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E-1 A P P E N D I X E Standalone Pros and Cons of Each Removal Process Including Effectiveness with Respect to Pavement Marking Materials Removal Method segatnavdasiD segatnavdA Grinding â¢ Fast and economical â¢ Depending on the system configura on (effec ve vacuum system installed to remove dust), dust created by removal can be contained â¢ High availability â¢ Effec ve at reducing the thickness of thick marking materials such as thermoplas c or mul ple layers of paint prior to restriping â¢ Damage to pavement surface â¢ Scarring with full marking removal â¢ Minimizing damage to roadway may leave marking material behind â¢ Orbital flailing may result in less no ceable scarring than drum flailing due to tapered edges â¢ Non-vacuum systems can create dust clouds and be hazardous â¢ Tape removal can be messy High- Pressure Water â¢ Byproduct does not create dust and is contained within the equipment â¢ LiÂle to no scarring on good PCC â¢ With the excep on of drying me, the pavement surface is prepped for pavement marking reinstalla on â¢ Rela vely fast for a blas ng method especially for thin marking materials â¢ Large vehicle mobile systems available with addi onal u lity carts for smaller nearby areas â¢ Limited to above-freezing condi ons â¢ May polish surface aggregate and/or clean the surrounding pavement, crea ng a color contrast â¢ May remove some surface asphalt and fines that could lead to water penetra on â¢ Poten al for damage to pavement joints â¢ Proper equipment opera on cri cal to achieve good results â¢ Currently not widely available, higher costs Sand Blas ng â¢ Minimal pavement degrada on â¢ LiÂle to no scarring â¢ Hand-operated precision â¢ Effec ve on thin markings â¢ Creates considerable byproduct â¢ Creates considerable dust â¢ No current large vehicle mobile system, therefore slower than mobile methods â¢ Health hazards depending on blast media â¢ Less effec ve on thick markings Shot Blas ng â¢ Minimal pavement degrada on â¢ LiÂle to no scarring â¢ Minimal byproduct â¢ Byproduct does not create dust and is contained within the equipment â¢ Shot recovery can be problema c especially on uneven surfaces â¢ Cannot be used in wet condi ons â¢ Can be slow especially for thicker markings â¢ Can cause pavement damage on non-smooth surfaces â¢ Limited availability of equipment
E-2 Removal Method segatnavdasiD segatnavdA Other Media Blasng (Dry Ice, Soda, etc.) â¢ Minimal pavement degradaon â¢ Lile to no scarring â¢ Minimal environmental concerns with respect to debris generated â¢ Marking can be completely removed â¢ Hand-operated precision â¢ Can create a moderate amount of byproduct â¢ Can create considerable dust â¢ Can be slow especially for thick markings â¢ Only useful on some markings, typically paint only â¢ Dry ice is a difficult medium to handle and store â¢ Very noisy â¢ No current large vehicle mobile system Chemical â¢ Byproduct does not create dust â¢ Can get complete removal without scarring â¢ Potenal to damage pavement surface if incorrect removing agents are used â¢ Requires at least one addional pass to remove residue â¢ Slow, need to wait for chemical to react then proceed with removal â¢ Some chemicals may pose an environmental risk â¢ No current large vehicle mobile system â¢ Only useful on some markings, typically paint Masking â¢ No damage to road surface â¢ Exisng markings can be temporarily covered with tape that matches the road surface color and texture, and later reused when the tape is removed â¢ Removed areas can be masked to help blend in scarring or surface color changes â¢ Can be used in lane-shiÂ areas to reduce driver confusion due to ghost markings or scarring â¢ Can be expensive â¢ Material may wear away, exposing the markings being covered â¢ Difficult to match color and texture with tape â¢ Tape is for temporary purposes only â¢ Cannot use marking materials other than tape to cover a marking
Abbreviations and acronyms used without deï¬nitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACIâNA Airports Council InternationalâNorth America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S.DOT United States Department of Transportation