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Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP REPORT 89 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2013 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Design Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs Michael K. Payne Rita A. Smith The Jones Payne GrouP, Inc. Boston, MA Deborah Murphy Lagos urs GrouP Tampa, FL Jack Freytag Freytag & Associates, LLC Newport Beach, CA Mark Culverson Larson ManufacTurInG Lakeville, MN Jean Lesicka csDa archITecTs Phoenix, AZ James Leana s&L sPecIaLTy conTracTInG Syracuse, NY Robert R. Smith hVac consuLTanT Virginia Beach, VA A. Vernon Woodworth r.W. suLLIVan enGIneerInG Boston, MA Robert Valerio hILL InTernaTIonaL, Inc. San Ramon, CA

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans­ portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter­ national commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon­ sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera­ tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near­term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon­ sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera­ tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro­ gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte­ nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera­ tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100­Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International­North America (ACI­NA), the American Associa­ tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga­ nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon­ sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden­ tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro­ fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre­ pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper­ ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended end­users of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work­ shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport­industry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 89 Project 02­24 ISSN 1935­9802 ISBN 978­0­309­28341­0 Library of Congress Control Number 2013943884 © 2013 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not­for­profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not­for­profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national­academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 89 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Terri Baker, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Doug English, Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-24 PANEL Field of Environment Deborah J. Conrad, Kenton County Airport Board – Cincinnati/North Kentucky International Airport, Cincinnati, OH (Chair) Mark D. Cameron, Reno–Tahoe Airport Authority, Reno, NV Carla Kell-Smith, C. Kell-Smith & Associates, Inc., San Bruno, CA Sjohnna Knack, San Diego County (CA) Regional Airport Authority, San Diego, CA Carl J. Rosenberg, Acentech Incorporated, Cambridge, MA Steven J. Vecchi, THC, Inc., Lawrenceville, GA Rick Etter, FAA Liaison Hua (Bill) He, FAA Liaison Chris Oswald, Airports Council International–North America Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison

ACRP Report 89: Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs provides updated guidelines for sound insulation of residential and other noise­sensitive buildings for poten­ tial use by airport and non­airport sponsors to develop and effectively manage their aircraft noise insulation projects. Noise­sensitive buildings are defined as “residences (single family and multi­family), schools, hospitals, churches, and other non­compatible structures iden­ tified in the sponsor’s NCP and approved by the FAA as a project in the NCP,” by the AIP Handbook, FAA Order 5100.38C, paragraph 812.A. As the guidelines were being finalized, Program Guidance Letter (PGL) 12­09, “AIP Eli­ gibility and Justification Requirements for Noise Insulation Projects,” was released by the FAA on August 17, 2012. The PGL replaced existing guidance on the implementation of AIP­funded noise insulation projects as had previously been provided per Section 812 of the AIP Handbook, FAA Order 5100­38C. At the time that the ACRP Report 89 guidelines were finalized, there were outstanding questions regarding the PGL. These outstanding questions and related issues are discussed throughout the text with advice to users to contact their ADO project manager regarding any further guidance or information that has been provided since the publication of these guidelines. This research will be very helpful to improve current practices and ensure compliant air­ port sound insulation programs. The research significantly expands information available on best practices and current standards and requirements for sound insulation of homes as well as for other eligible noise­sensitive buildings. The guidelines are a very useful tool for airport staff, consultants, and FAA offices to use with the AIP guidance provided in the AIP Handbook as updated by PGLs from time to time. To assist sponsor­approved noise programs, FAA published AC 150/5000­9A in July 1993 that announced the availability of the Guidelines for the Sound Insulation of Residences Exposed to Aircraft Operations (the guidelines). The guidelines themselves were published in 1992 for military and FAA airport programs to serve as a project management handbook for studying, initiating, and implementing sound insulation measures developed under airport noise compatibility programs. The guidelines were updated in 2005 by the U.S. Navy for application at military airports. The Navy updated the guidelines to meet their current pro­ gram objectives and to reflect current building codes and insulation product specifications. This research has developed updated guidance for sponsors to effectively manage noise insulation programs of eligible structures in conformance with FAA Noise Compatibility Program (NCP) and Airport Improvement Program (AIP) funding requirements. This research was conducted under ACRP Project 02­24 by the Jones Payne Group in association with URS Group, Freytag & Associates, Larson Manufacturing, CSDA Archi­ F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

tects, S&L Specialty Contracting, Robert R. Smith, R.W. Sullivan Engineering, and Hill International, Inc. A separate contractor’s final report, which provides background to the research con­ ducted in support of the guidebook, has been posted on the ACRP Project 02­24 web page at http://apps.trb.org/cmsfeed/TRBNetProjectDisplay.asp?ProjectID=2795. AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The proposal submitted recognized that the experience required to update the guidelines would not reside in a single individual or firm. As such, the Jones Payne Group (JPG) proposed that it would be necessary to assemble a research team of individuals who are experts in key areas of sound insulation pro­ grams. JPG assembled a team of individuals from seven firms who have expertise in their assigned areas of inquiry as well as a broad perspective and experience in sound insulation programs. Team members are: Michael K. Payne, AIA – The Jones Payne Group Principal Investigator and Historic Treatment Design Rita A. Smith, AIA – The Jones Payne Group Project Manager and Architectural Treatment Design Jack Freytag, PE, INCE – Freytag & Associates Acoustical Engineering Deborah Murphy Lagos, INCE – URS Group Program Development and Funding Mark Culverson – Larson Manufacturing Product Development Robert Valerio – CSDA Architects, Hill International Project Reporting/Closeout Jean Lesicka – CSDA Architects Community Outreach James Leana, PE – S&L Specialty Contracting Construction Contracting and Cost Estimating Robert R. Smith – HVAC Consultant HVAC/Ventilation A. Vernon Woodworth, AIA, LEED AP Sustainability and Energy Efficiency We were assisted in our efforts by professional colleagues providing peer review of certain sections of the report. We thank Alan Hass of Landrum & Brown and Tariq Hussein of PBS Engineers for their assis­ tance. We also thank our editor, Donna L. Cook, for her expertise. The team would like to acknowledge and thank the many consultant and airport colleagues who shared their time participating in the survey conducted as part of the research. Photo credits: Cover photograph: The Jones Payne Group, Inc. Unless otherwise noted, all other images are courtesy of the authors.

1 Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Sound Insulation History 3 1.2 The Guidelines: Previous Versions 4 1.3 ACRP Project 02­24: Updating the Guidelines 6 Chapter 2 Program Development 6 2.1 Qualification and Formulation 19 2.2 Program Boundaries 21 2.3 Phasing 23 2.4 Pre­Implementation Tasks 28 2.5 Policies and Procedures Manual 32 2.6 Program Organization 38 Chapter 3 Community Outreach 38 3.1 Planning Efforts Prior to SIP 41 3.2 Participation 42 3.3 Collateral Materials 46 3.4 Communication 48 3.5 Satisfaction Rates 50 3.6 Media 52 Chapter 4 Acoustical Engineering 52 4.1 Introduction and Acoustic Fundamentals 57 4.2 Basics of FAA­Sponsored Sound Insulation 62 4.3 The Science Behind Evaluating Sound Insulating Building Elements, Materials, and Systems 65 4.4 The Acoustical Design Process 66 4.5 Noise Effects 68 4.6 Acoustical Testing 73 4.7 Best Practice Recommendations: Acoustical Engineering 74 Chapter 5 Design of Architectural Treatment Strategies 74 5.1 Treatment Goals 77 5.2 Residential Sound Insulation Treatments 101 5.3 Public Buildings 106 Chapter 6 Treatment of Historic Structures 106 6.1 The Role of Section 106 107 6.2 Definition of Historic 107 6.3 The Section 106 Process 110 6.4 Preparing Agreement Documents (NAEs, MOAs, PAs) 111 6.5 Sound Insulating Historic Structures 114 6.6 Best Practice Recommendations: Treatment of Historic Structures C O N T E N T S

115 Chapter 7 HVAC and Ventilation Strategies 115 7.1 Introduction 115 7.2 Regulatory Environment 120 7.3 Residential Indoor Air/Environment Quality 125 7.4 Evaluating Existing Residential Systems 130 7.5 System Design 138 7.6 Developing Program Policies 140 7.7 Emerging Energy Design 144 7.8 Additional Design Considerations 147 7.9 Institutional Properties 150 Chapter 8 Green Initiatives 150 8.1 Sustainable Building Design 153 8.2 Energy Rating Programs 155 8.3 Sustainability Codes and Standards 158 8.4 Current Program Practices for Sustainability 161 Chapter 9 Product Development 161 9.1 Design Attributes of Acoustical Products 166 9.2 Product Performance 169 9.3 Product Durability 169 9.4 Specifications of Acoustical Products 183 9.5 Product Manufacturer Requirements 185 9.6 Updated Manufacturer and Product Matrixes 185 9.7 Best Practice Recommendations: Acoustical Products 187 Chapter 10 Construction Contracting 188 10.1 Construction Delivery Approaches 191 10.2 Delivery Approach Considerations 193 10.3 Approach Evaluation and Selection Process 194 10.4 Management of Physical Construction 196 Chapter 11 Program Cost Development and Funding 196 11.1 Funding, Costs, and Eligibility for Reimbursement 201 11.2 Establishing Cost Goals and Priorities 208 11.3 Variables Affecting Cost 211 Chapter 12 Project Reporting and Closeout 211 12.1 Regulatory Agencies 212 12.2 Reporting and Closeout Guidelines 213 12.3 Documentation Organization 216 12.4 Grant Closeout 220 12.5 OMB 133 Audit 221 12.6 Best Practice Recommendations: Project Reporting and Closeout 222 Appendix A Key FAA Documents 224 Appendix B Sample Implementation Documents 262 Appendix C Manufacturers’ Product Matrixes 273 Appendix D Buy American Guidance Letter

280 Appendix E Project Closeout and Reporting 303 Glossary 313 Bibliography Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 89: Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs provides updated guidelines for sound insulation of residential and other noise-sensitive buildings. The report is designed to help airports and others develop and effectively manage aircraft noise insulation projects.

In February 2014 TRB released ACRP Report 105: Guidelines for Ensuring Longevity of Airport Sound Insulation Programs, which complements ACRP Report 89.

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