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Page 295
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 25 - Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22706.
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Page 296
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 25 - Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22706.
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Page 296
Page 297
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 25 - Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22706.
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Page 297
Page 298
Suggested Citation:"Chapter 25 - Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems: Second Edition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22706.
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Page 298

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Abbreviations (Chapter 26), 26-1 in Messages, 13-8, 13-9, 19-7, 19-8, 19-9 in Pavement Markings, 20-5 Accessible Pedestrian Signals (APS), 11-8, 11-9 AMBER Alert, 19-2, 23-1 Apparent Radius, 6-4, 6-5 Approach Sight Triangles, 5-7 Arrow Panels, 13-4 thru 13-7 Arrow-per-lane (APL) Signs, 12-10, 12-11 Arrow-per-Lane Sign Design to Support Driver Navigation, 12-10 Behavioral Framework for Speeding, 17-2 Bicycles/Bicycle Riders, 3-4, 4-1, 5-15, 16-6, 16-7, 17-6, 20-6, 20-7, 20-10, 20-11, 22-13 Bilingual Information, 19-14, 19-15 Blank-out/Blanking, 11-4, 11-5, 19-3, 19-10, 19-11, 19-13, 22-45, 22-46 Bulbout, 15-2, 15-3 Caution Mode Configuration for Arrow Panels, 13-6 Changeable/Variable Message Sign or CMS/VMS, 2-1, 3-4, 4-4, 11-5 Changeable Message Signs (Chapter 19), 19-1 Changeable Message Signs, for Work Zones, 13-8 Message Length, 13-8, 13-9, 19-3, 19-6, 19-7, 19-9, 19-15, 22-43 Phases, 13-8 Speed Limits, 13-12, 13-13, 17-12, 17-13 Characteristics of Effective Lighting at Intersections, 21-12 Characteristics of Lighting that Enhance Pedestrian Visibility, 21-10 Clearance Interval, 11-6, 17-14, 17-15, 22-38 Crosswalk, 11-8, 11-9 Clearing Distance, 11-7 Closed-Loop Compensatory Component, 6-8, 6-9 Complexity of Sign Information, 18-10 Composing a Message to Maximize Comprehension, 19-8 Conspicuity, 3-10, 18-6, 18-7 Conspicuity of Diamond Warning Signs under Nighttime Conditions, 18-6 Construction and Work Zones (Chapter 13), 13-1 Counterbeam Lighting, 21-7 Countermeasures, 2-1 Countermeasures for Improving Accessibility for Vision-Impaired Pedestrians at Signalized Intersections, 11-8 25-1 C H A P T E R 25 Index Countermeasures for Improving Accessibility of Vision-Impaired Pedestrians at Roundabouts, 10-10 Countermeasures for Improving Pedestrian Conspicuity at Crosswalks, 21-8 Countermeasures for Improving Steering and Vehicle Control Through Curves, 6-8 Countermeasures for Mitigating Headlamp Glare, 21-2 Countermeasures for Pavement/Shoulder Drop-offs, 16-4 Countermeasures to Improve Pavement Delineation, 6-10 Countermeasures to Reduce Gate-Rushing at Crossings with Two-Quadrant Gates, 14-10 Engineering Countermeasures to Reduce Red Light Running, 11-2 Speeding Countermeasures: Communicating Appropriate Speed Limits, 17-12 Speeding Countermeasures: Setting Appropriate Speed Limits, 17-10 Speeding Countermeasures: Using Roadway Design and Traffic Control Elements to Address Speeding Problems, 17-14 Cross Section, 3-3, 3-5, 4-1, 5-12, 17-7 Cross Slope, 5-12, 6-5 Crossbuck, 14-4, 14-5, 14-12, 14-13 Crosswalks, 5-5, 10-11, 20-6, 20-7, 20-11 Curve Advisory Speed Limits, 6-6 Curves, 3-6, 5-5, 5-13, 5-16, 6-2 thru 6-7, 6-9, 6-12, 13-4, 16-9, 17-5, 17-7, 17-14, 17-15, 20-3, 20-8, 20-9 Advisory Speed Limits, 6-6 Countermeasures for Improving Steering and Vehicle Control Through Curves, 6-8 Curves (Horizontal Alignment) (Chapter 6), 6-1 Detailed Task Analysis of Curve Driving (Tutorial 3), 22-35 Delineators, 20-8, 20-9 Drop-off, 16-5 Entry/Approach, 6-2 thru 6-5, 6-9, 6-11, 6-12 Horizontal, 16-9, 17-5, 17-7, 17-12, 20-3 thru 20-5, 20-9, 22-35, 22-45 Crest, 6-5, 20-5 Sag, 6-3 thru 6-5 Vertical, 3-6, 5-5, 5-12, 5-16, 6-5, 6-7, 13-4, 22-45 Crest, 3-3, 3-6, 5-5, 6-5, 20-5, 22-15 Sag, 6-4, 6-5 Daytime Lighting Requirements for Tunnel Entrance Lighting, 21-6

Decibel (dB or dBA) Level, 16-6, 16-7 Departure Sight Triangles, 5-7 Design Considerations for Turnouts on Grades, 7-2 Design Consistency, 6-2, 6-3, 6-5 thru 6-9, 16-8, 16-9, 17-15 Design Consistency in Rural Driving, 16-8 Determining Appropriate Message Length, 19-6 Determining Intersection Sight Distance, 5-6 Determining Passing Sight Distance, 5-10 Determining Stopping Sight Distance, 5-4 Determining When to Use Decision Sight Distance, 5-8 Determining Work Zone Speed Limits, 13-12 Dilemma Zone, 11-6, 11-7, 14-6, 14-9 Displaying Messages with Dynamic Characteristics, 19-10 Distracted/Drowsy/Fatigued/Inattentive Driver, 6-11, 11-7, 16-6, 16-7, 17-3, 18-5, 20-3, 22-7 Driver Behavioral Trends Based on Exit Ramp Geometry, 12-12 Driver Compliance Posted Speed, 13-13, 17-6, 17-8, 17-9, 17-11, 19-3 Driving Restrictions, 11-5 Driver Comprehension of Signs, 18-8 Driver Expectations at Freeway Lane Drops and Lane Reductions, 12-6 Driver Fatigue, 8-4, 8-5 Driver Information Needs at Complex Interchanges, 12-8 Driver Information Needs at Passive Rail-Highway Grade Crossings, 14-4 Drop-off Lane, 16-3, 20-4, 20-5 Pavement/Shoulder, 16-4, 16-5 Dynamic Characteristics/Text, 19-4, 19-5, 19-10, 19-11, 22-45 Dynamic Message Sign or DMS, see Changeable Message Signs Edge Line, 6-8 thru 6-11, 6-13, 20-3 Effectiveness of Symbolic Markings, 20-4 Effects of Posted Speed Limits on Speed Decisions, 17-8 Effects of Roadway Factors on Speed, 17-6 Engineering Countermeasures to Reduce Red Light Running, 11-2 Equations (Chapter 27), 27-1 Factors Affecting Acceptable Gap, 10-4 Fatal Accident Reporting System (FARS), 6-7, 11-3 Four-Quadrant Gate Timing at Rail-Highway Grade Crossings, 14-8 Foveal Vision, 20-3, 20-5 Free-flow Speed, 17-6 thru 17-10 Gap, 3-2, 3-4, 5-6, 5-7, 5-11, 5-18, 6-6, 6-10, 6-11, 10-4, 10-5, 10-10, 10-11, 17-5, 17-15, 18-3, 22-4, 22-40, 22-42 Acceptable Gap Distance, 10-2, 10-3 Critical Gap, 10-3, 10-4 Factors Affecting Acceptable Gap, 10-4 Rumble Strip Marking, 16-6, 16-7 General Principles for Sign Legends, 18-2 Geometric and Signing Considerations to Support Effective Use of Truck Escape Ramps, 7-4 Glare, 3-3, 3-4, 5-3, 5-4, 10-4, 10-5, 18-5, 20-2, 20-3, 21-2 thru 21-4, 21-6, 21-7, 21-10 thru 21-13, 22-6 HFG INDEX Version 2.0 25-2 Glossary (Chapter 24), 24-1 Grades (Vertical Alignment) (Chapter 7), 7-1 Haptic or Tactile Alert/Cue, 6-11, 11-8, 11-9, 16-6, 16-7, 16-9, 17-4 HAWK Signals, 15-2 Hazard/Hazardous Event or Object, 3-5, 3-6, 5-2 thru 5-5, 5-13, 5-16, 6-3, 10-4, 10-11, 16-7, 17-15, 18-3, 18-8, 18-9, 19-12, 19-13, 22-3 thru 22-7, 22-9, 22-11 thru 22-23, 22-25 thru 22-31, 22-35 Heavy Truck(s), 1-2, 3-1, 6-13, 11-4, 16-6, 16-7, 17-10, 17-11 Heuristics for Selecting the Yellow Timing Interval, 11-6 Highway Systems, 3-1 Human Factors Considerations in Traffic Control Device Selection at Rail-Highway Grade Crossings, 14-12 Influence of Speed on Sight Distance, 5-12 Information Units, 18-10, 18-11, 19-3, 19-6, 19-7, 19-9 thru 19-11, 22-43 thru 22-48 Interchanges (Chapter 12), 12-1 Key Components of Sight Distance, 5-2 Key References for Sight Distance Information, 5-14 Legibility Distance, 13-9 thru 13-11, 18-3, 18-5, 19-3 thru 19-5, 19-7, 22-21, 22-23, 22-24, 22-26, 22-29 thru 22-34, 22-41 thru 22-44 Legibility Index, 13-10, 18-3, 18-4, 22-31, 22-32, 22-41 Lighting (Chapter 21), 21-1 Looming, 10-3, 19-10, 19-11 Luminous Intensity, 13-4, 20-2 Lux, 20-2, 20-3 Maneuver Time (MT), 5-2 thru 5-5, 5-8, 5-9, 5-11, 5-14 thru 5-16, 5-18, 22-2, 22-3, 22-6, 22-7, 22-9, 22-23, 22-24, 22-30, 22-31, 22-33 Markings (Chapter 20), 20-1 Effectiveness of Symbolic Markings, 20-4 Lane/Pavement/Roadway, 5-8, 5-9, 6-2, 6-3, 6-10, 6-11, 11-4, 16-2, 16-3, 16-7, 16-8, 17-4, 17-13, 20-2 thru 20-5, 20-7, 20-11, 22-12, 22-24, 22-36 Markings for Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety, 20-6 Markings for Roundabouts, 20-10 Post-Mounted Delineators, 20-8 Raised, 6-2, 6-3, 6-10, 6-11, 6-13 Visibility of Lane Markings, 20-2 Mean Deceleration Level, 5-4 Mental Models, 16-9 Methods to Reduce Driver Speeds in School Zones, 15-6 Methods to Increase Compliance at Uncontrolled Crosswalks, 15-4 Methods to Increase Driver Yielding at Uncontrolled Crosswalks, 15-2 Most Meaningful Information or MMI, 3-5, 3-6, 3-9, 3-10, 4-2 Night Arrow Panel Specifications, 13-4, 13-5 Perception-Reaction Time or PRT, 5-3, 5-11 Legibility/Visibility, 18-4 thru 18-7, 19-4, 19-5, 20-3, 20-5, 20-7, 22-43, 22-44 Markings, 20-8, 20-9 Speed, 17-4, 17-5, 17-15, 20-5 Vertical Crests, 3-3

25-3 HFG INDEX Version 2.0 Nighttime Driving, 21-4, 21-5, 21-9 Visibility, 12-5, 21-13 Non-signalized Intersections (Chapter 10), 10-1 Older Drivers, 1-2, 5-3 Perception-Reaction Time or PRT, 5-5 Sight Distance, 5-9, 5-11, 5-14, 5-15, 10-6 thru 10-9 Gap Acceptance, 10-3 thru 10-5 Signs, 13-10, 17-13, 18-4, 18-7, 19-5, 22-41 Open-Loop Anticipatory Control Process, 6-8, 6-9 Optic Flow, 17-4, 17-5 Overview of Driver Alertness on Long Tangent Sections, 8-4 Overview of Work Zone Crashes, 13-2 Passing Lanes, 16-2 Pedestrians, 1-2, 3-1, 3-5, 4-2, 4-4, 5-14, 5-15, 10-4, 22-6, 22-13 Countermeasures for Improving Accessibility for Vision-Impaired Pedestrians at Roundabouts, 10-10 Driving Speed, 17-6, 17-7, 17-11, 17-13 Markings, 20-10, 20-11 Markings for Pedestrian and Bicyclist Safety, 20-6 Restricting Right Turns on Red to Address Pedestrian Safety, 11-4 Sight Distance, 5-5, 5-12, 5-13 Vision-Impaired, 10-10, 10-11, 11-4, 11-5, 11-8, 11-9 Yellow Timing Interval, 11-6 Perception-Reaction Time or PRT, 3-5, 5-2 thru 5-5, 5-8, 5-9, 5-11, 5-12, 5-14, 5-15, 11-6, 22-2 thru 22-4, 22-6, 22-7, 22-9, 22-11, 22-19, 22-23, 22-24, 22-30 thru 22-34 Perceptual and Physical Elements to Support Rural-Urban Transitions, 9-2 Point of Expansion, 17-5 Posted Speed, 17-3, 17-4, 17-6, 17-7, 17-10 thru 17-13, 18-8, 22-36 Driver Compliance, 13-13, 17-6, 17-8, 17-9, 17-11, 19-3 Effects of Posted Speed Limits on Speed Decisions, 17-8 Post-Mounted Delineators or PMDs, 6-11, 20-8 Presentation of Bilingual Information, 19-14 Presentation to Maximize Visibility and Legibility, 19-4 Preview Sight Distance and Grade Perception at Vertical Curves, 7-6 Preview Sight Distance or PVSD, 7-6 Procedures to Ensure Proper Arrow Panel Visibility, 13-4 Rail-Highway Grade Crossings (Chapter 14), 14-1 Four-Quadrant Gates, 14-6, 14-8 thru 14-11 Gate-rushing, 14-3, 14-9 thru 14-11, 14-13 Two-Quadrant Gates, 14-6, 14-9 thru 14-11 Red Light Running, 11-6, 17-5 Engineering Countermeasures to Reduce Red Light Running, 11-2 Reducing Wrong-Way Entries onto Freeway Exit Ramps, 12-4 References (Chapter 23), 23-1 Restricting Right Turns on Red to Address Pedestrian Safety, 11-4 Retroreflectivity, 6-10, 6-11, 6-13, 13-10, 13-11, 18-4, 18-6, 20-2, 20-3, 20-8, 20-11 Right Turn(s) on Red, 11-4 Restricting Right Turns on Red to Address Pedestrian Safety, 11-4 Roundabout Intersections, 5-18 Markings for Roundabouts, 20-10 Countermeasures for Improving Accessibility of Vision-Impaired Pedestrians at Roundabouts, 10-10 Route Markers, 16-8, 20-5 Rumble Strips, 6-10, 6-11, 16-6, 17-12, 17-13 Safety Edge, 16-5 Self-Explaining Roads, 3-4, 3-10 Serial Processing, 22-5, 22-33 Shared-Use Lanes, 20-6, 20-7, 20-11 Sharrows, 20-7 Shoulder/Roadway Shoulder, 6-9, 16-4, 16-6, 16-7, 17-6, 17-13, 20-3, 20-6 Sight Distance or SD, 16-8, 17-14, 17-15, 19-7, 20-7 Horizontal Curves, 6-6 Decision Sight Distance or DSD, 5-8, 5-9, 5-12, 5-14, 5-16, 5-18, 22-2, 22-9, 22-11, 22-13, 22-15, 22-16, 22-22 thru 22-29 Intersection Sight Distance or ISD, 3-5, 5-6, 5-7, 5-12, 5-14, 5-18, 10-2, 10-3,10-7, 22-9, 22-11, 22-17, 22-22, 22-24, 22-30 Key Components of Sight Distance, 5-2 Key References for Sight Distance Information, 5-14 Passing Sight Distance or PSD, 5-10 thru 5-12, 5-14, 5-16, 22-9, 22-11, 22-17, 22-22, 22-24 Sight Distance Considerations for Urban Bus Stop Locations, 15-10 Sight Distance Guidelines (Chapter 5), 5-1 Sight Distance at Left-Skewed Intersections, 10-6 Sight Distance at Right-Skewed Intersections, 10-8 Stopping Sight Distance or SSD, 2-3, 2-4, 5-4 thru 5-6, 5-8, 5-12, 5-14, 5-16, 5-18, 6-6, 22-9, 22-11, 22-13, 22-16, 22-17, 22-22, 22-24, 22-30, 22-31, 22-33 Where to Find Sight Distance Information for Intersections, 5-18 Where to Find Sight Distance Information for Specific Roadway Features, 5-16 Sign(s), 22-36 Comprehension, 18-8, 22-21, 22-23, 22-24, 22-29 thru 22-33 Complexity, 5-3, 11-9, 13-11, 22-23 Sign Design to Improve Legibility, 18-4 Presentation to Maximize Visibility and Legibility, 19-4 Sign Legibility, 13-10, 18-4, 18-5, 18-8, 18-9, 19-3, 19-4, 19-5, 19-7, 19-15 Index, 13-10, 18-3, 22-31, 22-32 Distance, 13-9 thru 13-11, 18-3, 18-5, 19-3 thru 19-5, 19-7, 22-21, 22-23, 22-24, 22-26, 22-29 thru 22-34, 22-41 thru 22-44 Signage and Markings for High Occupancy Vehicle (HOV) Lanes, 15-8 Signalized Intersections (Chapter 11), 11-1 Signing (Chapter 18), 18-1 Signs on Horizontal Curves, 6-12 Special Considerations for Rural Environments (Chapter 16), 16-1 Special Considerations for Urban Environments (Chapter 15), 15-1

Speed Limits, 3-3, 3-6, 5-13, 6-6 Differential, 17-10, 17-11 Work Zone, 13-12, 13-13, 17-12, 17-13, 19-12, 19-13 Speed Perception and Driving Speed, 17-4 Speed Perception, Speed Choice, and Speed Control (Chapter 17), 17-1 Speed Selection, 3-5, 5-3, 6-3 thru 6-7, 17-2, 22-4, 22-13, 22-36 Speed Selection on Horizontal Curves, 6-6 Speeding Countermeasures: Communicating Appropriate Speed Limits, 17-12 Speeding Countermeasures: Setting Appropriate Speed Limits, 17-10 Speeding Countermeasures: Using Roadway Design and Traffic Control Elements to Address Speeding Problems, 17-14 Tactile or Haptic Alert/Cue, 6-11, 11-8, 11-9, 16-6, 16-7, 16-9, 17-4 Tangent Sections and Roadside (Cross Section) (Chapter 8), 8-1 Task Analysis, 6-2, 6-3, 11-7, 22-35, 22-36 Curve Driving, 6-2 Driver Merging Behavior at Freeway Entrance Ramps, 12-2 Lane Changes on Tangent Sections, 8-2 Rail-Highway Grade Crossings, 14-2 The Influence of Perceptual Factors on Curve Driving, 6-4 Timing of Active Traffic Control Devices at Rail- Highway Grade Crossings, 14-6 Title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990, 10-10, 11-8 Trade-offs, 1-2, 2-3, 18-3, 19-5, 22-7, 22-44, 22-46 Traffic Control Devices, 1-2, 2-1, 3-5, 5-6, 5-15, 13-6, 13-9, 13-11, 13-13, 17-7, 17-11, 17-12, 17-15, 20-7, 22-7, 22-9, 22-11 thru 22-16, 22-18, 22-20, 22-21, 22-23 thru 22-31 HFG INDEX Version 2.0 25-4 Transition Zones between Varying Road Designs (Chapter 9), 9-1 Transverse Stripes, 17-5 Truck Escape Ramps or TERs, 7-4, 7-5 Trunk Rotation Range, 10-9 Turnouts, 7-2, 7-3 Tutorials (Chapter 22), 22-1 Tutorial 1: Real-World Driver Behavior Versus Design Models, 22-2 Tutorial 2: Diagnosing Sight Distance Problems and Other Design Deficiencies, 22-9 Tutorial 3: Detailed Task Analysis of Curve Driving, 22-35 Tutorial 4: Determining Appropriate Clearance Intervals, 22-38 Tutorial 5: Determining Appropriate Sign Placement and Letter Height Requirements, 22-39 Tutorial 6: Calculating Appropriate CMS Message Length under Varying Conditions, 22-43 Variable Message Sign or VMS, see Changeable Message Signs Virtual Road Users, 3-1, 3-6, 3-10, 4-3 Visibility of Lane Markings, 20-2 Visual Demands Curves, 6-2, 6-3 Roundabouts, 20-11 Sign Comprehension, 18-7 When to Use Changeable Message Signs, 19-2 Where to Find Sight Distance Information for Intersections, 5-18 Where to Find Sight Distance Information for Specific Roadway Features, 5-16 Work Zone Speed Limits, 13-12, 13-13, 17-12, 17-13, 19-12, 19-13 Yellow Timing Interval, 11-2, 11-3, 11-6, 11-7, 17-14, 17-15, 22-38

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TRB’s National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 600: Human Factors Guidelines for Road Systems: Second Edition provides data and insights of the extent to which road users’ needs, capabilities, and limitations are influenced by the effects of age, visual demands, cognition, and influence of expectancies.

NCHRP Report 600 provides guidance for roadway location elements and traffic engineering elements. The report also provides tutorials on special design topics, an index, and a glossary of technical terms.

The second edition of NCHRP 600 completes and updates the first edition, which was published previously in three collections.

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