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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 72 2017 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviationâ â¢â Environment Guidebook for Selecting Methods to Monitor Airport and Aircraft Deicing Materials Second Edition Jill Greene CDM SMith Boston, MA Dean Mericas MeaD & hunt Austin, TX
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100â Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 72 Project 02-61 ISSN 1935-9802 ISBN 978-0-309-44612-9 Library of Congress Control Number 2016961786 Â© 2017 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published research reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The ACRP Project 02-61 team was led by Mead & Hunt in association with CDM Smith, Design2Train, Barnes & Thornburg, and Cadmus Group. The project team would like to thank the following organiza- tions for their contributions to this report: â¢â Pittsburgh International Airport, â¢â Wisconsin Occupational Health Laboratory, and â¢â Microbac Laboratories, Inc. CRP STAFF FOR ACRP RESEARCH REPORT 72 Christopher J. Hedges, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Joseph D. Navarrete, Senior Program Officer Hana Vagnerova, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Doug English, Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-61 PANEL Field of Environment Asciatu J. Whiteside, Dallas Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, TX (Chair) Jennifer M. Fuller, North Carolina Division of Aviation, Raleigh, NC Lindsey Maron, RS&H, Inc., Jacksonville, FL Sam A. Mehta, San Francisco International Airport, San Francisco, CA Scott Simpson, SSI Inc., Cedar Hill, TX Dan Trapp, MidAmerica Airport, Mascoutah, IL Frank Smigelski, FAA Liaison Katherine B. Preston, Airports Council International â North America Liaison Stephen F. Maher, TRB Liaison
This is the second edition of ACRP Research Report 72: Guidebook for Selecting Methods to Monitor Airport and Aircraft Deicing Materials, which was originally published in 2012. The guidebook provides a step-by-step process for identifying, evaluating, and selecting methods to monitor stormwater that is subject to runoff containing deicing materials. The guidance addresses identifying the parameters to be monitored and discusses the appropriate- ness of various monitoring methods and instrument types to meet an airportâs specific needs. The guidebook also provides recommendations for setup, operation, and maintenance of each monitoring method. Many airports have stormwater management systems that require regular monitoring for deicing materials to support their stormwater management needs or to comply with environmental permits. Yet airport personnel may not have the expertise to select the most appropriate monitoring methods to meet their unique situation. Moreover, there has been considerable industry uncertainty about the performance, reliability, and appropriateness of various methods for specific monitoring situations. The research leading to the development of the original guidebook included an assessment of current practice relative to on-site airport monitoring systems as well as practices used at non-airport locations (e.g., municipal water treatment facilities and manufacturing sites). Since the publication of the first guidebook, permit compliance requirements have increasingly included monitoring for pavement deicer constituents in stormwater discharges, leading to the need for the update. The research produc- ing the updated guidebook was led by Mead & Hunt and consisted of developing and incorporating guidance on analyses for formates and acetates associated with airfield pavement deicers. The guidebook is organized into six chapters, with the first chapter providing an intro- duction and overview. Chapter 2 gives guidance for determining the applicable monitoring parameters, which is the first step to selecting the appropriate monitoring method. The second step, described in Chapter 3, helps the reader in determining whether on-site or off- site methods should be used. Once the monitor type required for each parameter has been determined, the next step is selecting the monitoring method; to assist in this effort, Chap- ter 4 is supplemented with criteria tables. Chapter 5 provides guidance in selecting specific equipment types. Finally, recommendations for implementing the monitoring system are provided in Chapter 6. F O R E W O R D ByâJosephâD.âNavarrete StaffâOfficer TransportationâResearchâBoard
The guidebook also includes helpful appendices that define relevant technical terms and provide sample outreach materials to help communicate the selection process to non- technical stakeholders. Technical information on various on-site monitoring methods is provided in a series of fact sheets. These fact sheets, which are organized by the parameter being monitored, describe key factors such as how the method works, its current level of adoption within the industry, implementation considerations, cost, and advantages/disadvantages. The fact sheets can be accessed at http://www.trb.org/Main/Blurbs/167504.aspx.
1 Chapter 1â Introduction 1 1.1 Applicability 2 1.2 Process for Selecting a Monitoring Method 2 1.3 Guidebook Scope and Use 3 1.4 Summary of Tips for Selection, Implementation, and Operation of On-Site Monitors 5 Chapter 2â IdentifyâApplicableâMonitoringâParameters 5 2.1 Parameter Screening 6 2.2 Drivers for Monitoring 6 2.2.1 Regulatory Drivers 7 2.2.2 Stormwater or Deicer Management System Process Control Drivers 7 2.2.3 Tracking and Accounting Deicer 9 2.3 Potential Monitoring Parameters 9 2.3.1 Glycols 9 2.3.2 Formates and Acetates 10 2.3.3 Surrogates for Primary Deicer Constituents 11 2.3.4 AmmoniaâNitrogen 11 2.3.5 pH 12 2.3.6 Dissolved Oxygen 12 2.3.7 Water Temperature 12 2.3.8 Total Suspended Solids 13 2.3.9 Flow 13 2.4 Correlation Between BOD/COD/TOC/Glycol 15 2.5 Using the Parameter Screening Worksheet 15 2.6 Reasons On-Site Monitoring May Be Used for Permit Compliance 15 2.7 Deicers in the Environment 18 Chapter 3â IdentifyâApplicableâMonitoringâTypes 18 3.1 Screening of Monitoring Types 18 3.2 Off-Site Monitoring Types 19 3.2.1 Laboratory Methods Associated with Off-Site Monitoring 20 3.3 On-Site Monitoring Types 20 3.3.1 Types of On-Site Monitors 23 Chapter 4â IdentifyâApplicableâMonitoringâMethods 23 4.1 Screening of Monitoring Methods 23 4.2 Use of the Criteria Tables and Fact Sheets 23 4.2.1 How to Use the Criteria Tables 24 4.2.2 How to Use the Fact Sheets 25 4.2.3 Typical Installation Location Criteria for Online Monitors C O N T E N T S
27 4.3 Descriptions of Monitoring Methods 27 4.3.1 Deicer Parameters 36 4.3.2 AmmoniaâNitrogen 37 4.3.3 pH 38 4.3.4 Dissolved Oxygen 39 4.3.5 Water Temperature 40 4.3.6 Total Suspended Solids 41 4.3.7 Flow 45 Chapter 5â IdentifyâApplicableâInstrumentsâandâLaboratories 45 5.1 Selecting the Manufacturer and Model for On-Site Monitoring 45 5.2 Selecting a Certified Laboratory for Off-Site Monitoring 47 Chapter 6â ImplementationâofâOn-SiteâMonitoringâSystems 47 6.1 Guidance on Design and Installation 47 6.1.1 Sampling Location 50 6.1.2 Sample Preparation 50 6.1.3 Utility Supply 51 6.1.4 Communications and Controls 52 6.1.5 Combining Sampling with Flow Rates for Accurate Loads 52 6.1.6 Recommendations for Equipment Shelters 53 6.2 Guidance on Setup, Operation, and Maintenance 53 6.2.1 Calibration 54 6.2.2 Maintenance 55 6.2.3 Monitor Site Visits 56 References 57 Definitions 59 Acronyms and Abbreviations A-1 Appendix Aâ On-SiteâMonitoringâMethodâCriteriaâTables B-1 Appendix Bâ OutreachâMaterials C-1 Appendix Câ âFirstâEditionâAuthors,âProjectâPanel,â andâAuthorâAcknowledgments Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.