandblasting.

C-12 Nevada http://www.nevadadot.com/business/contractor/standards/documents/2001StandardSpecifications.pdf Remove painted traffic lines on surfaces to remain after the project’s completion by hydroblasting. Perform removals on all other surfaces by approved methods. Exercise care to prevent damage to pavement surfaces, joint material and bridge joints. Remove temporary pavement striping immediately after traffic has been re-routed and the temporary pavement striping is no longer required. New Hampshire http://www.nh.gov/dot/org/projectdevelopment/highwaydesign/specifications/documents/2010_Spec_B ook.pdf 3.3.4 Pavement markings that are no longer applicable shall be obliterated immediately preceding or following the change in lane usage. Such change in lane usage shall not be implemented until sufficient time, equipment, materials, and personnel are available to completely obliterate the markings. 3.3.5 Removable pavement marking tape shall be removed prior to placing subsequent pavement courses but not until immediately prior to beginning paving operations. 3.1.6 The use of pavement markings other than in their final location on wearing course will only be permitted if the marking material is designed to be removed without the use of heat, solvent, grinding or blast treatment, and leaves no visible scar on the surface. 3.5 Obliteration of Pavement Markings. 3.5.1 Pavement marking obliteration shall result in a minimum of pavement scar and shall obliterate all evidence of the existing pavement marking material. Removal may be performed by grinding, sand or water blasting, blackout tape, or other method(s) approved by the Engineer that do not materially damage the pavement surface. 3.5.2 “Painting” over pavement markings with paint, asphalt mixtures or any other material is prohibited. 3.5.3 Removal and disposal of pavement markings including, but not limited to retroreflectorized paint, retroreflective thermoplastic, preformed retroreflective tape and raised pavement markers shall be the responsibility of the Contractor in accordance with all applicable federal, state, and local regulations. New Jersey http://www.state.nj.us/transportation/eng/specs/english/EnglishStandardSpecifications.htm#SIX 617.13 Removable Black Line Masking Tape. The black line masking tape shall temporarily obscure the existing permanent traffic stripe on HMA surfaces. The existing traffic stripe shall be completely covered or masked by the application of the black line tape. The black line masking tape shall be applied over dry existing traffic stripes according to the manufacturer’s recommendations and when the weather is favorable as determined by the Engineer. Any portion of the black line masking tape that is loosened after placement over the existing traffic stripe, shall be replaced by the Contractor within two hours or as directed by the Engineer at no cost to the State. Proper care shall be taken in completely unmasking the existing underlying traffic stripe without the use of heat, solvents, grinding, sanding, or water, when the black line masking tape is no longer required. Existing permanent traffic stripes that become damaged during removal of the black line masking, including discoloration caused by the black masking tape, shall be replaced by the Contractor at no cost to the State. 618.12 Removal of Traffic Stripes or Traffic Markings. The Contractor shall remove all types of traffic stripes or traffic markings by methods that do not damage the integrity of the underlying pavement or adjacent pavement areas, and that do not cause gouging, or create ridges or grooves in the pavement that may result in compromising vehicular control. Obliterating stripes or markings by painting over them will not be permitted. Before starting removal operations, the Contractor shall demonstrate the proposed method to accomplish the removal of approximately 95 percent of the stripe or marking without the removal of more than 1/16 inch of pavement thickness. Area of removal includes the area of the stripe or marking plus 1 inch on all sides. Removal operations will not be permitted until the method of removal has been approved. The Contractor shall replace all existing pavement reflectors that have been damaged by removal operations, at no cost to the State. Debris from the removal of traffic stripes and markings shall be disposed of according to Subsection 201.10.

C-13 New Mexico http://www.nmshtd.state.nm.us/upload/images/Contracts_Unit/2007_Specs_for_Highway_and_Bridge_Co nstruction.pdf 721.1 DESCRIPTION This Work consists of removing existing pavement stripes and markings. 721.3 CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS Use Equipment that is capable of completely removing pavement stripes 1/4 in ± 1/8 in deep and at least twice the width of the stripe. Remove temporary pavement stripes and markings when the Project Manager determines that they are no longer required for traffic control. Do not use nonreflective black removable marking tape or overpainting to obliterate temporary pavement markings. Provide traffic control in accordance with Section 104.5, “Maintenance of Traffic,” and Section 618, “Traffic Control Management.” Remove and dispose of debris as directed by the Project Manager. New York https://www.nysdot.gov/main/business-center/engineering/specifications/english-spec-repository/espec- english-cd.pdf 619-2.05 Covering or Removal of Pavement Markings. Paint used to cover existing pavement markings shall be an exterior, non-reflective paint, substantially similar in color to the pavement surface, in accordance with §727-09 Traffic Paint. Tape used to cover existing pavement markings shall be pavement marking masking tape in accordance with §727-06 Removable Pavement Tape. 619-3.05 Covering or Removal of Pavement Markings. The Contractor shall remove or cover existing permanent pavement markings and interim pavement markings, when indicated in the contract documents or directed by the Engineer, to accommodate traffic pattern changes by covering the markings with preformed removable pavement marking masking tape, or removing the markings, and/or painting over the markings. Masking and/or paint shall be placed in blocks to prevent the underlying shape of pavement marking symbols or letters from being confused with existing markings. A. Removal of Pavement Markings. The removal method will be at the Contractor’s option, subject to its ability to achieve satisfactory results. Removal shall be completed prior to the installation of temporary pavement markings or interim pavement markings. Grinding to remove pavement markings will typically remove 1/8 to 1/4 inch of pavement surface. Paint or similar coatings shall be used only to obliterate existing markings, including edge lines or other markings that are not crossed by traffic, on pavement surfaces that will subsequently be removed or overlaid. Prior to installation, the existing marking and adjacent pavement shall be cleaned of debris by compressed air or sweeping. The Contractor shall apply the paint in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations, and completely cover the existing marking. The paint shall be a substantial match to the pavement surface in color, such that appearance of a pavement marking is not visible to drivers under normal viewing conditions, day or night, wet or dry. Any painted-over markings on which the coating fails to adhere, or is worn away, or appears to be an in-service pavement marking, shall be removed or covered. B. Masking Pavement Markings. Removable pavement tape shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer’s written instructions. Prior to installation, the existing pavement marking and adjacent pavement shall be cleaned by compressed air, sweeping, or other means adequate to remove debris, but that does not result in damage to the existing pavement marking. The width of the removable pavement marking masking tape shall be sufficient to completely cover the existing pavement marking. The masking tape shall firmly adhere to the entire length and width of the existing pavement marking to be covered. The Contractor shall maintain the tape for the duration of its use. Any tape that is loosened, removed, or that fails to retain its original matte finish, or that for any other reason fails to obliterate the existing pavement marking shall be replaced immediately, at no additional expense to the State. When the covered pavement markings are to be restored to service, masking tape shall be removed. Temporary adhesive residues will be allowed to remain, providing that the existing pavement marking visibility is not impaired. Any damage to the existing pavement markings or to the pavement surface that results from the removal of the masking tape shall be repaired at no additional cost to the State. If the existing marking cannot be repaired satisfactorily, the Contractor shall remove damaged pavement markings completely and/or replace the pavement section at no additional cost to the State.

C-14 New York Cont. https://www.nysdot.gov/main/business-center/engineering/specifications/english-spec-repository/espec- english-cd.pdf 635-3.04 Cleaning Existing Pavement Markings. Existing pavement markings shall be cleaned for the purpose of: A. Preparing the pavement surface for the application of new pavement markings in the same location as the existing markings. B. To remove existing markings that are in good condition which, if allowed to remain, will interfere with or otherwise conflict with newly applied marking patterns. It shall be understood that in this context cleaning means the removal of an existing marking. It is not intended that all deteriorated existing pavement markings be removed. Example: If a new marking is applied to an unmarked “gap” in a broken line and the existing broken line pattern is worn or deteriorated, as determined by the Engineer, to the extent that it is not misleading or confusing to the motorist, the existing markings do not require removal. Pavement markings shall be cleaned to the extent that 95% to 100% of the existing marking is removed. Removal operations shall be conducted in such a manner that no more than moderate color and/or surface texture change results on the surrounding pavement surface. When waterblasting is performed, pavement markings shall be applied no sooner than 24 hours after the blasting has been completed. Waterblasting shall not be allowed for cleaning markings requiring replacement within the same day as removal as specified under §635-3.05. The determination of acceptable removal will be made by judgment of the Engineer and will be guided by the Department's pictorial standards of acceptable marking removal. Pictorial standards are available from the Materials Bureau. North Carolina http://www.ncdot.org/doh/preconstruct/ps/specifications/english/web12a.pdf (I) Removal of Pavement Markings Remove pavement marking lines, characters, and symbols by acceptable methods to the Engineer that will not materially or structurally damage the surface or the texture of the pavement. Leave the pavement surface in a condition that will not mislead or misdirect the motorist. Where existing pavement markings are to be removed and replaced by other pavement markings, do not begin removal until adequate provisions have been made to complete the installation of the replacement markings. Remove pavement markings such that the surface is in proper condition for adequate bonding of the new markings. Promptly remove any material deposited on the pavement as a result of removing pavement markings as the work progresses by acceptable methods. Provide the equipment necessary to control dust and the accumulation of debris resulting from the removal process. The removal equipment shall provide dust control and the capture of the removed material shall be done utilizing a separate vacuum equipped vehicle or other approved system. Perform the recovery process within the same operation as the removal. Do not let traffic use the lane where the removal is taking place until the recovery system is finished. Should the recovery system fail, cease removal operations until the recovery system is properly operating. The Contractor is responsible for all cleanup and proper disposal of all removed debris from the project site. When using a grinding method for pavement removal, the equipment shall have multiple heads working in tandem to provide adequate preparation of the surface to accept the new marking material. Do not apply polyurea/thermoplastic pavement markings over existing pavement marking materials having less adherence than the polyurea/thermoplastic. Application over existing pavement marking materials other than polyurea/thermoplastic will require the existing pavement marking material to be removed, so that a minimum of 85 percent of the existing pavement marking is removed. However, if pavement is less than 6 months old and one 15 mil application of paint was placed on the pavement initially, do not remove the existing paint pavement markings. Use black color #37038 in paint or tape, as determined by Contractor, to cover any remaining conflicting pavement marking after removal from asphalt pavement surfaces. Do not use black paint or tape on concrete pavement surfaces. The black paint will not have a defined shape or edges with a width not exceeding double of the existing lines. No direct payment will be made for black paint or tape.

C-15 North Dakota http://www.dot.nd.gov/divisions/environmental/docs/Vol%201_102002.pdf S. Pavement Marking Removal. Removal of existing marking and installation of short-term marking shall be as shown on the traffic control plan sheets. Inappropriate existing markings shall be removed and the new delineation placed before opening the affected lane or lanes to traffic. Removal of pavement markings shall not permanently damage the surface or texture of the pavement. Painting over existing stripes is not permitted. Where blast cleaning is used for removal of markings or other objectionable material, the sand or other blast material left on the pavement shall be removed immediately. b. Correction of Defects/Penalties. (1) All pavement markings not conforming to the requirements of the Contract shall be removed and replaced or otherwise repaired to the satisfaction of the Engineer. Removal of unacceptable work shall be accomplished with suitable blasting or grinding equipment unless other means are authorized by the Engineer. (3) If the Engineer requires removal and replacement, the contractor shall remove (by an approved process) at least 90% of the deficient line, with no excessive scarring of the existing pavement. The removal width shall be one inch wider all around the nominal width of the pavement marking to be removed. Ohio http://www.dot.state.oh.us/Divisions/ConstructionMgt/Specification%20Files/2010%20CMS%20Final%2 012222009.pdf G. Conflicting Markings. Before placing work zone markings, remove or cover all conflicting existing markings visible to the traveling public. 1. Removal and Covering of Markings. a. Removal Methods. Remove the markings so that less than 5% of the line remains visible. Repair damage to the pavement that results in the removal of more than 1/8 inch of pavement thickness. Remove the markings by using methods specified in the below table: b. Covering Conflicting Markings. With the Engineer’s approval, use removable, non-reflective, preformed blackout tape according to Supplement 1187 to cover conflicting markings. Remove or replace the blackout tape within 15 days of installation. Furnish products according to the Departments Qualified Products List (QPL).

C-16 Oklahoma http://www.okladot.state.ok.us/c_manuals/specbook/2009specbook.pdf D. Removal If detour or permanent pavement markings conflict with the permanent pavement markings of the next traffic control phase, remove as approved by the Resident Engineer before switching traffic. Place temporary pavement markings before removing existing markings from roadways open to traffic. Remove temporary pavement markings before installing final stripe. Remove the removable pavement marking and adhesive, as directed by the Resident Engineer. Install additional pavement markings according to the traffic conditions, as approved by the Resident Engineer. Immediately dispose of removed pavement marking tape and pavement markers. Remove pavement markings without damaging the pavement surface or pavement material texture. The department will not allow painting over or blotting out the existing pavement markings. When the removal operation deposits sand or other material on the pavement, remove as the work progresses. If blast cleaning within 10 ft of a lane carrying traffic, remove the residue immediately using a vacuum attachment operated concurrently with the blast cleaning operation, or other methods approved by the Resident Engineer. Repair pavement damage as directed by the Resident Engineer at no additional cost to the Department. A. Surface Preparation Use abrasive blasting or grinding to remove existing, temporary, or permanent traffic markings until at least 95 percent of the underlying pavement is visible, unless otherwise specified by the manufacturer. Oregon http://www.oregon.gov/ODOT/HWY/SPECS/docs/08book/08_00800.pdf 00851.40 General—Remove non-durable pavement markings by hydroblasting, steel shot blasting, or grinding so that the pavement surface is not damaged below a depth of 1/8 inch. Remove durable marking by steel shot blasting or grinding the pavement surface to a depth no greater than 1/8 inch, creating a smooth, flat slot of uniform depth. Remove pavement markings the same day permanent markings are applied. Use vacuum shrouded equipment or other equally effective containment procedures. Dispose of all waste materials according to 00290.20. Pennsylvania ftp://ftp.dot.state.pa.us/public/Bureaus/design/Pub408/Pub%20408%20Chg%207/Sections/963.pdf 963.3 CONSTRUCTION—Remove existing pavement markings, as indicated, immediately before any change in traffic patterns or before the application of final markings. Remove markings that conflict with revised traffic patterns and may confuse motorists. Do not paint over existing lines with black paint. Remove markings for restriping to the extent that 90% of the material is removed without materially damaging or grooving the pavement surface more than 0.8 mm (1/32 inch). For all other marking removal, eliminate the markings to the extent that the marking is not visible to motorists when viewed from a distance of 15 m (50 feet). Remove waterborne pavement markings by sandblasting, grit blasting, steel shot blasting, or waterblasting. Grinding is acceptable only for the removal of thermoplastic, cold plastic, or epoxy marking materials. Obtain approval from the Representative for the proposed removal method before beginning work. Vacuum or collect residue, including sand, dust, and marking material, concurrently with the removal operation unless alternate procedure is submitted and accepted. Clean the area of dust with compressed air. Perform this work only in the area where the markings are to be applied. Do not allow sand, dust, or other residual material, which may interfere with drainage or constitute a traffic hazard, to accumulate. Dispose of all residue in an acceptable manner. Repair any pavement or surface damage caused during the removal process. Prevent damage to transverse and longitudinal joint sealers, and repair any damage as specified in Section 513.

C-17 Rhode Island http://www.dot.state.ri.us/documents/engineering/BlueBook/CD-Bluebook.pdf 1. Grinding. Markings shall be removed to a minimum of 95 percent of their surface area. The method shall not damage the surface in any way and have no more than a moderate color and/or texture change. The grinding truck must be capable of removing 80,000 linear feet of 6-inch line per day; and must be equipped with a vacuum and dust collector that is 99.99 percent efficient in removing particles no bigger than 0.5 microns. Any pavement markings removed must be replaced within 1 day. Removal is at no extra cost. A sweeper with the capacity to pick up grindings simultaneously with the removal operation is required. If the Contract eliminates grinding of material, power washing remains a requirement. 2. Power Wash. All special patterns, handwork, and oil or other deleterious substances shall be removed by a power wash machine with a pressure of 2400-2800 psi with the water heated to 180-195°F. No chemicals shall be added to the water in the process. The machine will be equipped with a turbo blast tip with oscillating head and shall be capable of supplying 5 gallon/minute/gun. South Carolina http://www.scdot.org/doing/StandardSpecifications/pdfs/2007_full_specbook.pdf 609.4.1.2 Removal of Pavement Markings Do not allow conflicting pavement marking schemes on any roadway open to traffic. Remove conflicting pavement markings as necessary and pavement markings designated by the Plans and the RCE prior to revising the traffic patterns. Remove obsolete pavement markings and any residue resembling a previous pavement marking scheme. If the pavement marking removal process damages the roadway, repair the damage or resurface the roadway as directed by the RCE with no additional compensation. Use the following acceptable methods for removal of pavement markings from a concrete pavement course: • Sand blasting using air or water, • High pressure water, • Steam of superheated water, or • Shot blasting. Use the following acceptable methods for removal of pavement markings from an asphalt pavement course: • Sand blasting using air or water, • High pressure water, • Steam of superheated water, • Shot blasting, and • Grinding. Use grinding for pavement marking removal on asphalt pavement courses only. Do not use grinding for removal of pavement markings from a concrete pavement course. Do not apply a black paint or any other color of paint or type of paint over pavement markings designated for removal as a singular method of removal of pavement markings. Remove the residue from a blast cleaning method, including the components of the blast method including sand, water, or shot. When operating within 10 feet of a travel lane open to traffic or in an area that the residue may encroach onto the adjacent travel lane, remove the residue immediately after contact between the blast component and the treated surface. Use a vacuum attachment operating concurrently with the blast operation or by an alternate method approved by the RCE. Provide all safety and protective measures required by the Department and federal, state, and local laws.

C-18 South Dakota http://www.sddot.com/operations/docs/specbook04/634.pdf D. Removal of Pavement Markings: Pavement markings to be removed shall be designated by the Engineer. Pavement markings shall be removed from the pavement by methods that do not damage the surface or texture of the pavement. Pavement markings shall be removed before the traffic pattern is changed. Covering the markings is not acceptable removal. Sand or other material used for removal shall be disposed of as the work progresses. Accumulations of sand or other material, which interferes with drainage or constitutes a hazard to traffic, will not be permitted. When sand blasting is used for removal of pavement markings or objectionable material, and the removal operation is performed within 10 feet (three meters) of a lane occupied by the traveling public, the residue including dust shall be removed immediately by a vacuum attachment operating concurrently with the sand blasting operation. Damage to the pavement surface caused by pavement marking removal shall be repaired at the expense of the Contractor. Tennessee http://www.tdot.state.tn.us/construction/Supplemental%20Specs%202006/SS700.pdf Pavement Marking Removal. Conflicting pavement markings must be removed to prevent confusion to vehicle operators. Pavement marking removal shall be accomplished by the Contractor in a manner acceptable to the Engineer. Final surface pavement markings shall be removed by sand blasting, water blasting, or acceptable grinding methods that will cause the least possible damage to the pavement. Intermediate surface pavement markings shall be removed by sand blasting or water blasting, or other approved methods that will cause the least possible damage to the pavement. The following methods listed below are considered as acceptable for intermediate surface pavement markings: Sand blasting using air or water, High pressure water, steam or superheated water, or Mechanical devices such as grinders, sanders, scrapers, scarifiers, and wire brushes. The Contractor at his expense shall repair any damage to the pavement or surface caused by pavement marking removal by methods and materials acceptable to the engineer. The end result of the removal shall not cause a condition that appears to be a line that conflicts with the current markings. Traffic shifts that are done on the final surface shall be accomplished using interim traffic marking tape unless otherwise specified in the plans. Removal of an existing pavement marking by painting over with black paint or asphalt will not be an acceptable method. When the method of removal causes sand or other material to be accumulated on the pavement, the residue shall be removed as the work progresses. Texas ftp://ftp.dot.state.tx.us/pub/txdot-info/cmd/cserve/specs/2004/standard/s677.pdf 677.4. Construction. Eliminate existing pavement markings and markers on both concrete and asphaltic surfaces in such a manner that color and texture contrast of the pavement surface will be held to a minimum. Repair damage to asphaltic surfaces, such as spalling, shelling, etc., greater than 1/4 in. in depth resulting from the removal of pavement markings and markers. Dispose of markers in accordance with federal, state, and local regulations. Use any of the following methods unless otherwise shown on the plans. A. Surface Treatment Method. Apply surface treatment material at rates shown on the plans or as directed. Place a surface treatment a minimum of 2 ft. wide to cover the existing marking. Place a surface treatment, thin overlay, or microsurfacing a minimum of 1 lane in width in areas where directional changes of traffic are involved or in other areas as directed by the Engineer. B. Burn Method. Use an approved burning method. For thermoplastic pavement markings or prefabricated pavement markings, heat may be applied to remove the bulk of the marking material prior to blast cleaning. When using heat, avoid spalling pavement surfaces. Sweeping or light blast cleaning may be used to remove minor residue. C. Blasting Method. Use a blasting method such as water blasting, abrasive blasting, water abrasive blasting, shot blasting, slurry blasting, water-injected abrasive blasting, or brush blasting as approved. Remove pavement markings on concrete surfaces by a blasting method only. D. Mechanical Method. Use any mechanical method except grinding. Flail milling is acceptable in the removal of markings on asphalt and concrete surfaces.

C-19 Utah www.udot.utah.gov/main/uconowner.gf?n=504103321257835506 3.4 REMOVE PAVEMENT MARKINGS A. Use one of these removal methods: 1. High pressure water spray, 2. Sand blasting, 3. Shot blasting, 4. Grinding. Grinding is not allowed on the final surfacing unless the Engineer grants prior written approval. B. Do not eliminate or obscure existing striping, in lieu of removal, by covering with black paint or any other covering. 1. The Engineer may grant prior written approval for use of black paint or other obscuring material for work durations shorter than “long term stationary” as defined in the Temporary Traffic Control section of the MUTCD. C. Use equipment specifically designed for removal of pavement marking material. Vermont http://www.aot.state.vt.us/conadmin/Documents/2001%20Spec%20Book%20for%20Construction/2001D IV600.pdf 646.12 REMOVAL OF EXISTING PAVEMENT MARKINGS. Existing markings shall be obliterated in such a manner and by such means that a minimum of pavement scars are left and all of the existing marking is removed; i.e., grinding a square or rectangle on the pavement to remove a letter or arrow or grinding a large rectangle to remove a word so that the outline of the letter, symbol or word is not ground into the pavement and therefore still legible even though the marking has been removed. Painting over existing markings is not an acceptable method of removal. The work shall be completed to the satisfaction of the Engineer. Virginia http://www.virginiadot.org/business/resources/const/2007SpecBook.pdf (j) Eradicating Pavement Markings: Markings that may conflict with desired traffic movement, as determined by the Engineer, shall be eradicated as soon as is practicable: either immediately prior to the shifting of traffic or immediately thereafter and prior to the conclusion of the workday during which the shift is made. Eradication shall be performed by grinding, blasting, or a combination thereof. Grinding shall be limited to removal of material above the pavement surface except when removing thermoplastic and preformed tape markings, which may be removed by grinding alone. Blasting shall be used on both asphalt concrete and hydraulic cement concrete pavements to remove all other types of markings. Other methods may be submitted for approval by the Engineer. The Contractor shall ensure that the roadway surface is damaged as little as possible when performing the eradication. When eradicating pavement markings, the Contractor shall ensure workers are protected in conformance to the requirements of Occupational Safety and Health Administration’s (OSHA) standards as detailed in 29 CFR 1910 or 1926, whichever is the most stringent at the time. The Contractor shall collect the eradication residue during or immediately after the eradication operation, except dust shall be collected during the entire operation. Eradication residue from the removal of any pavement markings is considered to be a non-hazardous waste material and shall be disposed of in a properly permitted waste disposal facility in accordance with state and federal laws and regulations. Testing of the eradication residue for the eight Resource Conservation Recovery Act metals will not be required. When markings are removed for lane shifts or transitions, 100 percent of the marking shall be removed. Non-reflective removable black construction pavement marking may be used to cover existing markings in lieu of eradication on asphalt concrete surfaces when its use will not be required for more than 120 days and when specified as a pay item. The Contractor shall use this material to cover markings as indicated in the plans or as directed by the Engineer. Non-reflective removable black construction pavement marking shall be applied in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendations. b) Eradication: Eradication of pavement markings for restriping when required shall be in accordance with the requirements of Section 512 except only 90 percent removal of the existing markings is required.

C-20 Washington http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/publications/manuals/fulltext/M41-10/Division8.pdf 8-22.3(6) Removal of Pavement Markings Pavement markings to be removed shall be obliterated until blemishes caused by the pavement marking removal conform to the coloration of the adjacent pavement. If, in the opinion of the Engineer, the pavement is materially damaged by pavement marking removal, such damage shall be repaired by the Contractor in accordance with Section 1-07.13(1). Sand or other material deposited on the pavement as a result of removing lines and markings shall be removed as the Work progresses to avoid hazardous conditions. Accumulation of sand or other material which might interfere with drainage will not be permitted. West Virginia http://www.transportation.wv.gov/highways/engineering/Specifications/2003/Y2KSpecB.pdf 636.7—ERADICATION OF PAVEMENT MARKINGS: All markings which may conflict with desired traffic movement, as determined by the Engineer, shall be fully eradicated as soon as practicable. Eradication shall be performed prior to shifting of traffic. Eradication shall be performed by hydro-blasting, sand blasting, chemicals, burning with excess oxygen or other suitable method. Full eradication shall be defined as the removal of at least 90 percent of the existing marking. A 90 percent removal will be determined by the Engineer by comparison with the Eradication Visual Standard. This Standard can be obtained from the Engineer. In addition to the visual comparison, the 90 percent removal level is defined such that there will not be any remaining surface of the original paint film in the eradicated area. The remaining 10 percent of the existing marking will appear to be as part of the texture of the pavement. The method used shall not materially damage the surface or texture of the pavement. Any damage caused by the Contractor's operations shall be corrected at the Contractor's expense and in a manner approved by the Engineer. The Contractor shall take precaution to protect the public from any damage due to their operations. Accumulation of sand, water, dust or other residue resulting from the eradication operation shall be removed as the work progresses. Wisconsin https://trust.dot.state.wi.us/static/standards/stndspec/sect646.pdf 646.3.4 Removing Pavement Markings Remove pavement markings from locations the plans show or as the engineer directs. Do not damage, discolor, leave a detrimental residue on the surface, or paint over existing markings. Provide a dust control system and remove accumulated sand or other materials. If blast cleaning within 10 feet of a lane open to public traffic, remove all dust and other residue continuously while blast cleaning. Collect, haul, and dispose of dust or residue from removals. Repair damage caused by the contractor's removal operations. Wyoming http://www.dot.state.wy.us/webdav/site/wydot/shared/Traffic/WYDOT%20Pavement%20Marking%2 0Manual.pdf Removal of Markings Occasionally pavement markings must be revised or removed due to changed geometrics, addition of lanes, etc. Existing markings that the DTE determines may cause confusion for the motorist shall be removed or obliterated as soon as practical. Markings may be temporarily masked with tape until they can be removed or obliterated.

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 759: Effective Removal of Pavement Markings aids in the selection of safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable practices for the removal of work zone and permanent pavement markings. The practices highlighted in this report emphasize minimal damage to the underlying pavement or visible character of the surface course.

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