National Academies Press: OpenBook

Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience (2012)

Chapter: Appendix F - Survey Results

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Page 79
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22773.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix F - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22773.
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Page 81
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22773.
×
Page 81
Page 82
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22773.
×
Page 82
Page 83
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22773.
×
Page 83
Page 84
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22773.
×
Page 84
Page 85
Suggested Citation:"Appendix F - Survey Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2012. Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22773.
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Page 85

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80 AppenDix F Survey Results Percentages for questions 1 & 2 are based on 16 respondents Q1 Do you think airport disruptions due to weather are becoming more frequent or more intense? Yes 12 75% No 4 24% Q2 Is your airport considering ways to address specifically more frequent or intense disruptions from weather? Yes 13 81% No 3 19% N/A: 0 0% Low awareness of the issues and risks: 1 6% It doesn’t fit my or anyone else’s job description: 1 6% Not identified as a priority of the leadership: 1 6% No directives at or above the national level (e.g., no FAA directive): 1 6% No directives from other authorities: 0 0% No guidance: 0 0% Funding not sufficient: 1 6% Don’t know: 0 0% Other reason (please state): 2 13% Don’t believe weather is becoming more intense (sic) Percentages for questions 3–10 are based on 13 respondents Q3 In 2010, did weather cause PHYSICAL DAMAGE to the following at your airport? Runways: 4 31% Taxiways: 5 38% Holding aprons: 3 23% Lighting, marking, and signing of runways: 4 31% Navigational aids: 0 0% Visual approach aids: 1 8% Commercial passenger terminal facilities: 4 31% General aviation facilities: 2 15% Cargo facilities: 1 8% Aircraft rescue and fire-fighting stations: 1 8% Airport administrative areas: 2 15% Airport maintenance facilities: 1 8% Airline maintenance hangars: 0 0% Flight kitchens: 0 0% Aircraft fuel storage: 0 0% Heating and cooling systems: 2 15% FAA facilities: 0 0%

81 On-airport access roads: 4 31% Circulation and service roads: 4 31% Parking and curb space: 2 15% Storm water drainage: 5 38% Open channel drainage: 2 15% Water detention structures, such as dams and levees: 0 0% Deicing-related control systems: 1 8% Industrial waste disposal systems/pollution control systems: 0 0% Water distribution systems: 1 8% Sanitary systems: 0 0% Gas distribution systems: 0 0% Other fuel distribution systems: 0 0% Electrical distribution systems: 1 8% Landscaping: 3 23% Other: 0 0% None/don’t know: 2 15% Q4 In 2010, did weather lead to any of the following DISRUPTIONS in airport operations at your airport? Scheduling disruption: 11 85% Cut-off access to airport (passengers, suppliers, staff): 2 15% Closure of runway/taxi-way: 9 69% Pollution control and spill events: 3 23% Internal building flooding: 2 15% Loss of services: 3 23% Disease epidemic/pandemic: 0 0% Loss of water/energy/information and telecommunications technology supply: 3 23% Structural integrity/maintenance of runway and other assets: 0 0% Rolling black-outs: 0 0% Partial airport evacuation/closure: 2 15% None: 0 0% Cannot answer question: 0 0% None: 0 0% Other: 1 8% IT outage Q5 In 2010, did weather-related disruptions cause any of the following effects at your airport? Security issues associated with partial closure/evacuation: 0 0% Increased costs/lost revenue: 9 69% Re-allocation of funding and human resources: 7 54% Increased coordination with local and regional stakeholders: 3 23% Coordination with airport service providers: 5 38% Regulatory violation: 0 0% Emergency response procedure: 4 31% Construction project delays: 6 46% Injury or harm to health or safety of staff or passengers (indirectly caused by weather): 2 15% Other: 1 8%

82 None: 0 0% Cannot answer question: 1 8% additional snow clearance personnel drafted in to clear runways etc. Q6 Do you believe the airport can manage current weather variability adequately? Yes 12 92% No 1 8% Q7 Does the airport use any of the following resources to prevent, reduce, or otherwise address threats from weather? Federal grants in aid (U.S.): 2 15% State grants in aid (U.S.): 2 15% Private financing: 1 8% Third party development: 0 0% Passenger facility charge: 3 23% Customer facility charge: 1 8% General obligation bonds: 2 15% Revenue bonds: 2 15% Special facility revenue bonds: 0 0% Industrial development bonds: 0 0% Local funds: 5 38% Line item in budget: 3 23% FAA/AIP (U.S.): 3 23% FAA Special Grants (U.S.): 1 8% Voluntary Airport Low Emissions program (U.S.): 1 8% Support from the Airport Sustainability and Sustainable Master Plan program (U.S.): 0 0% State/DOT (U.S.): 1 8% None: 5 38% Other: 0 0% Q8 Please indicate the groups of external partners or stakeholders with which you are working to strategically address weather dis- ruptions and related impacts. Airport to Airport Mutual Aid Programs: 1 8% Regional community emergency plans: 5 38% Regional planning authority: 5 38% Municipal/state/provincial planning groups: 3 23% Local fire department: 5 38% Air rescue and firefighting, other than local fire department: 1 8% Other state or provincial agencies: 2 15% Other local government: 5 38% Federal or national government: 2 15% Consultants: 2 15% Suppliers: 2 15% Reliever airports: 1 8% Airlines/carriers: 8 62% Businesses: 3 23% Other (please state): 1 8%

83 None: 2 15% Local Conservation Authority TRCA Q9 Does the airport keep records of increased or extraordinary maintenance caused by weather events? Yes 3 23% No 3 23% Don’t know 7 54% Q10 Are you familiar with the way the climate is projected to change in your airport’s region? Yes 11 85% No 2 15% Percentages for questions 11–23 are based on 11 respondents Q11 Q12 Have you noticed any gradual change in weather patterns in recent years that affect airport operations? Yes 6 55% No 5 45% Larger seasonal temperature swings More rain and wind A wet spring in 2011 had a significant impact in our ability to complete our construction package. May 2011 precipitation was 140.2 mm vs. 30-year average of 86.6 mm Lack of precipitation affects landscaping and cost of potable water Major snow and ice events in three (3) of the last four (4) years Increase in snow disruption due to severe cold snaps Q13 On a scale of 1 to 5, with 0 being Not Concerned and 5 being Extremely Concerned, are you concerned about the impacts that climate change could have on the airport’s operation? 0—Cannot answer question 1 1 0 2—Somewhat concerned 3 3—Concerned 6 4—Very concerned 2 5 0 Q14 On a scale of 1 to 5, with 0 being Unsatisfied and 5 being Fully Satisfied, are you satisfied with the climate science informa- tion your airport has available to use in future planning? 0—Cannot answer question 1 1—Unsatisfied 2 2—Somewhat satisfied 4 3—Usually satisfied 3 4—Satisfied 1 5—Fully satisfied 1 Much of the information seems to be driven by politics as much as science. Sea level rise projections and forecasts vary from an expert, which makes planning for adaptation difficult. Changing nature of winter storms (from snow to mixed precipitation) impacts on Low vis events (fog), changing wind direction (runway orientation and operational impact). Future wind direction modeling More robust modeling on changes to prevailing wind direction

84 An annual report summarizing recent research and explaining in plain terms the meaning of the findings. (1) Forecasted climate change for the region, (2) preparation by other regions of similar climate and forecasted climate change, and (3) preparation by other large hub airports. We would benefit from greater scientific consensus regarding rate of sea level rise. The high uncertainty surrounding the future prediction of the effects on the business make it hard to convey at times in terms of action and potential investment/capital expenditure. Q15 The following are potential risks from the impacts of future climate change identified at a major airport. Based on personal knowledge, please indicate the risk(s) that your airport has addressed in planning. Risk of physical damage, including damage from increased flooding, subsidence, and/or heat: 8 73% Risk associated with future climate change effects in the performance of infrastructure over time, caused by incremental or short-term fluctuations in climate: 7 64% Disruptions to air traffic due to increases in extreme weather or events in the natural environment caused by climate changes: 7 64% Risk to sustained water supplies, including risks to water supply infrastructure at the airport site: 2 18% Risk to the grid and energy supply infrastructure, plus risks to back-up systems: 3 27% Risk to infrastructure supporting information and telecommunications technology, including radar infrastructure: 5 45% Construction schedule risk due to increased disruptions from weather or other events in the natural environment caused by climate changes: 2 18% Passenger access risk, including transportation disruptions to road, rail, and underground networks and stations: 5 45% Risk to the efficiency or success of airport security operations from increased disruptions from weather or other events in the natural environment caused by climate changes: 3 27% Risk to terminal buildings that would affect passenger comfort, health, and safety or passenger-focused commercial operations: 5 45% Pollution control problems arising from increased flooding or other climate impacts: 3 27% Risk to the health and safety of airport employees and the direct employees of suppliers on site (where there may be reputational impacts for airport owner), such as heat illness: 5 45% Risk to the provision of services by contractors, sub-contractors, partners, or service providers critical to airport operations: 2 18% Risk to the airport’s operation from the follow on effects of climate impacts at other US and international airports (e.g., schedule problems, etc.): 5 45% Risk to the medium and/or long-term financial factors that are of interest to insurers or investors, including those related to the potential acquisition or sale of assets or sites (e.g., a potential lower sale price for “high-risk” assets, higher insurance premiums, etc.): 5 45% Disruption to the airport’s operations arising from the increased allocation of resources away from normal operations to activities required for the airport’s role in emergency response or logistics planning exercises: 4 36% Risk to funding opportunities, given the uncertainty over future conditions that may affect the need for or the feasibility of a project: 3 27% Negative impacts on the region caused by disruption at the airport 3 27% N/A: 0 0% Other: 1 9% Risk of airfield inundation from sea level rise Q16 To your knowledge, does your airport conduct planning for climate risk(s), such as those risks described in the question above? Yes 7 64% No 4 36% Stormwater drain study Plan for flood risk, increased wind Previous flooding study looked at localized flooding on the airport due to infrastructure.

85 We have completed a climate adaptation risk analysis. Improvements to perimeter dike to protect against flooding; improvements to stormwater management system airport-wide. Airfield draining project runway extension project and river culverting Climate Change Adaptation report. Q17 Has the airport integrated analysis of projected climate change impacts and/or related future risks into any of the following? Master plan in development: 4 36% Approved master plans: 0 0% Capital improvement plans: 4 36% Design standards for physical assets: 7 64% Supply contracts: 0 0% Budget development: 0 0% Security planning: 0 0% Disaster management and emergency response: 3 27% Early warning systems: 0 0% Organizational decision making: 3 27% N/A, I have personal knowledge that the airport does not integrate current and/or future climate change considerations into guidance and protocols: 3 27% Don’t know: 0 0% Other (please state): 2 18% Design standards for perimeter dike We are in process of integrating Q18 Please indicate the climate change projections or similar resources that your airport is using. State “none” or “don’t know” if that is the case. Don’t know UKCIP Don’t know More frequent and severe weather as a result of climate changes and that these changes will include higher temperatures, extreme heat, heavy rainfalls, drought and the introduction of new and invasive species We use UK climate projections from met office—referred to as UKCIP UKCP09 None Don’t know None Don’t know but can find out UKCP09 climate change model Q19 Please indicate which of the following tools or resources your airport uses when considering climate change in planning and/or airport operations. Climate education or training: 4 36% Climate impact and/or vulnerability assessment: 6 55% Scenario planning: 2 18% Airport Enterprise Risk Management process: 1 9% Airport authority risk processes: 2 18% Municipal risk managers and processes: 0 0% Full inventory of infrastructure/assets, including quality assessment: 3 27%

86 None: 3 27% Other (please state): 1 9% Participating in a subregional pilot project, Adapting to Rising Tides Q20 Do you feel emergency planning processes are a satisfactory method for addressing future climate change risks? Yes 6 55% No 5 45% Q21 Do you feel irregular operations planning processes are a satisfactory method for addressing future climate change risks? Yes 4 36% No 7 64% Q22 If your airport is conducting planning for future climate change risks, what triggered consideration of climate change? Required climate change analysis or reporting in a federal/national, state, local or other governmental program: 4 36% U.K. requirement to report on Climate Change Adaptation U.K. government requirement Part of our Local Authority Section 106 Planning Agreement Weather events and/or disruptions: 6 55% Employee professional judgment: 5 45% Awareness raised by efforts on climate change mitigation (e.g., carbon emissions reduction): 7 64% Insurance requirements: 3 27% Bonding requirements: 1 9% Master plan forecasts: 1 9% Master plan work, not including forecasts: 0 0% Issues emerging from emergency response plans: 3 27% N/A: 1 9% Other: 1 9% incorporation of sea level rise in vulnerability assessment of perimeter dike (focus is on flood control and seismic improvements) Q23 Which of the following expenditure categories do you think future climate change risks should be addressed through? Capex 1 9% Both 10 91%

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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Synthesis 33: Airport Climate Adaptation and Resilience reviews the range of risks to airports from projected climate change and the emerging approaches for handling them.

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