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Abbreviations and Acronyms AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACE Ammann Compaction Expert AFC Automatic Feedback Control ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials BCM Bomag Compaction Meter BV Bouncing Value CBR California Bearing Ratio CCC Continuous Compaction Control CCV Continuous Compaction Value (reported by Sakai) CIV Clegg Impact Value CMV Compaction Meter Value CO Colorado COV Coefficient of Variation CSM Colorado School of Mines DCA Dynapac Compaction Analyzer DCO Dynapac Compaction Optimizer DCP Dynamic Cone Penetrometer DGPS Differential Global Positioning System DOT Department of Transportation E East EPC Earth Pressure Cell F Fail FL Florida FWD Falling Weight Deflectometer GIS Geographic Information System GPS Global Positioning System IC Intelligent Compaction ISSMGE International Society for Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering LVDT Linear Voltage Displacement Transducer glossary LWD Light Weight Deflectometer MD Maryland MDP Machine Drive Power (Caterpillar MV) M-E Mechanistic-Empirical MN Minnesota Mn/DOT Minnesota Department of Transportation MV Measurement Value N North NC North Carolina NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NF North Forward NMEA National Marine Electronics Association P Pass PC Personal Computer PD Pad-foot Drum PJK A specific GPS data format PLT Plate Load Test PR Proof Roll QA Quality Assurance QC Quality Control RMV Resonance Meter Value RTK Real-Time Kinematic S South SD Smooth Drum SF South Forward ST Shelby Tube TB Test Bed TV Target Value USB Universal Serial Bus USCS Unified Soil Classification System W West WGS World Geodetic System
â Symbols (English) a Machine acceleration (used in MDP calculation) A Theoretical vibration amplitude, m 0 e 0 /m d A max Maximum eccentric force levels Aâ¦ Frequency domain amplitude A 2â¦ 2nd harmonic of the vertical drum acceleration frequency domain amplitude b Drum-soil contact width b Machine internal loss coefficients used in MDP calculation b Regression coefficient c Constant used to calculate CMV (usually 300) CCV CSM Continuous Compaction Value computed by CSM CIV 4.5-kg Clegg Impact Value using 4.5-kg drop weight CIV 20-kg Clegg Impact Value using 20-kg drop weight CMV C Compaction Meter Value reported by Caterpillar CMV D Compaction Meter Value reported by Dynapac CMV CSM Compaction Meter Value computed by CSM COV Coefficient of variation E Youngâs modulus (E-modulus) E FWD Modulus from FWD E FWD-D3 Modulus from Dyntest FWD device with 300-mm plate E LWD General modulus from LWD E LWD-K2 Modulus from Keros LWD device with 200- mm plate E LWD-K3 Modulus from Keros LWD device with 300- mm plate E LWD-P3 Modulus from Prima LWD device with 300- mm plate E LWD-Z2 Modulus from Zorn LWD device with 200- mm plate E LWD-Z3 Modulus from Zorn LWD device with 300- mm plate E LWD -TV LWD modulus target value E vib Vibration modulus, reported by Bomag E V1 E-modulus from the first loading loop in the static plate load test E V2 E-modulus from the second loading loop in the static plate load test f Roller excitation frequency (Hz) f Shape factor F ecc Eccentric force, m 0 e 0 â¦2 F ev Vertical component of F ecc f GPS Frequency of GPS data f MV Frequency of MVs to onboard computer f report Frequency of reported MVs F s Force transmitted to soil (also called drum/ soil contact force) F s(max) Maximum contact force setting F(t) Centrifugal force g Acceleration of gravity H Layer thickness H c Critical value of layer thickness corresponding to the roller measurement depth k 1 -k 3 Coefficients for stress-dependent soil modulus model k s Soil stiffness reported by Ammann (also called k B in European figures and literature) k s-CSM Soil stiffness calculated from independent instrumentation k SSG Stiffness from soil stiffness gauge K Coefficient of lateral earth pressure M Vertical dynamic deformation modulus m Machine internal loss coefficients used in MDP calculation m Slope of loading line in p'-q space MAX-TV Maximum arget value m d Mass of roller drum ME Mean MV ME-TV ME target value M e1 Equivalent to E V2 M e2 Equivalent to E V1 m f Mass of roller frame MIN-TV Minimum target value M L Tangent modulus of the loading portion of the in situ Ï z -Îµ z curve M r Resilient modulus M r -TV Target M r M S Secant modulus from zero in situ Ï z -Îµ z through the point of maximum Îµ z MV i MV for pass i MV-TV Measurement value target value m o e o Eccentric mass moment n Number of observations p Number of regression parameters p Mean normal stress p a Atmospheric pressure P a Atmospheric pressure P g Gross power (used in MDP calculation) q Deviator stress r Correlation coefficient R Drum radius R EPC stress registration ratio R2 Correlation coefficient
R2 adj Adjusted R2 RC-TV Relative compaction target value t MV Time window over which one MV is collected v Roller speed V Roller velocity (used in MDP calculation) VIF Variance inflation factors W Roller weight (used in MDP calculation) w Soil moisture content w opt Optimum moisture content w-TV Moisture TV x Position coordinate of moving drum x error Horizontal position accuracy x MV Spatial window in x direction over which one MV is collected y Location in y direction y MV Spatial window in y direction over which one MV is collected z Spatial coordinate (elevation) z d Vertical drum displacement z d Vertical drum acceleration z d(max) Maximum vertical drum displacement z error Vertical position accuracy %â Percentage change %âMV i Percentage difference in MV between pass i and i-1 %â-TV Percentage change target value %Area-TV Percentage area target value Symbols (Greek) Î± Point measurement value Î± Vector angle Î² Underlying layer roller MV âk s Spatial percent change in k s âx Spatial resolution of MVs in x direction ây Spatial resolution of MVs in y direction âÂµk s Change in mean k s Îµ p Plastic strain Îµ x Normal strain in the x direction Îµ y Normal strain in the y direction Îµ z Normal strain in the z direction Îµ z,max Maximum value Îµ z profile with depth (at or near the surface) Îµ z,peak Maximum value of Îµ z recorded by an in situ sensor (when roller is directly over sensor) Ï Phase lag between F ecc and z d Î³ Lift thickness Î³ d Soil dry unit weight Î³ d -TV Dry unit weight requirement Î³ dmax Maximum dry unit weight Î³(h) Semi-variogram function Âµ Îean value Î½ Poissonâs ratio Î¸ Slope angle (used in MDP calculation) Î¸ Sum of principal stresses, or bulk stress Î¸ Angle between two eccentric masses Ï Standard deviation Ï 1-3 Principal stresses Ï c Confining stress Ï d Deviator stress Ï x Normal total stress in the x direction Ï y Normal total stress in the y direction Ï z Normal total stress in the z direction Ï z,peak Maximum value of Ï z recorded by an in situ sensor (when roller is directly over sensor) Ï z,max Maximum value Ï z profile with depth (at or near the surface) Ï%âMV Standard deviation of percentage difference Ï oct Octahedral shear stress â¦ Roller excitation frequency (rad/s) Âµk s Mean k s Âµ MVi Mean MV for pass i Âµ %âMV Mean of percentage difference %âÂµ MVi Percentage change in the mean MV for pass i