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303 Advisory Circular (AC) â A document published by the FAA giving guidance on aviation issues. Air Traffic â Aircraft operating in the air or on an airport surface, exclusive of loading ramps and parking areas. Air Traffic Control â Control of the airspace by an appropriate authority to promote the safe, orderly, and expeditious movement of terminal air traffic. Aircraft Operation â An aircraft arrival or departure from an airport with FAA airport traf- fic control service. There are two types of operations: local and itinerant. Airport â Any public-use airport, including heliports, as defined by the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act of 1979 (ASNA), including: (a) any airport that is used or to be used for pub- lic purposes, under the control of a public agency, the landing area of which is publicly owned; (b) any privately owned reliever airport; and (c) any privately owned airport that is determined by the Secretary of Transportation to enplane annually 2,500 or more passengers and receive scheduled passenger service of aircraft, and which is used or to be used for public purposes. Airport and Airway Improvement Act of 1982 âAuthorizes the Secretary of Transportation to make project grants for airport planning and development to maintain a safe and efficient nationwide system of public-use airports. Airport District Office (ADO) â The FAA area office responsible for direct dealings with airports. The FAA divides its administration into nine regions, each of which is divided into several district offices. Airport Hazard â Any structure or object of natural growth located on or near the airport, or any use of land near the airport that obstructs the airspace required for the flight of aircraft in landing or taking off, or that is otherwise hazardous to such landing and taking off. Airport Improvement Program (AIP) â The AIP is authorized by the Airport and Airway Improvement Act of 1982 (P.L. 97-248, as amended). The actâs broad objective is to assist in the development of a nationwide system of public-use airports adequate to meet the current and projected growth of civil aviation. The act provides funding for airport planning and develop- ment projects at airports included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems. The act also authorizes funds for noise compatibility planning and for carrying out noise compatibility programs as set forth in the Aviation Safety and Noise Abatement Act of 1979 (P.L. 96-143). Airport Manager â The person authorized by the airport sponsor to exercise administrative control of the airport. Airport Master Plan â A planning document, including appropriate documents and draw- ings, that describes the development of a specific airport from a physical, economic, social, Glossary
304 Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs environmental, and political jurisdictional perspective. The airport layout plan drawing is part of the master plan. Airport Noise and Capacity Act of 1990 (ANCA) â Required the establishment of a national noise policy and a requirement to eliminate Stage 2 aircraft, weighing 75,000 pounds or greater, operating in the contiguous United States by the year 2000. Airport Noise Compatibility Program â That program, and all revisions thereto, reflected in documents (and revised documents) developed in accordance with Appendix B of 14 CFR Part 150, including the measures proposed or taken by the airport owner to reduce existing incompatible land uses and to prevent the introduction of additional incompatible land uses within the area. Airport Operations â The total number of movements in landings (arrivals) plus takeoffs (departures) from an airport. Airport Owner â Any person or authority having the operational control of an airport as defined in the ASNA. Airport Safety and Noise Abatement (ASNA) Act âEstablished a process for addressing air- port noise and land use compatibility around the nationâs airports. ASNA led to the promulga- tion of Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) Part 150 (Airport Noise Compatibility Planning). Airport Sponsor â A public agency or tax-supported organization, such as an airport author- ity, which is authorized to own and operate the airport, to obtain property interests, to obtain funds, and to legally, financially, and otherwise be able to meet all applicable requirements of current laws and regulations. Airspace â The space lying above the earth or above a certain area of land or water that is necessary to conduct aviation operations. Ambient Noise â The total amount of background noise in a given place and time in the absence of an intrusive noise event. This is usually a composite of sounds from varying sources at varying distances. American Architectural Manufacturers Association (AAMA) â Provides industry stan- dards for windows, doors, and other architectural products. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) â A private, nonprofit organization that oversees the development of voluntary consensus standards. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) â An international standards organi- zation that develops and publishes voluntary consensus technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. Approach Surface â A surface defined by 14 CFR Part 77, Objects Affecting Navigable Airspace, which is longitudinally centered on the runway centerline and extends outward and upward from each end of the primary surface. An approach surface is applied to each end of each runway based on the type of approach available or planned for that runway end. Area of Potential Effects â The geographic area or areas within which an undertaking may directly or indirectly cause alterations in the character or use of historic properties, if any such properties exist. The area of potential effects is influenced by the scale and nature of an under- taking and may be different for different kinds of effects caused by the undertaking. Average Sound Level â The level, in decibels, of the mean square, A-weighted sound pressure during a specified period, with reference to the square of the standard reference sound pressure of 20 micropascals. Also called equivalent sound level and often referred to by its symbol, Leq.
Glossary 305 Aviation and Safety and Noise Abatement Act of 1979 (ASNA) â As amended (49 U.S.C. 2101 et seq.), authorizes the FAA to regulate air noise compatibility planning and fund noise compatibility programs. Avigation Easement â A grant of a property interest in land over which a right of unobstructed flight in the airspace is established. Based Aircraft â An aircraft permanently stationed at an airport by agreement between the aircraft owner and the airport management. Building Codes â Codes, either local or state, that control the functional and structural aspects of buildings and/or structures. Local ordinances typically require proposed buildings to comply with zoning requirements before building permits can be issued under the building codes. Change Order â A request by the contractor to alter the prescribed construction. Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Title 14, Aeronautics and Space â The contents of these five volumes represent all current regulations codified under Title 14 of the CFR and are arranged as follows: Parts 1â59, 60â139, 140â199, 200â1199, and 1200âend. The first three volumes, containing Parts 1â199, are made up of Chapter I â Federal Aviation Administration, Depart- ment of Transportation (DOT). The fourth volume, containing Parts 200â1199 is composed of Chapter II â Office of the Secretary, DOT (Aviation Proceedings) and Chapter III â Commercial Space Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. The fifth volume, containing Part 1200âend, is made up of Chapter V â National Aeronautics and Space Administration. CFR Part 77, Objects Affecting Navigable Airspace â Title 14 CFR Part 77 (a) establishes standards for determining obstructions in navigable airspace, (b) defines the requirements for notice to the FAA administrator of certain proposed construction or alteration, (c) provides for aeronautical studies of obstructions to air navigation to determine their effect on the safe and efficient use of airspace, (d) provides for public hearings on the hazardous effect of pro- posed construction or alteration on air navigation, and (e) provides for establishing antenna farm areas. CFR Part 150, Airport Noise Compatibility Planning â Title 14 CFR Part 150 prescribes the procedures, standards, and methodology governing the development, submission, and review of airport noise exposure maps and airport noise compatibility programs, including the process for evaluating and approving or disapproving those programs. It prescribes single systems for (a) measuring noise at airports and surrounding areas, which generally provides a highly reliable relationship between projected noise exposure and surveyed reaction of people to noise, and (b) determining exposure of individuals to noise that results from the operations of an airport. This part also identifies those land uses that are normally compatible with various levels of expo- sure to noise by individuals. It provides technical assistance to airport operators, in conjunction with local, state, and federal authorities, to prepare and execute appropriate noise compatibility planning and implementation programs. CFR Part 150 Study â Refers to an airport operatorâs noise compatibility planning study, per- formed in accordance with 14 CFR Part 150, which allows airport owners to voluntarily submit noise exposure maps and noise compatibility programs to the FAA for review and approval. See Noise Compatibility Program. Coincidence Dip â A drop in the transmission loss of a material or assembly at a certain frequency caused by resonance effects. This resonance causes a dip in the TL curve at the reso- nant frequency and is perceived as an amplification of sound at the resonant frequency. Nearly all building materials have a coincidence region where multiple resonances affect the TL along a frequency region, causing the slope of the TL curve to decline over the region.
306 Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs Commercial Service Airport â A public airport that has at least 2,500 passenger boardings each year and is receiving scheduled passenger aircraft service. Community Noise Equivalent Level (CNEL) â A noise measure used in California to describe the average aircraft noise levels over a 24-hour period, typically an average day over the course of a year. CNEL is similar to DNL but with an additional evening penalty. CNEL values are typically less than 1 dB above the corresponding DNL value. Compatible Land Use â As defined in 14 CFR Part 150, the use of land (e.g., commer- cial, industrial, agricultural) that is normally compatible with aircraft and airport operations, or sound-insulated land uses (e.g., sound-insulated homes, schools, nursing homes, hospitals, libraries) that would otherwise be considered incompatible with aircraft and airport operations. Composite Transmission Loss (CTL) â The total net noise reduction from the transmission loss of all materials and systems surrounding a room. Comprehensive Plan â Similar to a master plan, the comprehensive plan is a governmental entityâs official statement of its plans and policies for long-term development. The plan includes maps, graphics, and written proposals that indicate the general location for streets, parks, schools, public buildings, airports, and other physical development of the jurisdiction. Consultation â The process of seeking, discussing, and considering the views of other par- ticipants and, where feasible, seeking agreement with them regarding matters arising in the Sec- tion 106 process. The Secretary of Transportations Standards and Guidelines for Federal Agency Preservation Programs pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act provides further guidance on consultation. DayâNight Average Sound Level (DNL) â A noise measure used to describe the average aircraft noise levels over a 24-hour period with a nighttime noise penalty, typically an average day over the course of a year. Similar to CNEL, but without the evening penalty. DNL may be determined for individual locations or expressed in noise contours. The symbol for DNL is Ldn. Decibel (dB) â Sound is measured by its pressure or energy in terms of decibels. The decibel scale is logarithmic; when the scale increases by 10, the perceived sound is two times as loud. Effect â Alteration to the characteristics of an historic property, qualifying it for inclusion in or eligibility for the National Register. Eligible â The term eligible for inclusion in the National Register includes both properties formally determined as such in accordance with regulations of the Secretary of the Interior and all other properties that meet the National Register criteria. Environmental Assessment (EA) â A concise document that assesses the environmental impacts of a proposed federal action. The EA discusses the need for and environmental impacts of the proposed action and alternative actions. An EA should provide sufficient evidence and analysis for a federal determination on whether to prepare an Environmental Impact Statement or a Finding of No Significant Impact. Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) â A document that provides full and fair discussion of the significant environmental impacts that would occur as a result of a proposed project and that informs decision makers and the public of the reasonable alternatives that would avoid or minimize adverse impacts. Exception â An exemption from an established acoustical retrofit standard of a program, usually granted to a single home or a few homes. Also, a waiver.
Glossary 307 Federal Aviation Administration â The federal agency charged with regulating air com- merce to promote its safety and development; with encouraging and developing civil aviation, air traffic control, and air navigation; and with promoting the development of a national system of airports. Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) â Rules prescribed by the FAA governing all aviation activities in the United States. They are codified in Title 14 of the CFR. They are organized into sections, called parts. Each part deals with a specific type of activity. Federal Grant Assurance â The terms and conditions of accepting AIP grants from the FAA for carrying out the provisions of Title 49 of the USC. The terms and conditions become appli- cable when the airport sponsor accepts a grant offer from the FAA. Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI) â A document briefly explaining the reasons an action will not have a significant effect on the human environment and therefore justifies the decision to not prepare an Environmental Impact Statement. A FONSI is issued by the federal agency following the preparation of an Environmental Assessment. General Aviation (GA) â Refers to all civil aircraft and operations that are not classified as air carrier, commuter, or regional. The types of aircraft used in general aviation activities cover a wide spectrum, from corporate multi-engine jet aircraft piloted by professional crews to amateur-built single-engine piston acrobatic planes, balloons, and dirigibles. Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) â The technology of indoor environ- mental comfort. High-Velocity Hurricane Zone (HVHZ) â All areas with wind speeds in excess of 140 mph. Designates coastal U.S. geographic areas incorporating large areas of the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coastlines. Historic Property â Any prehistoric or historic district, site, building, structure, or object included in or eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places maintained by the Secretary of the Interior. Hourly Noise Level (HNL) â The average sound level over an hour. Housing Codes â The codes that usually apply to both existing and future living units. The codes include minimum standards of occupancy, and usually govern spatial, ventilation, wiring, plumbing, structural, and heating requirements. Incompatible Land Use â See Noncompatible Land Use. Instrument Approach â A series of predetermined maneuvers for the orderly transfer of an aircraft under instrument flight conditions, from the beginning of the initial approach to a landing or to a point from which a landing may be made visually. Instrument Flight Rules â Rules governing the procedure for conducting instrument flight. Integrated Noise Model (INM) â The FAAâs computer model used by the aviation community for evaluating aircraft noise impacts near airports. The INM uses a standard database of aircraft characteristics and applies them to an airportâs average operational day to produce noise contours. International Building Code (IBC) â The International Building Code is a model building code developed by the International Code Council. A model building code has no legal status until it is adopted or adapted by government regulation. The IBC was developed to consolidate existing building codes into one uniform code that could be used nationally and internationally to construct buildings.
308 Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs International Organization for Standardization (ISO), (French: Organisation Internatio- nale de Normalisation) â An international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. Itinerant Operation â Any aircraft arrival and/or departure other than a local operation. Land Use Compatibility â The coexistence of land uses surrounding the airport with airport- related activities. Land Use Controls â Measures established by state or local government that are designed to carry out land use planning. The controls include zoning, subdivision regulations, planned acquisition, easements, covenants, and conditions in building codes and capital improvement programs, such as establishment of sewer, water, utilities, and their service facilities. Land Use Management Measures âTechniques that consist of both remedial and pre- ventive measures for managing land use. Remedial, or corrective, measures typically include sound insulation or land acquisition. Preventive measures typically involve land use controls that amend or update local zoning ordinances, comprehensive plans, subdivision regulations, and building codes. Local Operation â Any operation performed by an aircraft that (a) operates in the local traffic pattern or within sight of the tower or airport; (b) is known to be departing for, or arriv- ing from, flight in local practice areas located within a 20-mile radius of the control tower or airport; or (c) executes a simulated instrument approach or low pass at the airport. Memorandum of Agreement â The document that records the terms and conditions agreed upon to resolve the adverse effects of an undertaking upon historic properties. Mitigation â The avoidance, minimization, reduction, elimination, or compensation for adverse environmental effects of a proposed action. Mitigation Measure â An action taken to alleviate an adverse impact. National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) â The original legislation establishing the environmental review process. National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS) â An inventory of U.S. aviation infra- structure assets. Developed and maintained by the FAA, its purposes are to (a) identify all the airports in the United States that are considered significant components of the national aviation infrastructure network; (b) qualify the current state of development, technology, and repair at each of these airports; and (c) estimate the funding needed to bring each airport up to current standards of design, technology, and capacity. Airports in the NPIAS are eligible for federal grants from the AIP. National Register â The National Register of Historic Places maintained by the Secretary of the Interior. National Register Criteria â The criteria established by the Secretary of the Interior for use in evaluating the eligibility of properties for the National Register (36 CFR part 60). National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) â A National Institute of Standards and Technology program that provides an unbiased third-party test and evaluation program to accredit laboratories in their respective fields to the ISO 17025 standard. Navigation Aids â Any facility used by an aircraft for guiding or controlling flight in the air or for the landing or takeoff of an aircraft.
Glossary 309 Noise Abatement Procedures â Changes in runway usage, flight approach and departure routes and procedures, and vehicle movement such as ground maneuvers or other air traffic procedures, that shift aviation impacts away from noise sensitive areas. Noise Compatibility Program (NCP) â The NCP consists of an optimum combination of preferred noise abatement and land use management measures and a plan for the implemen- tation of these measures. For planning purposes, the implementation plan also includes the estimated cost for each of the recommended measures to the airport sponsor, the FAA, airport users, and the local units of government. Noise Exposure Contours â Lines drawn about a noise source indicating constant energy levels of noise exposure. DNL is the measure used to describe community exposure to noise. Noise Exposure Map (NEM) â The NEM is a scaled map of the airport, its noise contours, and surrounding land uses. The NEM depicts the levels of noise exposure around the airport, both for the existing conditions and forecasts for the 5-year planning period. The area of noise exposure is designated using the DNL noise metric. Noise Level Reduction (NLR) â The reduction in noise, measured in decibels, achieved through incorporation of noise attenuation (between outdoor and indoor levels) in the design and con- struction of a structure. NLR includes the net noise reduction arising from the transmission loss of all building materials and systems as well as the room acoustics effects of the receiving room. Noise-Sensitive Area â Areas where aircraft noise may interfere with existing or planned use of the land. Whether noise interferes with a particular use depends on the level of noise exposure and the types of activities that are involved. Residential neighborhoods; educational, health, and religious structures and sites; and outdoor recreational, cultural, and historic sites may be noise- sensitive areas. Noncompatible Land Use â The use of land, as defined in Appendix A, Table 1 of 14 CFR Part 150, which is normally noncompatible with the aircraft and airport operations (such as homes, schools, nursing homes, hospitals, and libraries). Off-Airport Property â Property that is beyond the boundary of land owned by the airport sponsor. On-Airport Property â Property that is within the boundary of land owned by the airport sponsor. OutdoorâIndoor Transmission Class (OITC) â A standard used for indicating the rate of transmission of sound between outdoor and indoor spaces of a structure. It is based on ASTM E-1332, Standard Classification for the Determination of OutdoorâIndoor Transmission Class. Overlay Zone â A mapped zone that imposes a set of requirements in addition to those of the underlying zoning district. Packaged Terminal Air Conditioning Unit (PTAC) â A type of self-contained heating and air conditioning system commonly found in hotels and apartment buildings. Many are designed to go through a wall, having vents and heat sinks both inside and outside. Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Program â The PFC Program, first authorized by the Aviation Safety and Capacity Expansion Act of 1990 and now codified under Section 40117 of Title 49 USC, provides a source of additional capital to improve, expand, and repair the nationâs airport infrastructure. The legislation allows public agencies controlling commercial service airports to charge enplaning passengers using the airport a facility charge. The FAA must approve any facility charges imposed on enplaning passengers.
310 Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs Performance Standards â Minimum acceptable levels of performance, imposed by zoning, that must be met by each land use. Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB) â An interlayer material used in laminate glass. Primary Runway â The runway used for the majority of airport operations. Large, high- activity airports may operate two or more parallel primary runways. Programmatic Agreement (PA) â A document that records the terms and conditions agreed upon to resolve the potential adverse effects of a federal agency program, complex undertaking, or other situations in accordance with 36 CFR 800.14(b). Public Use Airport â A publicly or privately owned airport that offers the use of its facilities to the public without prior notice or special invitation or clearance. Record of Approval (ROA) â A concise public record of the decision made by the FAA with respect to an airportâs proposed NCP, prepared in accordance with 14 CFR Part 150. Record of Decision (ROD) â A concise public record of the decision made by the FAA with respect to an EIS, prepared in accordance with Title 40 CFR, Chapter V, for a major federal action that significantly affects the quality of the human environment. The ROD discusses all options considered by the FAA, commits to mitigation and other conditions established in the EIS or during its review, and includes a monitoring and enforcement program to ensure that the pre- scribed mitigation is carried out. Reliever Airport â An airport that meets certain FAA criteria and relieves the aeronautical demand on a busier air carrier airport. Request for Information (RFI) â A request by the contractor for clarification of a design or specification. Runway Protection Zone (RPZ) â A trapezoidal-shaped area centered about the extended runway centerline that is used to enhance the safety of aircraft operations. It begins 200 feet beyond the end of the runway or area usable for takeoff or landing. The RPZ dimensions are functions of the design aircraft, type of operation, and visibility minimums. Single Event Noise Equivalent Level (SENEL) â The designation in California for SEL. Sound Attenuation â Acoustical phenomenon whereby a reduction of sound energy is expe- rienced between the noise source and the receiver. This energy loss can be attributed to atmo- spheric conditions, terrain, vegetation, constructed features (e.g., sound insulation), and natural features. Sound Exposure Level (SEL) â A measure of the physical energy of the noise event that takes into account both sound level and duration. By definition, SEL values are referenced to a dura- tion of 1 second. SEL is higher than the average and maximum noise levels as long as the event is longer than 1 second. Sound exposure level is expressed in decibels. Sound Insulation Program (SIP) â An FAA-funded project and the subject of these guidelines. Sound Reduction Index â A metric to measure the level of sound insulation provided by a structure such as a wall, window, door, or ventilator. It is defined in the series of international standards ISO 140 (Parts 1-14) or the regional or national variants on these standards. Sound Transmission Class (STC) â An integer rating of how well a building partition atten- uates airborne sound. In the United States, it is widely used to rate interior partitions, ceilings/ floors, doors, windows, and exterior wall configurations (see ASTM E413 and ASTM E90).
Glossary 311 Sound Transmission Loss â A measure of the noise reduction of a building material or ele- ment in units of dB. Special Exceptions â Land uses that are not specifically permitted as a matter of right but can be permitted in accordance with performance standards and other local criteria. Also referred to as conditional uses. Stage 2 Aircraft â Aircraft that meet the noise levels prescribed by 14 CFR Part 36, which are less stringent than noise levels established for the quieter designation of Stage 3 aircraft. The Airport Noise and Capacity Act required the phaseout of all Stage 2 aircraft by December 31, 1999, with case-by-case exceptions through the year 2003. Stage 3 Aircraft â Aircraft that meet the most stringent noise levels set forth in 14 CFR Part 36. State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) â The official appointed or designated, pursu- ant to section 101(b)(1) of National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, to administer the state historic preservation program; or a representative designated to act for the state historic pres- ervation officer. Tribal Historic Preservation Officer (THPO) â The tribal official appointed by the tribeâs chief governing authority or designated by a tribal ordinance or preservation program who has assumed the responsibilities of the SHPO for purposes of Section 106 compliance on tribal lands in accordance with section 101(d)(2) of the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966. Turbofan Aircraft â Aircraft operated by jet engines incorporating a turbine-driven air com- pressor to intake and compress the air for the combustion of fuel, the gases of combustion (or the heated air) being used both to rotate the turbine and to create a thrust-producing jet. Turbojet Aircraft â Aircraft operated by jet engines incorporating a turbine-driven air com- pressor to intake and compress the air for the combustion of fuel, the gases of combustion (or the heated air) being used solely to create a thrust-producing jet. Turboprop Aircraft â Aircraft in which the main propulsive force is supplied by a gas-turbineâ driven conventional propeller. Additional propulsive force may be supplied from the discharged turbine exhaust gas. Undertaking â A project, activity, or program funded in whole or in part under the direct or indirect jurisdiction of a federal agency, including those carried out by or on behalf of a federal agency, those carried out with federal financial assistance, and those requiring a federal permit, license, or approval. Unites States Code (USC) Title 49â A code that concerns the role of transportation in the United States. Subtitle VII addresses aviation programs. Part B of Subtitle VII addresses airport development and noise. Variance â An authorization for the construction or maintenance of a building or structure or for the establishment or maintenance of a use of land that is prohibited by a zoning ordinance. A lawful exception from specific zoning ordinance standards and regulations predicated on the practical difficulties or unnecessary hardships on the petitioner being required to comply with those regulations and standards from which an exemption or exception is sought. Visual Approach â An approach to an airport conducted with visual reference to the terrain. Visual Flight Rules â Rules that govern flight procedures in good weather, with conditions usually being at least a 1,000-ft ceiling and 3 miles of visibility.
312 Guidelines for Airport Sound Insulation Programs Waiver â An exemption from an established acoustical retrofit standard of a program, usu- ally granted to a single home or a few homes. Also, an exception. Wood and Door Manufacturers Association (WDMA) â Provides industry standards in the residential and commercial window, door, and skylight industry. Yearly DayâNight Average Sound Level â The 365-day average, in decibels, dayânight aver- age sound level. Zoning â The partitioning of land parcels in a community by ordinance into zones and the establishment of regulations in the ordinance to govern the land use and the location, height, use, and land coverage of buildings within each zone. The zoning ordinance usually consists of text and a zoning map. Zoning Ordinance â Primarily a legal document that allows a local government effective and legal regulation of uses of property while protecting and promoting the public interest.