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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP REPORT 81 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2012 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation Winter Design Storm Factor Determination for Airports Dean Mericas CH2M HILL Austin, TX Maris Mangulis CH2M HILL Pittsburgh, PA Nancy Schultz CH2M HILL Milwaukee, WI Jeffery Longsworth Barnes & THornBurg LLP Washington, D.C.
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transÂ portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interÂ national commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responÂ sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport CooperaÂ tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative nearÂterm solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study sponÂ sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National CooperaÂ tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research ProÂ gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainteÂ nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport operaÂ tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100ÂCentury of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council InternationalÂNorth America (ACIÂNA), the American AssociaÂ tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orgaÂ nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and responÂ sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by idenÂ tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport proÂ fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels preÂ pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperÂ ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended endÂusers of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for workÂ shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airportÂindustry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 81 Project 02Â19 ISSN 1935Â9802 ISBN 978Â0Â309Â25866Â1 Library of Congress Control Number 201295100 Â© 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and notÂforÂprofit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and notÂforÂprofit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Cover Photo: Pittsburgh International Airport Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.nationalÂacademies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The ACRP 02Â19 Project Team consists of CH2M HILL, ADCI, Inc., and Barnes & Thornburg LLP. The project team would like to thank the members of the Project Panel for providing the opportunity to conduct this research. We would also like to thank all those who provided valuable information for this report, especially the following individuals who were especially generous with their time in assisting in the preparation of case studies for this guidebook: Kevin Gurchak, Allegheny County Airports Authority; Susan Aha, Portland International Airport; Diane Hirsch, Metropolitan Washington Airports AuthorÂ ity; Paul Kennedy, Columbus Regional Airport Authority; and Mark Williams, Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport. Technical analysis and contributions were made by Tara Ajello, PE, CH2M HILL; Lee Traynham, PE, U.S. Bureau of Land Management; Mike Bodek, PE, CH2M HILL; Phil Pasteris, CH2M HILL; Steve Lucchesi, PE, ADCI, Inc.; and June Wulff, EIT, CH2M HILL. Any use of trade, product, or firm names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement. CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 81 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Marci A. Greenberger, Senior Program Officer Joseph J. Brown-Snell, Program Associate Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Doug English, Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-19 PANEL Field of Environment Paul W. Blum, TKDA, St. Paul, MN (Chair) William Hamann, Jr., Port Authority of New York & New Jersey, Flushing, NY Craig A. Schillinger, City and County of Denver â Department of Aviation, Denver, CO Shawn H. Veltman, Olver Incorporated, Blacksburg, VA John L. Wheeler, Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations, Des Moines, IA Asciatu Whiteside, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, TX Edward Melisky, FAA Liaison Tim A. Pohle, Airlines for America Liaison Christine Gerencher, TRB Liaison
F O R E W O R D ACRP Report 81: Winter Design Storm Factor Determination for Airports identifies the relevant factors in defining a winter design storm for use in sizing deicing runoff manageÂ ment systems and components and provides a decision support tool for identifying an appropriate winter design storm for the airportÂspecific project and the available data. Case studies illustrate how the support tool can be used with realÂworld examples of projects with different drivers and objectives for managing deicing runoff. While historical weather, facility, and operations data can be helpful in a rigorous analysis to define the winter design storm, it is more likely that partial data are all that will be available, and the case studies demonstrate how limited or partial data can be effectively used in moving forward. The guidebook includes a review of regulations as they pertain to deicing runoff and a discusÂ sion of target levels of service. Target level of service refers to the acceptable level of risk of the designed system not meeting performance standards. This guidebook will assist airport planners and engineers in developing an appropriate winter design storm event for their specific requirements. The guidebook will also assist airport operators in communicating their rationale for sizing their systems to environmental regulatory agencies that may have no experience with deicing systems. Winter storms can be highly disruptive at airports and present significant operational challenges for airports and airlines that must ensure compliance with both safety and enviÂ ronmental standards. The development of a storm water management system to handle airport/aircraft deicing runoff is a balancing act between the demands of ensuring safety, operations, environmental compliance, and fiscal responsibility. If a system is designed to meet the worstÂcase deicing event, it will likely result in a high cost for the management of such rare events; conversely, if the system is designed so that it will allow frequent overflows, it raises concerns about the airportâs ability to meet environmental standards. There are a number of factors that are used in determining the winter design storm, and how these factors interrelate in the development of a deicing runoff management system is very complex. CH2M HILL, through ACRP Project 02Â19, conducted research to identify these factors and prepare a guidebook and a decision support tool to help airport operators understand winter storm design factors and how they should be considered in determinÂ ing a winter design storm for the purpose of sizing deicing runoff collection, conveyance, storage, and treatment system components. The decision support tool was developed to provide a structured process for defining the project, considering the relevant factors and data requirements, and applying the appropriate analytical approach to define the winter design storm. By Marci A. Greenberger Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
The guidebook includes five case studies that demonstrate the application of the guidance and the decision support tool. These case studies illustrate that regardless of an airportâs deicing management system objective(s), the airport can successfully utilize the decision support tool to help it understand the relevant factors and their interrelationships and define a defensible winter design event consistent with those objectives.
C O N T E N T S ix Abbreviations and Acronyms 1 Section 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Background 2 1.2 Overview of a Winter Storm 2 1.3 Purpose and Objectives 2 1.4 Structure of the Guidebook 3 Section 2 Strategies for Selecting and Applying Winter Design Storm Factors 3 2.1 The Importance of Risk and Controlling Drivers 3 2.2 Overview of Factors Used to Characterize a Storm 3 2.2.1 Precipitation Volume 4 2.2.2 Precipitation Intensity 4 2.2.3 Precipitation Temporal Distribution 4 2.2.4 Precipitation Duration 4 2.2.5 Temperature 4 2.2.6 Probability 4 2.2.7 InterÂEvent Period 5 2.3 MultiÂStorm Analyses 5 2.4 Applicability of Factors to Different Types of Deicing Projects 9 Section 3 Decision Support Tool 9 3.1 Nomenclature 9 3.1.1 Design Events and Storms 9 3.1.2 Project 9 3.1.3 Factors at Risk 10 3.1.4 Target Level of Service 11 3.1.5 Existing System Components 11 3.2 Decision Points 12 3.3 Winter Design Event/Storm Outcomes 12 3.3.1 Design Storm or Multiday Event of Memory 12 3.3.2 Design Event Based on AC 150/5320Â5C 14 3.3.3 Design Storm or Multiday Event Based on Frequency Analysis 14 3.4 Frequency Analysis 14 3.4.1 Develop Time Series Water Budget from Historical Weather Records 16 3.4.2 Determine if Deicer Load or Concentration Is a Factor 16 3.4.3 Develop Time Series Deicer Usage for Historical Weather Conditions 17 3.4.4 Distribute Time Series Deicer Loads among Fate Compartments 18 3.4.5 Develop Time Series Water and Deicer Load Budget for Historical Weather Records
18 3.4.6 Analyze Exceedance Frequency 19 3.4.7 Identify Design Event or Multiday Storm Based on Frequency of Delivery of Target Level of Service 19 3.5 Consideration of Climate Change 20 3.6 Documenting the Basis for the Winter Design Event/Storm 21 Section 4 Case Studies 21 4.1 Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport (BWI/Marshall) 21 4.1.1 Airport Overview/Project Definition 22 4.1.2 Application of Decision Support Process 23 4.2 Port Columbus International Airport (CMH) 23 4.2.1 Airport Overview/Project Definition 25 4.2.2 Application of the Decision Support Process 26 4.2.3 Apply Decision Support Process 26 4.2.4 Frequency Analysis 29 4.3 Washington Dulles International Airport (IAD) 29 4.3.1 Airport Overview/Project Definition 30 4.3.2 Application of the Decision Support Process 32 4.4 Pittsburgh International Airport (PIT) 32 4.4.1 Airport Overview/Project Definition 35 4.4.2 Application of Decision Support Process 39 4.5 Portland International Airport (PDX) 39 4.5.1 Airport Overview/Project Definition 40 4.5.2 Application of the Decision Support Process 45 References 46 Appendix A Regulatory Implications of Defining Winter Design Storms Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.
AAF antiÂicing fluid AC Advisory Circular ACAA Allegheny County Airport Authority ACIÂNA Airports Council International, North America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADF aircraft deicing fluid BMP best management practice BOD biochemical oxygen demand BOD5 5Âday biochemical oxygen demand BTU biological treatment unit BWI/Marshall Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport CBOD5 5Âday carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand CBWWTP City of Portlandâs Columbia Boulevard Wastewater Treatment Plant CMH Port Columbus International Airport COD chemical oxygen demand CRAA Columbus Regional Airport Authority CWA Clean Water Act DAC deicing/antiÂicing chemicals DCA Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport DEQ Oregon Department of Environmental Quality EPA U.S. Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAR Federal Aviation Regulation GRV glycol recovery vehicles IAD Washington Dulles International Airport IDF intensityÂdurationÂfrequency LID lowÂimpact development MAA Maryland Aviation Administration MBBR movingÂbed biological reactor MWAA Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority NCDC National Climate Data Center NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System OD oxygen demand OTR oxygen transfer rate PaDEP Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection PDX Portland International Airport PIT Pittsburgh International Airport POTW publicly owned treatment works Abbreviations and Acronyms
ppm parts per million SPDES State Pollutant Discharge Elimination System SWMM Storm Water Management Model TP total phosphorus