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206 The following is an annotated bibliography of the agencies whose codes and standards affect APM systems at airports in the United States. ANSI The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) over- sees the creation, promulgation, and use of thousands of norms and guidelines that directly impact businesses in nearly every sector of technology. ANSI is also actively engaged in accrediting programs that assess conformance to standardsâ including globally recognized cross-sector programs such as the ISO 9000 (quality) and ISO 14000 (environmental) man- agement systems. ANSI standards are used in the APM industry for electrical design and vibration testing as well as for cranes, hoists, and lifts. In addition, many of the other standards listed for APM systems are recognized as ANSI standards or are in the process of gaining such recognition. Some of their applicable standards include: â¢ Practices and Requirements for Semiconductor Power Rectifiers â¢ Application Guide for AC Hi-Voltage Circuit Breakers Rated on a Symmetrical Current Basis â¢ Low-Voltage Power Circuit Breakers and AC Power Cir- cuit Protectors, Preferred Ratings, Related Requirements and Application Recommendations AREMA The American Railway Engineering and Maintenance-of- Way Association (AREMA) recommends practices pertaining to the design, construction, and maintenance of railway infra- structure throughout North America, including rail transit systems. AREMA standards are used in the APM industry for soft- ware safety design philosophy and critical component fail- ure analyses. Also, many APM train control designs are derived from AREMA train control standards and their predecessors. In certain cases, the APM industry substit- utes AREMA cable standards in lieu of TIA standards. The Manual for Railway Engineering is one of their applicable publications. ASCE The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) has cre- ated and published ASCE Standard 21 (Automated People Mover Standards). This standard has been prepared by the ASCE Automated People Movers Standards Committee. The standard is developed by a consensus standard process man- aged by ASCEâs Codes and Standards Committee. The Auto- mated People Movers Standards Committee includes members representing a balanced combination of APM consumers, pro- ducers, regulators, and general interest. The overall goal of this standard is to assist the industry and the public by estab- lishing standards for APM systems. It establishes the minimum set of requirements for the design, construction, operation, and maintenance of APM systems necessary to achieve an accept- able level of safety and performance for an APM system. As such, it may be used to identify the minimum requirements for the safety certification process. This standard has been divided into four parts to expedite the approval and release process as well as to facilitate ease of use. Parts 1, 2, and 3 cover a minimum set of requirements for design of an automated people mover with an acceptable level of safety and performance. Part 4 is a minimum set of requirements for maintaining an acceptable level of safety and performance for an automated people mover in passen- ger operation. A P P E N D I X D Annotated Bibliography of Codes and Standards
207 ASHRAE The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) develops standards for both its members and others professionally concerned with refrigeration processes and the design and maintenance of indoor environments. ASHRAE writes standards for the pur- pose of establishing consensus for: (1) methods of test for use in commerce and (2) performance criteria to guide the indus- try. ASHRAE publishes the following three types of voluntary consensus standards: Method of Measurement or Test, Stan- dard Design, and Standard Practice. ASHRAE standards are used in the APM industry for heat- ing, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) units, energy conservation, and determination of extreme weather condi- tions in the United States. Some of their applicable standards and publications include: â¢ ASHRAE HandbookâHVAC Systems and Equipment â¢ ASHRAE Standard 90-75âEnergy Conservation in New Building Design ASTM ASTM International, formerly known as the American Soci- ety for Testing and Materials (ASTM), is one of the largest vol- untary standards development organizations in the worldâ a trusted source for technical standards for materials, products, systems, and services. ASTM International standards have an important role in the information infrastructure that guides design, manufacturing, and trade in the global economy. ASTM standards are used by the APM industry in the spec- ification of steel and other metals, structural steel elements, fasteners, cement, and concrete reinforcement. ASTM stan- dards are also used for testing of materials, flammability/ toxicity testing, and environmental testing of equipment. Some of their applicable standards include: â¢ Specification for Structural Steel â¢ Specification for High Strength Bolts for Structural Steel â¢ Specification for Lead-Coated and Lead-Alloy-Coated Soft Copper Wire for Electrical Purposes IEEE The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Stan- dards Association (IEEE-SA) is a leading developer of indus- try standards in a broad-range of industries. The IEEE-SA has strategic relationships with the IEC, ISO, and the ITU and sat- isfies all SDO requirements set by the World Trade Organiza- tion, offering more paths to international standardization. IEEE standards are used in the APM industry for train con- trol, power distribution systems, motors, grounding, electri- cal protection, emergency standby power and uninterruptible power supplies, and software design. Some of their applicable standards include: â¢ National Electrical Safety Code â¢ Test Procedures for AC High-Voltage Circuit Breakers â¢ Standard for Software Configuration Management Plans TIA The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) is accredited by ANSI to develop voluntary industry standards for a wide variety of telecommunications products. TIAâs Stan- dards and Technology Department is comprised of ten tech- nology areas that sponsor more than 70 standard-formulating groups. Each area is represented by engineering committees and subcommittees that formulate standards to serve the industry and users. TIA standards are used in the APM industry for telecom- munication cables, including fiber optics, networking, wiring, rack layouts, and cable terminations. Some of their applicable standards include: â¢ Standard Test Procedure for Fiber Optic Fibers, Cables, Transducers, Sensors, Connecting and Terminating Devices, and Other Fiber Optic Components â¢ Generic Specification for Fiber Optic Cable â¢ Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard NEMA The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) is the trade association of choice for the electrical manufactur- ing industry. Approximately 450 member companies manu- facture products used in the generation, transmission and distribution, control, and end-use of electricity. These prod- ucts are used in utility, medical imaging, industrial, commer- cial, institutional, and residential applications. NEMA standard products are used by the APM industry for electrical breakers and fuses, motors and generators, con- trol cables, switchgear, electrical conduits and fittings, and control and wiring enclosures. Some of their applicable standards include: â¢ Fittings, Cast Metal Boxes and Conduit Bodies for Conduit and Cable Assemblies â¢ High Temperature Instrumentation and Control Cables â¢ Motors and Generators â¢ High Voltage Fuses
208 NFPA The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) devel- ops, publishes, and disseminates more than 300 consensus codes and standards intended to minimize the possibility and effects of fire and other risks. NFPA standards are used by the APM industry for fire detec- tion, fire alarm systems, emergency communication devices, fire extinguishers and fire suppression systems, and electrical protection and lightning protection. NFPA is also the sponsor of the National Electrical Code (NEC) and the National Elec- trical Safety Code (NESC), which are used worldwide for the installation of electrical devices, equipment, and wiring. Some of their applicable standards include: â¢ Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces â¢ Fire Alarm Codes â¢ Protection of Electronic Computer/Data Processing Equipment â¢ Lightning Code