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TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2010 www.TRB.org A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP REPORT 37 Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation Guidebook for Planning and Implementing Automated People Mover Systems at Airports LEA+ELLIOTT Dulles, Virginia with KIMLEY-HORN AND ASSOCIATES, INC. Houston, Texas and RANDOLPH RICHARDSON ASSOCIATES Fairfax, Virginia
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and inter- national commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal respon- sibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Coopera- tive Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and are not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. It is modeled after the successful National Coopera- tive Highway Research Program and Transit Cooperative Research Pro- gram. The ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in a variety of airport subject areas, including design, construction, mainte- nance, operations, safety, security, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. The ACRP provides a forum where airport opera- tors can cooperatively address common operational problems. The ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100-Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary partici- pants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport oper- ating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), and the Air Transport Association (ATA) as vital links to the airport community; (2) the TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academies formally initiating the program. The ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research orga- nizations. Each of these participants has different interests and respon- sibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for the ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to the TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by iden- tifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel, appointed by the TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport pro- fessionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels pre- pare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooper- ative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended end-users of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and suppliers. The ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties, and industry associations may arrange for work- shops, training aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport-industry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 37 Project 03-06 ISSN 1935-9802 ISBN 978-0-309-15498-7 Library of Congress Control Number 2010935005 Â© 2010 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB or FAA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the Airport Cooperative Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America
CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 37 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Lawrence D. Goldstein, Senior Program Officer Tiana Barnes, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Doug English, Editor ACRP PROJECT 03-06 PANEL Field of Policy and Planning Perfecto Miguel Solis, Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, TX (Chair) Victor Howe, Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, Dulles, VA Hugh A. Johnson, Port of Oakland, Oakland, CA Lawrence âLarryâ Smith, Odessa, FL William Sproule, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI Marc Turpin, Greater Toronto Airports Authority, Toronto, ON John G. Bell, FTA Liaison M. Ashraf Jan, FAA Liaison Gil Neumann, FAA Liaison Peter Shaw, TRB Liaison C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S
ACRP Report 37 is a guidebook for planning and developing automated people mover (APM) systems at airports. This report, directed primarily at airport planners, designers, and operators, encompasses a wide range of topics describing the planning and decision-making process, alternative system infrastructure and technologies, evaluation techniques and strate- gies, operation and maintenance requirements, coordination and procurement requirements, and other important planning and development issues. For any given topic, the report addresses key issues in multiple chapters and from multiple perspectives. In addition, Appen- dix A presents two theoretical examples using specific system characteristics, and Appendix E describes components of simulation models used to facilitate the pre-design phase of the over- all system planning process. Airports are constantly struggling to meet increasing demand with greater efficiency, using available land area to increase capacity without having to expand the overall facility footprint. One significant contributor to efficient use of airport property that has emerged over the past 40 years is the APMâa fully automated transport system that allows develop- ment of remote terminals and other facilities that would normally be too distant from the main terminal for passengers to navigate within limited transfer and connecting times. The process of planning and implementing an APM is complex and the infrastructure and equipment expensive. ACRP Report 37 helps to address this problem by bringing together a detailed description of experience gained in previously completed systems while outlining effective planning and implementation strategies for developing new systems. The guidebook includes an interactive CD that contains a database of detailed character- istics of the 44 existing APM systems. Using this database, planners and designers can eval- uate specific options appropriate for new projects by comparing similar situations already in operation. How the guidebook user applies the findings will vary with their particular role at the airport. For example, airport planners can adapt and apply the APM planning process by drawing on information presented in Chapters 5 and 8, and in Appendix A (the- oretical examples). Airport designers can identify APM design information found in Chap- ter 8 and in Appendix A and distribute this information to system designers at their partic- ular airport. Airport contracts staff can use the procurement information provided in Chapter 10 and adapt that information to the specific requirements of their airportâs pro- curement regulations. Airport operations personnel can apply the information found in Chapter 11 to help determine the most appropriate operation and maintenance approach for their specific airport. In all cases, the user is reminded that APM systems are complex in nature, and that their interface with other airport facilities presents unique challenges incur- ring significant cost and schedule risk. F O R E W O R D By Lawrence D. Goldstein Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
The guidebook also presents new findings drawn from the combined evaluation of older systems as well as new systems that have recently opened at Atlanta (landside) and Wash- ington Dulles (airside). These findings include a discussion (Appendix B) of the relation- ship between system length and alignment configuration, an analysis of the relationship between airport gates and airside passenger conveyance technology (Chapter 3, section 2), and a description of prospective and emerging APM components for possible future imple- mentation (Chapter 4, section 4). Through all of these various sections, the guidebook rep- resents a comprehensive resource for planning, design, evaluation, operation, and imple- mentation of one of the most critical elements in long-range airport planning.
C O N T E N T S 1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Background 3 1.1 Research Approach 5 Chapter 2 Introduction 5 2.1 Purpose 5 2.2 Who Should Use This Guidebook? 5 2.3 How to Use This Guidebook 6 2.4 Other ACRP Reports 7 Chapter 3 History of APM Systems and Their Roles at Airports 7 3.1 History of Airport APM Systems 13 3.2 The Roles of APMs at Airports 18 Chapter 4 APM System Characteristics 18 4.1 APM Systems and Their Components 19 4.2 APM System Configurations 22 4.3 State-of-the-Art APM Components 28 4.4. Prospective APM Components 32 Chapter 5 Airport APM Planning Process Overview 32 5.1 General Airport APM Planning Process 32 5.2 Airport APM Planning Process Steps 35 Chapter 6 Needs Identification and Assessment 35 6.1 Passenger Conveyance Need 38 6.2 Establish System Requirements 39 6.3 Develop and Analyze Alternatives 40 Chapter 7 Matching Needs With Passenger Conveyance Technologies 40 7.1 Airport Conveyance Technologies 42 7.2 Airside Technology Evaluation 44 7.3 Landside Technology Evaluation 47 7.4 Airport Conveyance Technology Guidelines 50 Chapter 8 APM System Definition and Planning Methodology 50 8.1 Route Alignment and Guideway 55 8.2 System Demand/Ridership Estimation 58 8.3 System Capacity and Fleet Sizing 64 8.4 Stations 75 8.5 Maintenance and Storage Facility 77 8.6 Central Control Facility 78 8.7 Power Distribution and Utilities
80 8.8 Appurtenant FacilitiesâPlanning Criteria 81 8.9 Safety and Security Planning Criteria 83 8.10 System Level of Service 84 8.11 Capital Cost Estimation 87 8.12 Operations and Maintenance Cost Estimation 88 8.13 Resulting APM System Definition 89 Chapter 9 Project Coordination, Justification, and Feasibility 89 9.1 Ongoing Project Requirements and Approvals 89 9.2 CostâBenefit Analysis 92 9.3 Funding and Finance 94 9.4 Environmental Impacts 97 Chapter 10 APM System Procurement 97 10.1 Contracting Approach 99 10.2 Procurement Methodology 103 10.3 Airport APM Procurement Approaches 104 10.4 Procurement Process Alternatives 107 Chapter 11 Operations and Maintenance 107 11.1 Initial O&M Approaches 108 11.2 Initial O&M Period Versus Future O&M Periods 108 11.3 Competitive Procurement of Ongoing O&M Services 109 11.4 Summary of O&M Approaches 110 Chapter 12 System Expansion and Overhaul 110 12.1 APM System Expansion and Extension Planning 113 12.2 APM System Overhaul 117 Bibliography 119 Appendix A Theoretical Examples of APM Planning and Implementation 154 Appendix B Inventory of Airport APM Systems 203 Appendix C Glossary 206 Appendix D Annotated Bibliography of Codes and Standards 209 Appendix E Modeling