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TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2012 www.TRB.org The Second S T R A T E G I C H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M REPORT S2-L12-RW-1 Training of Traffic Incident Responders Nicholas D. oweNs, JuaN GuzmaN, KeviN ForD, JaNice FielDs, april armstroNG, Kari Beasley, christopher armstroNG, carol mitchell, aND lisa BeDsole Science Applications International Corporation reBecca Brewster American Transportation Research Institute KeviN mcGiNNis National Association of State EMS Officials roN moore McKinney Fire Department caroliNe GallaGher, Gary williams, aND JeNNiFer coNNor K2Share
Subscriber Categories Education and Training Highways Operations and Traffic Management
SHRP 2 Reports Available by subscription and through the TRB online bookstore: www.TRB.org/bookstore Contact the TRB Business Office: 202-334-3213 More information about SHRP 2: www.TRB.org/SHRP2 SHRP 2 Report S2-L12-RW-1 ISBN: 978-0-309-12927-5 Â© 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Copyright Information Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copy- right to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. The second Strategic Highway Research Program grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permis- sion is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, or FHWA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing material in this document for educational and not-for-profit purposes will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from SHRP 2. Note: SHRP 2 report numbers convey the program, focus area, project number, and publication format. Report numbers ending in âwâ are published as web documents only. Notice The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the second Strategic Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical committee selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical committee and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the second Strategic Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. The Second Strategic Highway Research Program Americaâs highway system is critical to meeting the mobility and economic needs of local communities, regions, and the nation. Developments in research and technologyâsuch as advanced materials, communications technology, new data collection technologies, and human factors scienceâoffer a new opportunity to improve the safety and reliability of this important national resource. Breakthrough resolution of sig- nificant transportation problems, however, requires concen- trated resources over a short time frame. Reflecting this need, the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) has an intense, large-scale focus, integrates multiple fields of research and technology, and is fundamentally different from the broad, mission-oriented, discipline-based research pro- grams that have been the mainstay of the highway research industry for half a century. The need for SHRP 2 was identified in TRB Special Report 260: Strategic Highway Research: Saving Lives, Reducing Congestion, Improving Quality of Life, published in 2001 and based on a study sponsored by Congress through the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). SHRP 2, modeled after the first Strategic Highway Research Program, is a focused, time- constrained, management-driven program designed to com- plement existing highway research programs. SHRP 2 focuses on applied research in four areas: Safety, to prevent or reduce the severity of highway crashes by understanding driver behav- ior; Renewal, to address the aging infrastructure through rapid design and construction methods that cause minimal disrup- tions and produce lasting facilities; Reliability, to reduce conges - tion through incident reduction, management, response, and mitigation; and Capacity, to integrate mobility, economic, envi- ronmental, and community needs in the planning and designing of new transportation capacity. SHRP 2 was authorized in August 2005 as part of the Safe, Ac countable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). The program is managed by the Transportation Research Board (TRB) on behalf of the National Research Council (NRC). SHRP 2 is conducted under a memo- randum of understanding among the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO), the Fed eral Highway Administration (FHWA), and the National Academy of Sciences, parent organization of TRB and NRC. The program provides for competitive, merit-based selection of research contractors; independent research project oversight; and dissemination of research results.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achieve- ments of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisci- plinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transporta- tion, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was sponsored by the Federal Highway Administration in cooperation with the American Asso- ciation of State Highway and Transportation Officials. It was conducted in the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2), which is administered by the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies. The project was managed by Hans van Saan, Visiting Professional for SHRP 2 Reliability. Nicholas Owens of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) served as the principal investigator. Additional contributors included Juan Guzman, Kevin Ford, Janice Fields, April Armstrong, Kari Beasley, Christopher Armstrong, Carol Mitchell, and Lisa Bedsole of SAIC; Rebecca Brewster of the American Transportation Research Institute; Kevin McGinnis of the National Association of State EMS Officials; Ron Moore of the McKinney Fire Department; and Caroline Gallagher, Gary Williams, and Jennifer Connor of K2Share. SHRP 2 STAFF Ann M. Brach, Director Stephen J. Andrle, Deputy Director Neil J. Pedersen, Deputy Director, Implementation and Communications Kizzy Anderson, Senior Program Assistant, Implementation James Bryant, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Kenneth Campbell, Chief Program Officer, Safety JoAnn Coleman, Senior Program Assistant, Capacity Eduardo Cusicanqui, Finance Officer Walter Diewald, Senior Program Officer, Safety Jerry DiMaggio, Implementation Coordinator Charles Fay, Senior Program Officer, Safety Carol Ford, Senior Program Assistant, Safety Elizabeth Forney, Assistant Editor Jo Allen Gause, Senior Program Officer, Capacity Abdelmename Hedhli, Visiting Professional James Hedlund, Special Consultant, Safety Coordination Ralph Hessian, Visiting Professional Andy Horosko, Special Consultant, Safety Field Data Collection William Hyman, Senior Program Officer, Reliability Linda Mason, Communications Officer Michael Miller, Senior Program Assistant, Reliability Gummada Murthy, Senior Program Officer, Reliability David Plazak, Senior Program Officer, Capacity Monica Starnes, Senior Program Officer, Renewal Noreen Stevenson-Fenwick, Senior Program Assistant, Renewal Charles Taylor, Special Consultant, Renewal Onno Tool, Visiting Professional Dean Trackman, Managing Editor Pat Williams, Administrative Assistant Connie Woldu, Administrative Coordinator Patrick Zelinski, Communications Specialist
The primary goal of SHRP 2 Reliability research is to improve the reliability of highway travel times by reducing the frequency and effects of events that cause travel times to fluc- tuate unpredictably. Seven potential sources of unreliable travel timesâthat is, events that cause variable travel timesâhave been identified: traffic incidents, work zones, demand fluctuations, special events, traffic control devices, weather, and inadequate base capacity. Traffic incidents alone are a major cause of delay. This report presents the results of a project that developed a training program for traffic incident responders and managers. For every minute that an Interstate lane is blocked because of a traffic incident, a 4- to 5-minute travel delay can be expected to result (3). A strong interdisciplinary traffic incident management program can significantly decrease incident duration and, when combined with traveler information, can increase peak-period freeway speeds, reduce crash rates, and improve trip time reliability. To realize this type of traffic incident management program, it is imperative to have a sound and effective training program for incident responders and managers. The training program described in this report contains two components: training of trainers and incident responder training. The course material provides extensive training on the core competencies for interdisciplinary traffic incident response. It is designed to help responders understand and implement the national unified goal for traffic incident management: responder safety; safe, quick clearance; and prompt, reliable, and interoper- able communications. The training methods include a variety of adult-learning techniques, including inter- active seminar, case study analysis, tabletop role-play and scenario, and field practicum. The training was developed for delivery through a 2-day intensive format or a modular (single lesson per session) format. The train-the-trainer curriculum is designed to facili- tate cost-effective cultivation of qualified trainers across the country. Core multidisciplinary competencies were identified with input from a group of experts in traffic incident manage- ment. These competencies provided a framework from which the curriculum was built and design documents created. After development of the course materials, formative evaluation was conducted by holding two pilot training sessions, and the input from participants was incorporated into the final materials. This report, as well as other SHRP 2 Reliability products related to institutional structures and business process reengineering, is intended to help transportation agencies move for- ward in addressing nonrecurring traffic congestion and delivering more reliable travel times on their highway networks. F O R EWO R D Gummada Murthy, SHRP 2 Senior Program Officer, Reliability
C O N T E N T S 1 Executive Summary 3 CHAPTER 1 Background 4 CHAPTER 2 Research Approach 4 Research Approach 4 Responder Actions and Core Competencies 7 Curriculum Design 11 Instructional Methods 12 Course Materials 14 Pilot Course Deliveries 16 CHAPTER 3 Findings and Applications 16 Assessment of Training Effectiveness 18 Course Length 20 Modular Design 20 Multidisciplinary Training 21 CHAPTER 4 Conclusions and Suggested Research 21 Conclusions 23 Suggested Research: Additional Pilot Course Deliveries 24 Suggested Research: Online Training 25 Suggested Research: Discipline-Specific Training 26 Measuring Learning Transfer and Results 26 Leadership and Oversight for the Training 28 References