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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP REPORT 75 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2013 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation Airport Leadership Development Program Seth B. Young The OhiO STaTe UniverSiTy CenTer fOr aviaTiOn STUdieS Columbus, OH w i th Mindy Price direCT effeCT SOlUTiOnS, inC. Pickerington, OH and Columbus Regional Airport Authority Columbus, Ohio HNTB, Inc. Boston, MA
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transÂ portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interÂ national commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responÂ sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport CooperaÂ tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative nearÂterm solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study sponÂ sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National CooperaÂ tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research ProÂ gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainteÂ nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport operaÂ tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100ÂCentury of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council InternationalÂNorth America (ACIÂNA), the American AssociaÂ tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orgaÂ nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and responÂ sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by idenÂ tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport proÂ fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels preÂ pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperÂ ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended endÂusers of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for workÂ shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airportÂindustry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 75 Project 06Â02 ISSN 1935Â9802 ISBN 978Â0Â309Â25907Â1 Library of Congress Control Number 2013936330 Â© 2013 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and notÂforÂprofit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and notÂforÂprofit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.nationalÂacademies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 75 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Joseph Brown-Snell, Program Associate Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Doug English, Editor ACRP PROJECT 06-02 PANEL Field of Human Resources Michael J. Audino, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (Chair) Scott A. Brockman, MemphisâShelby County (TN) Airport Authority, Memphis, TN David A. Byers, University of NebraskaâOmaha, Omaha, NE William T. Hutto, Jr., Auburn University Regional Airport, Auburn, AL Allison Laks, Sacramento County (CA) Airport System, Sacramento, CA Burr Stewart, Burrst, Seattle, WA Rodney Joel, FAA Liaison Nancy Zimini, Airport Council InternationalâNorth America Liaison Mark R. Norman, TRB Liaison
By Michael R. Salamone Staff Officer Transportation Research Board ACRP Report 75: Airport Leadership Development Program provides all the components for a turnÂkey program that can be used by industry associations, academic institutions, airport organizations, and others to assist existing and future airport leaders to assess, obtain, and refine airportÂindustry leadership skills. The program includes forms for a full 360Âdegree individual assessment of core leadership traits. A complete facilitator guide with Microsoft PowerPoint presentations and participant workbooks and materials are also included. Future airport leaders require a deeper understanding of current issues and critical conÂ cerns as seen from the top of an airport organization. There are few lowÂrisk settings where airport executives can exercise selfÂevaluation of leadership and decisionÂmaking skills with a group of their peers and mentors and further develop the business acumen needed to direct publicÂ and privateÂsector organizations in the airport industry. Airport leadership development programs exist in the industry, but many have broader goals or present funÂ damental knowledge to entryÂlevel executives. Research was needed to assist existing and future airport leaders to assess, obtain, and refine their individual leadership skills. Such programs exist in other industries, and participants frequently derive longÂlasting resource relationships from contact with other participants and instructors that will benefit continÂ ued growth. Moreover, such experiences and the skills that are developed are often portable throughout the industry. Under ACRP Project 06Â02, a research team led by the Ohio State University conducted a thorough industryÂwide needs assessment that led to the final design and development of this airport leadership development program. Consideration was given to necessary impleÂ mentation and delivery aspects of the program, including delivery methods, presentation media, and essential training materials. In addition, the program underwent a pilot test to evaluate the curriculum recommendation of the program before publication. ACRP hopes to see the program implemented by numerous hosts throughout the industry. F O R E W O R D
1 Summary P A R T 1 Report of Research S E C T I O N A Background Research and Needs Assessment 7 Chapter 1 Introduction 7 1.1 Introduction 8 1.2 Background/Motivation for the Research 10 1.3 Research Approach and Tasks 12 Chapter 2 Review of Existing Leadership Development Sources 12 2.1 Existing Airport Industry Leadership Development Sources 19 2.2 Leadership Development Resources Found Outside the Airport Industry Sector 24 2.3 Summary and Analysis of Existing Leadership Development Resources 27 Chapter 3 Needs Assessment and Focus Group Analysis 27 3.1 Needs Assessment Methodology: Focus Groups 29 3.2 Focus Group Process and Findings 31 3.3 Summary S E C T I O N B Curriculum Development and Assessment 35 Chapter 4 Curriculum Development 35 4.1 Curriculum Content Development 38 4.2 Curriculum Delivery Format Development 39 Chapter 5 Pilot Program Delivery and Assessment 39 5.1 Short Course Delivery 39 5.2 Short Course and Curriculum Feedback 41 Chapter 6 Program Curriculum Materials and Presentation Strategies 42 Chapter 7 Conclusions and Suggestions for Further Research S E C T I O N C Supplemental Material C O N T E N T S
P A R T 2 Airport Leadership Development Program Curriculum S E C T I O N 1 Program Facilitator Guide 77 Module I Leadership Concepts 94 Module II Leadership Fundamentals 121 Module III Leadership Execution S E C T I O N 2 Suggested Program PowerPoint Slides and Notes S E C T I O N 3 Program Participant Workbook S E C T I O N 4 360-Degree Feedback Facilitator Guide and Materials 307 Appendix A Survey Question Bank 313 Appendix B Sample Feedback Report 325 References and Suggested Readings