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2Sustainability is based on a simple principle: everything needed for survival and well-being depends, either directly or indirectly, on the natural environment. Sustainability creates and maintains the conditions under which humans and nature can exist in productive harmony, that permit fulfilling the social, economic, and environmental requirements of present and future generations. Sustainable practices can reduce the environmental impact of developed infrastructure while at the same time creating financial and operational benefits for a project and social benefits for the community at large. Together, these aspects of sustainability are commonly referred to as the Triple-Bottom-Line, as shown in Figure 1. 1.1 Evolution of Airport Sustainability The aviation industry is lacking comprehensive and easily attainable information regard- ing sustainable practices, methods, procedures, and technologies for an airport environment. Many airports have expressed interest in applying sustainable practices, but are reluctant, given the current lack of guidance. The comprehensive collection of data that was analyzed throughout this study helps to bridge the gap between efficient, real-world applications and the industry. Green and sustainable practices are measures incorporated into projects that are designed to produce balanced environmental, social, and financial benefits. Sustainable practices are designed to reduce impact on the environment by reducing the use of raw or material resources (materials, fossil fuels, energy consumption, etc.), reducing air emissions, reducing waste, reducing water pollution, mitigating increased flooding from stormwater runoff, and many more. Thoughtful planning to incorporate green and sustainable practices helps to reduce environmental impacts while also creating financial and operational benefits. Airports have been challenged in recent years to do more with lessâreduced budgets, limited staffâdue to constrained resources as a result of the international aviation system being stressed by terrorist acts, threats of infectious pandemics, and a worldwide recession. At the same time, new goals for improving environmental performance have been proposed at national, regional, and local levels; for example, cities, states, and regions are setting goals to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which will require doing things differently in the future. Against this backdrop, airports must still look ahead and plan to meet projected increases in demands for air travel. To preserve economic viability and address potentially formidable constraints to growth, airports need strategies that allow for sustained aviation growth while controlling costs and pursuing a goal of reducing environmental impacts over time. What Is Sustainability? C h a p t e r 1
What Is Sustainability? 3 Managing operating costs and capacity, reducing environmental risks and liability, and ensur- ing customer and employee satisfaction, while demonstrating a commitment to the health and vitality of their communities, is the new order of business. Sustainable development combines ecological, social, and economic concerns into a Triple-Bottom-Line that represents a promising approach to meet the unique challenges facing airports today. This approach has recently drawn a great deal of attention within the airport community. 1.2 Comparison to Conventional Design Concepts There are opportunities for applying principles of sustainability in all areas of airport oper- ation: airside, landside, terminals, and hangars, just to name a few. New buildings, runways and taxiways, maintenance facilities, and concessions can all be designed using sustainable approaches. Sustainability can also be applied as a component of retrofit and repair activities. The most beneficial opportunities for employing sustainable principles may be during the plan- ning and design phases of an airport development project, but there may be even more oppor- tunities to consider in equipment replacement and maintenance. For example, consider the flooring material for an airport terminal. During the original design, the decision on whether to install carpet, tile, or stone flooring may be made. Carpet will have the lowest first cost but it may have to be replaced within three years, which will create a waste stream and a cost to the operating department. And the adhesive used to install the carpet may emit fumes that are a source of indoor air pollution. Alternatively, stone or hardwood will last the life of the facility, it may be available locally, minimizing transportation costs, and can be reused at the end of the terminalâs lifetime. If the decision was originally made to install carpet, when replacement is required, an alternative could be considered such as bamboo. Bamboo is a rapidly growing type of grass that can be manufactured into tough, resilient flooring that is durable yet biodegradable when it reaches the end of its useful life. This is just one example of technological advancements in product technology that have reduced impacts to the environ- ment and save operating costs over time. There are challenges to implementing sustainable initiatives beyond identifying appropriate processes or technologies. When new facilities are designed and built, there is a strong impetus to hold down the construction and materials costs to adhere to capital budgets. When contractors and subcontractors are solicited, there is a preference for the low bid. And when materials are Economic Prosperity Environmental Stewardship Social Responsibility Sustainability Figure 1. The Triple-Bottom-Line
4 Guidebook for Incorporating Sustainability into traditional airport projects requisitioned, the low cost supplier frequently wins the contract. Throughout the facility design and construction, decisions are made based on the goals of the project team, usually total cost and time to completion. Once the facility is turned over to begin routine operations, however, the operating department has different cost concerns and goals driving its decisions, usually monthly or yearly operating costs. In fact, up to 75% of the cost of facility ownership occurs after design and construction and the operating departments must live with decisions made by the capital project team. To ensure their success, sustainability programs must begin during planning and design and continue through construction and operation/maintenance, as well as decommissioning and demolition. This approach takes into account the lifetime impacts of processes and equipment and minimizes not only total costs but also lifetime environmental impacts. The expense of green technologies, which may often be perceived as a detriment to implemen- tation due to higher upfront costs than traditional systems, often produce lower life-cycle costs as compared to traditional systems. In some cases, significant cost savings can be generated when sustainable practices are incorporated instead of traditional practices. The following comparisons of sustainable and traditional practices provide sample cost sav- ings over time for the sustainable options. Sample comparisons include: â¢ Design of Physical Structures â Green roof versus conventional roof â Energy efficient lighting versus traditional incandescent â Double glazed windows versus traditional â¢ Construction Practices â On-site balanced earthwork plan versus traditional off-site hauling â¢ Daily Operations â Recycling â Water efficiency â Double-sided printing â Green cleaning products â¢ Social Benefits of Sustainability 1.2.1 Green Roof Versus Conventional Roof Table 1 presents a sample of a 31-year cost-benefit comparison for a 25,000 square foot green roof versus a conventional roof of the same size. 1.2.2 Energy Efficient Lighting Versus Traditional Incandescent Comparison of Outdoor LED Airfield Lighting (Taxiway Edge Lights and Runway Guard Lights) to Standard Existing Airfield Lighting Typical Existing Equipment for Airfield Lighting. Incandescent Elevated Runway Guard Lights and the existing Elevated Taxiway Edge Lights operating continuously 24 hours per day, 7 days a week; existing equipment typically operates at 20â25W both with and without the heat- ing element in operation. LED Replacement Equipment. LED Elevated Runway Guard Lights and LED Elevated Taxiway Edge Lights operating continuously 24 hours a day, 7 days a week; replacement LED equipment typically operates at 25VA with the heater on and at 12VA with the heater off. Manu- facturers typically estimate 1.8 times the energy savings as compared to the existing equipment with the heater on and 3.7 times the energy savings with the heater off.
What Is Sustainability? 5 Calculation Method. Savings are calculated per fixture at 24 hours multiplied by 365 days. In calculating total cost savings when converting airfield incandescent lighting fixtures and lamps to LED, consideration must be given to both reduced energy and labor costs. For example, if 1,150 airfield fixtures are converted to LED, the combined annual savings from energy and labor for this lighting conversion is approximately $299,000 per year. The combined cost of equipment and labor to complete this lighting conversion is typically approximately $675,000. Therefore, when dividing the total project cost by the annual savings per year, a payback period of 2.25 years is realized. Conversely, dividing the annual savings by the total project cost, a return on investment (ROI) of 44.3% can be realized. Expected Measure Life (Years): â¢ Taxiway Edge Lights: Average LED life of 100,000 hours under high-intensity conditions (or 11.4 years) and more than 200,000 hours (or 22.8 years) under actual operating conditions. â¢ Runway Guard Lights: Average LED life of 56,000 hours under high-intensity conditions (or 6.4 years) and more than 150,000 hours (or 17.1 years) under actual operating conditions. Table 2 shows the comparison between traditional incandescent bulbs and other bulbs. COMPARISON ELEMENT GREEN ROOF 25,000 sq. ft. vegetated surface CONVENTIONAL ROOF 25,000 sq. ft. asphalt surface 000,522$ 000,003$ esnepxE latipaC laitinI fs/9$ fs/21$ tooF erauqS rep tsoC sraey 01 sraey 04 ycnatcepxE efiL egarevA Capital Expense/Inflation in year 31 $300,000 (original roof) $1,154,595 (replaced twice) Maintenance Costs/Inflation in year 31 706,62$ 706,62$ 286,953$ 744,072$ 13 raey ni stsoC elcyC efiL Energy Cost Reduction/ Thermal Insulation Approximately 30% summer reduction of air conditioning requirements and 25% winter reduction of heating requirements (with a 3-7 degree interior temperature reduction in the summer and increase in the winter) None Sound Insulation Green roof with a 5 inch substrate layer can reduce sound by 40 decibels Minimal Air Quality Improvement 100 square feet of grass roof can remove 4.5 pounds/year of airborne particulates; 25,000 sq. ft. equates to approximately 1,125 pounds/year reduction of airborne particulates None Stormwater Retention In summer, green roofs retain 70-90% of the precipitation that falls on them; in winter they retain between 25-40%. None Temperature Regulation Moderation of the Urban Heat Island Effect: roughly 10.76 sq. ft. of foliage can evaporate 0.13 gallons of water per day and 47.5 gallons of water per year Minimal Visibility of Environmental Commitment Enhances public image and emphasizes commitment to environmental stewardship None Conclusions: Initial expenses incurred with a conventional roof are $75,000 less than a green roof. However, after 31 years, the conventional roof had to be replaced twice, while the green roof did not yet need replacement. The cost savings in capital expenses associated with the green roof are estimated to be nearly $850,000. Maintenance costs for both roofs are the same. While the conventional roof is the least expensive initially, it also offers the shortest life cycle of 10 years and the highest capital expenses, having to be replaced two times in 31 years. Although the green roof has a higher initial capital expense, it offers the most benefits over time, offering a life cycle of 40 years, four times longer than a conventional roof. The green roof has no additional capital expenses after 31 years because it did not need to be replaced. In addition to cost savings, green roofs offer advantages in sound insulation, air quality improvements, stormwater management, temperature regulation, and public relations opportunities. Table 1. Cost-benefit comparison.
6 Guidebook for Incorporating Sustainability into traditional airport projects 1.2.3 Double Glazed Windows Versus Traditional Double glazing, or insulated glazing, refers to double glass window panes separated by trapped air. The benefits of double glazing include improved energy efficiency and reduced energy costs due to reduced heat loss in the winter and reduced cool air loss in the summer; controlled con- densation; and reduced noise transmission. Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Energy Costs Reduced Heat Loss during the Winter. The insulating layer of double glazing reduces the effect of outside cold temperatures on building interiors. A shift from single glazing to double glazing can reduce heat loss through glass by up to 50%. Reduced Cooling Loss during the Summer. Likewise during the summer, the insulating layer of double glazing reduces the effect of outside warm temperatures (or solar heat gain) on building interiors. A shift from single glazing to double glazing can reduce solar heat gain by roughly 13%. Energy Cost Savings. The Food Marketing Institute, in cooperation with the U.S. EPA, pro- motes the installation of double glazing in retail supermarkets, stating that the following savings can be achieved with a double-glazed sky-lighting installation that covers 4.5% of a ceiling area: Installed Cost: $168,000 Electric Rate/kWh: $.10 Gas Cost/Year: $26,780 Electric Cost/Year: $150,670 Total Energy Cost/Year: $177,450 Energy Cost Saved/Year: $24,050 Simple Payback: 7 years Controlled Condensation Condensation forms when warm air is cooled. In the case of a window or glass area, the moisture in the air condenses on the glass forming what can be significant amounts of water. In the case of single glazing, the cool temperature on the outside transfers easily to the inside and condensation occurs rapidly. When double glazing is installed, improved thermal insula- Comparisons between Traditional Incandescent and Energy Efficient Light Bulbs 60W Traditional Incandescent 43W Energy-Saving Incandescent 15W CFL 12W LED Energy $ Saved (%) â ~25% ~75% ~75-80% Annual Energy Cost per bulb* $57.60 $42.00 $14.40 $12.00 Bulb Life 1000 hours 1000 to 3000 hours 10,000 hours 25,000 hours *Based on 24 hrs/day of usage, an electricity rate of 11 cents per kilowatt-hour, shown in U.S. dollars. Source: âHow Energy-Efficient Light Bulbs Compare with Traditional Incandescents,â U.S. Department of Energy, accessed May 31, 2012, http://www.energysavers.gov/your_home/lighting_daylighting/index.cfm/mytopic=12060 Table 2. Comparison of Indoor 60 watt (W) traditional incandescent bulbs with energy efficient bulbs that provide similar light levels.
What Is Sustainability? 7 tion between the outside and inside results in greatly reduced condensation and warmer, drier interior space. Reduced Noise Transmission Double glazing can also provide a significant reduction in outside noise that is transmitted to interior space. The trapped air between both layers of glass improves noise insulation quality of the glass by reducing the amount of sound transmitted through the glass to the interior space. Summary The U.S. EPA recommends that large-scale facilities, which experience higher energy costs than nearly all other building types, gain efficiency from integrated design practices, including systems to control heat gain, such as double glazed windows. Unmanaged solar energy through the use of standard single glazed windows can increase the heating load of a facility, demanding more of the air conditioning systems; similarly, windows with a poor ability to keep heat in allow warm air to escape a building in the winter, increasing the demands on heating systems. (See âDesigning for Energy Efficiency,â Food Marketing Institute.) 1.2.4 On-Site Balanced Earthwork Plan Versus Traditional Off-Site Hauling The benefits of a Balanced Earthwork Plan as part of an airport construction project are pre- sented in Table 3, courtesy of the Chicago Department of Aviation. 1.2.5 The Cost Savings of Recycling Recycling is the transfer of material out of the waste stream and diverting it from landfills so that it can be reused, repurposed, or remanufactured into new products. As the volume of waste sent to landfills decreases, the cost of such trash disposal also decreases. Establishment of a recycling program can provide appreciable cost savings. Initial costs to plan and implement the program, including the purchase of bins and pick-up/sorting service, if needed, will eventually be offset by reduced trash disposal fees and less waste creation over time. Material costs often include the purchase or leasing of collection bins, storage containers, container signage and employee education literature, and the cost of transporting recyclable materials to an off-site processing facility. Quantities Description over 18 MCY Cubic yards of Soil Moved over 6.3 MCY Cubic yards of Excess Soil Kept On-site over 575,000 Haul Trips Saved over 1 Million Hours of Roadway Travel Saved over 43 Million Vehicle Miles Traveled (VMT) Saved over 6.5 Million Gallons of Diesel Fuel Saved over $126 Million Dollars Saved approximately 72,000 Tons of CO2 Saved Source: Chicago Department of Aviation, OâHare Modernization Program, 2010, e-mail message to authors, April 12, 2011. Table 3. Balanced Earthwork Plan benefits analysis through 2010
8 Guidebook for Incorporating Sustainability into traditional airport projects In addition to cost savings, recycling saves energy that would be used to extract resources or create products from virgin materials. Recycling also creates more jobs than traditional trash disposal services. For every one job at a landfill, there are 10 jobs in recycling processing and 25 jobs in recycling-based manufacturing. The recycling industry employs more workers than the auto industry (Eco-cycle, accessed May 31, 2012). 1.2.6 The Cost Savings of Water Efficiency The U.S. EPA provides a variety of guidance to increase water efficiency for both indoor and outdoor use, with the end result of cost savings in mind. Outdoor Water Efficiency Water-Efficient Landscaping. Proper landscaping techniques not only create beautiful landscapes, but also benefit the environment and save water. Water-efficient landscaping pro- duces attractive landscapes because it utilizes designs and plants suited to local conditions. Water-efficient landscaping offers many economic and environmental benefits, including: â¢ Reduced landscaping labor and maintenance; â¢ Lower water bills from reduced water use; â¢ Extended life for water resources infrastructure (e.g., reservoirs, treatment plants, ground- water aquifers), thus reduced taxpayer costs; â¢ Decreased energy use (and air pollution associated with its generation) because less pumping and treatment of water is required; â¢ Reduced runoff of stormwater and irrigation water that carries top soils, fertilizers, and pes- ticides into local receiving bodies; â¢ Reduced heating and cooling costs through the careful placement of trees; â¢ Fewer trimmings to be managed or land-filled; â¢ Reduced landscaping labor and maintenance costs; and â¢ Coupled with a rainwater collection system, water for future irrigation can be stored on-site. Example Program. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates an award- winning grounds maintenance program that comprises a comprehensive landscape and irriga- tion management program. The program has helped the laboratory reduce its water use for irrigation by 30%. The program began in 2000 and, at the time, was implemented with their 35-year-old landscape. PNNL has more than 4,200 staff members, sits on 600 acres, and houses 2 million square feet of facilities. The program encompasses sound landscape design and maintenance of the plants and efficient application of water to these plants. The PNNL landscape and irrigation management program has resulted in the following annual savings: â¢ 30% reduction in water consumption for turf irrigation; â¢ 15 million gallons of water reclaimed from the cooling ponds for irrigation; â¢ $30,000 in reduced wastewater fees from reclaiming cooling pond water instead of sending it to the wastewater treatment plant; and â¢ 200,000 kilowatt-hours (kWh) of electricity saved from reducing water pumping from the Columbia River. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Grounds Maintenance, U.S. Department of Energy) Indoor Water Efficiency U.S. EPAâs WaterSense Program: Saving Water Saves Energy. The U.S. EPAâs WaterSense Program was created to encourage the use of water-efficient products and practices among consumer and commercial audiences. The main goal of the program is to decrease indoor and
What Is Sustainability? 9 outdoor nonagricultural water use through more efficient products, equipment, and programs. With its recognizable label, WaterSense helps consumers easily identify water-efficient products in the marketplace while ensuring product performance and encouraging innovation in manufacturing. Many people understand the importance of saving energy, and many also understand the importance of saving water. However, few know about the direct connection between saving both. It takes water to create energy. Vast amounts of water are used to cool the power plants that generate electricity. Because approximately 4% of the nationâs electricity consumption is used moving or treating water and wastewater, one of the best ways to save energy across the country is to use water more efficiently. A relatively simple way to save both water and energy is to install water-efficient plumbing fixtures, including toilets, sink faucets, and faucet accessories. The U.S. EPA has labeled âWater- Senseâ toilets, bathroom sink faucets, and faucet accessories that have been proven to save resources and perform to consumer expectations. WaterSense labeled products must achieve independent, third-party testing and certification to prove they meet U.S. EPAâs criteria for both efficiency and performance (âWaterSense,â U.S. EPA). 1.2.7 The Benefits of Double-Sided Printing Double-sided printing is one the easiest ways to save money, reduce waste, and improve your carbon footprint. If your printers already have the ability to print double-sided, then making a simple change on the default settings can substantially reduce the amount of paper used. There are several free tools available on-line that allow exploration of the potential savings accompanying a change to double-sided printing. One example is found at Appropedia (http:// www.appropedia.org/Double-sided_printing). In addition, publicly available research into the savings that can be achieved through sustain- able office practices has found the following: Key Points â¢ The costs of document output can be reduced by up to 30% through the active management of office printing practices. â¢ The use of double-sided printing as a default setting on office equipment can reduce annual paper costs by up to 30%. â¢ The active support from Senior Management in informing employees of the purpose of such practices will enhance the success of the initiative. (âDouble-Sided Printing,â Appropedia; âHow to Reduce Printing Costs by 17%: A Guide to Doing Well and Doing Good by Printing Less,â GreenPrint Technologies) 1.2.8 The Benefits of Green Cleaning Products Cleaning products are necessary for maintaining attractive and healthful conditions in the workplace. In addition to the obvious aesthetic benefits of cleaning, the removal of dust, allergens, and infectious agents is crucial to maintaining a healthful indoor environment. But cleaning products can present several health and environmental concerns. They may contain chemicals associated with eye, skin, or respiratory irritation, or other human health issues. Additionally, the concentrated forms of some commercial cleaning products are classified as hazardous, creating potential handling, storage, and disposal issues for users. Reducing the human health and environmental concerns is an important incentive for implementing a Green Cleaning Products Program (âGreening Your Purchase of Cleaning Products: A Guide for Federal Purchasers,â U.S. EPA).
10 Guidebook for Incorporating Sustainability into traditional airport projects Key Points â¢ Buying cleaners in concentrates with appropriate handling safeguards, and reusable, reduced, or recyclable packaging, reduces packaging waste and transportation energy. â¢ Buying less hazardous cleaners may reduce costs when it comes time to properly dispose of any leftover cleaners. â¢ Choosing less hazardous products that have positive environmental attributes and taking steps to reduce exposure can minimize harmful impacts to custodial workers and building occupants and improve indoor air quality, as well as reduce water and ambient air pollution while also ensuring the effectiveness of cleaning in removing biological and other contami- nants from the buildingâs interior. What Makes a Cleaning Product Green? Product Content and Use â¢ Minimal presence of or exposure to potentially harmful chemicals, such as: â Corrosive or strongly irritating substances â Human carcinogens or reproductive toxicants â Ozone-depleting compounds â Regulated hazardous materials â¢ Use of renewable resources â¢ Low VOC content â¢ Biodegradable â¢ Low toxicity â¢ Low flammability â¢ Designed for use in cold water in order to conserve energy Product Packaging and Shipping â¢ Concentrated formulas with appropriate handling safeguards â¢ Efficient packaging (e.g., light weight, reduced volume) â¢ Recyclable packaging â¢ Recycled-content packaging â¢ Refillable bottles â¢ Pump sprays rather than aerosols â¢ Packaging and dilution systems designed to reduce exposure to the product â¢ Products shipped in bulk â¢ Clear labeling and information on use and disposal Corporate Environmental Performance â¢ Manufactured by a company with any of the following: â Formal environmental management system â International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 certification â Formal partnership with the Design for the Environment Formulator Initiative 1.2.9 Social Benefits of Sustainability Calculating an economic payback on the implementation of social sustainability programs can be challenging. However, the contributions to the local community will be clearly evident. (âThe Social Benefits of Sustainable Design,â U.S. Department of Energy, Federal Energy Man- agement Program; Harriet Baskas 2010), The social benefits of sustainability are related to improvements in a personâs quality of life, health, or well-being. These benefits can be the direct result of spending time in an occupied
What Is Sustainability? 11 building that has been sustainably designed/constructed or they can be the result of a program or event that has led to their improved quality of life, health, or well-being. From a public health perspective, quality of life can be measured in terms of individual life expectancy and state of wellness and can include environmental quality, aesthetics, educational and recreational opportunities, accessibility and quality of public services, and community satisfaction and pride. The following are examples of social sustainability initiatives in place at airports: â¢ Las Vegas McCarran International Airport donated surplus walk-through metal detectors to the local school district for use at dances and sporting events following its upgrade of security checkpoint equipment in 2005. â¢ Oakland International Airport, as part of its 2008 terminal improvement program offered the removed gate seating to any local non-profit that was interested. The Boys & Girls Clubs of Oakland is now using the seating. â¢ At Seattle-Tacoma International Airport, unsold food from concessionaires is sent to area food banks.