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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix I - Glossary." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2010. Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/22964.
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I-1 TERM DEFINITION Access Control A system, method, or procedure to restrict and control access to areas of the airport. Certain airports are required by 49 Code of Federal Regulations 1542 to provide for such a system. Access Point Any means of entry into a controlled security area, typically consist- ing of an electronic card reader, monitor contacts and/or latches, with access points wired to an access control system. Some access points may be physically controlled by guards, with or without a supporting electronic installation. Adaptive Plants Plants that typically grow well in a given habitat with minimal human intervention in the form of frost protection, pest protection, water irrigation, or fertilization once root systems are established in the soil. Adaptive plants are considered to be low maintenance but not invasive. Advisory Circular (AC) A publication issued externally by the FAA providing non-mandatory, non-regulation-based guidance and information on aviation topics of current interest and/or concern to the industry. Air Carrier Generally accepted as being airlines operating larger aircraft of more than 90 seats, as distinct from commuter or regional airlines. Air Quality Conformity A process that ensures federal funding. Conformity approval goes to transportation activities that are consistent with air quality goals. This process applies to both the long-range Regional Transportation Plan and the Transportation Improvement Program. Air Traffic Control A service operated by a government or government-regulated body (ATC) to manage and oversee the safe, orderly, and expeditious flow of air traffic through the airspace under its jurisdiction. Air Traffic Control An elevated facility located at a position on the airport which offers Tower (ATCT) a 360° view of all parts of the airfield and aircraft movement areas. Aircraft Approach A grouping of aircraft based on 1.3 times their stall speed in their Category landing configuration, at the certificated maximum flap setting and maximum landing weight at standard atmospheric conditions. A P P E N D I X I Glossary

I-2 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design The categories are as follows: Category A: Speed less than 91 knots. Category B: Speed 91 knots or more but less than 121 knots. Category C: Speed 121 knots or more but less than 141 knots. Category D: Speed 141 knots or more but less than 166 knots. Category E: Speed 166 knots or more. Aircraft Design Group A Roman numerical classification of aircraft based on wingspan (ADG) or tail height. Aircraft Mix See Fleet Mix Aircraft Movement An aircraft takeoff or landing at an airport. For airport traffic pur- poses, one arrival and one departure is counted as two movements. Aircraft Operations The landing, takeoff, or touch-and-go procedure by an aircraft on a runway at an airport. Aircraft Operations Area A portion of an airport, specified in the airport security program, in which security measures specified in 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1542 are implemented. This area includes aircraft movement areas, aircraft parking areas, loading ramps, secure areas for use by aircraft regulated under 49 CFR 1544 or 49 CFR 1546, and any adjacent areas (such as general aviation areas) that are not protected by adequate security systems, measures, or procedures. Aircraft Rescue and Fire A facility located at an airport that provides emergency vehicles, Fighting (ARFF) Facility extinguishing agents, and personnel responsible for minimizing damage and casualties in the event of an aircraft fire, accident, or incident. Aircraft Stand A designated area on an apron intended to be used for parking an aircraft. Aircraft Type Aircraft of the same family or similar operational characteristics, for example, the Boeing 747 is a type of aircraft made up of the following sub-types: 747-100, 747-200, 747-300, and 747-400. Airfield The portion of an airport that contains the facilities necessary for the landing, takeoff, and maneuvering of aircraft. Airline A commercial air carrier including its equipment, routes, operat- ing personnel, and management. Airline Club An airport amenity sponsored by an airline. Benefits for club mem- bers may include a private waiting area, business center, complimen- tary refreshments, and the service of an airline representative. Airline Ticket Counter A place for airlines to provide staff to assist with ticket sales and seating assignments, confirms passenger identification, and under- takes baggage check-in prior to delivery to the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) baggage screening process. Airline (or Airport) An airline office location for supporting operations including ticket Ticket Office (ATO) sales, passenger and baggage check-in typically located in or near the check-in lobby. TERM DEFINITION

Airport Authority A quasi-governmental public organization responsible for setting the policies that govern the management and operation of an air- port, or system of airports, under its jurisdiction. Airport Configuration The relative layout of component parts of an airport such as the runways, taxiways, and terminal building. Airport Elevation The highest point on an airport’s usable runway expressed in feet above mean sea level (MSL). Airport Emergency A room or combination of rooms/facilities from which a Crisis Command Post Management Team commands and directs the response to abnor- mal situations and threats to airport operations, such as extreme weather or other natural disaster, terrorist event, hostage situation, or aircraft disaster. Airport Improvement Provides grants to public agencies, and in some cases, to private Program (AIP) owners and entities for the planning and development of public- use airports that are included in the National Plan of Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS). The program’s broad objective is to assist in the development of a nationwide system of public-use airports adequate to meet the current projected growth of civil aviation. Airport Layout Plan The plan of an airport showing the layout of existing and proposed (ALP) airport facilities. Airport Master Plan A comprehensive study of an airport that describes the airport’s short-, medium-, and long-term development plans to meet future aviation demand. Airport Operator The holder of an airport certificate, or the person designated to be in charge of a certificated airport, whether an employee, agent, or representative. Airport Reference A coding system developed by the FAA to relate airport design Code (ARC) criteria to the operational and physical characteristics of the aircraft types that will operate at a particular airport. Airport Security A program sponsored by the airport. There is no standardized Program program for airport operators regulated in accordance with 49 Code of Federal Regulations Part 1542. The regulatory requirements are specified in Part 1542.103 and adapted to each airport’s local conditions. Airport Sponsor The recipient of a grant that has eligibility to receive funds under the Airport Improvement Plan (AIP). Airport Surface Detection Radar equipment specifically designed to detect all principal features Equipment (ASDE) and traffic on the surface of an airport, and display this informa- tion in the Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT). Airside That part of an airport that contains the facilities necessary for the operation of aircraft. Also used to refer to the portion of the termi- nal that contains the gates, holdrooms, etc. Glossary I-3 TERM DEFINITION

I-4 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design Airspace The area above the ground through which aircraft travel between their points of origin and destination. It is divided into corridors, routes, and restricted zones for the safe and efficient management and control of air traffic. Albedo See Solar Reflectance. Algorithm A formula in which a series of clearly defined steps is followed sys- tematically to solve a particular problem. Americans with A landmark law that protects the civil rights of persons with Disabilities Act (ADA) disabilities. It prohibits discrimination on the basis of disabil- ity in employment, state and local government services, trans- portation, public accommodations, commercial facilities, and telecommunications. Approach Surface An imaginary obstruction-limiting surface defined in Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 77, which is longitudinally cen- tered on an extended runway centerline and extends outward and upward from the primary surface at each end of a runway, at a designated slope and distance based upon the type of available or planned approach by aircraft to a runway. Apron A specified portion of the airfield used for passenger, cargo, or freight loading and unloading; aircraft parking; and the refueling, maintenance, and servicing of aircraft. Arterial A class of road providing the principal highway connection between major points of destination. American Society of An international organization of professionals employed in these Heating, Refrigerating, fields, founded in 1894. ASHRAE fulfills its mission of advancing and Air Conditioning heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration to serve Engineers (ASHRAE) humanity and promote a sustainable world through research, stan- dards writing, publishing, and continuing education. Attainment/ A non-attainment area is any geographic area of the United States Non-Attainment Area that is in violation of one or more National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). Automated People A transportation system that is used to transport, horizontally, Mover (APM) large numbers of people between various points on the landside and/or airside of an airport. Automated Tag Equipment utilized to automatically scan bag tags and sort baggage Reader (ATR) to the proper designated make-up destination. (Also called Laser Barcode Reader Arrays.) Automatic (Fixture) Motion sensors that automatically activate the water supply to sinks Sensors and toilets by sensing physical movement in the proximity. Auxiliary Power Equipment, either on-board an aircraft or on the ground, that is Unit (APU) used to generate electric power for operating on-board equipment or for aircraft engine startup. TERM DEFINITION

Glossary I-5 Average Day of the Peak Activity (passengers or aircraft operations) in the average day of the Month (ADPM) peak month of the year. Average day activity is obtained by divid- ing the peak month activity by the number of days in the month. Badge See ID Badge. Baggage Claim Area Area located in the passenger terminal building for checked baggage that has arrived at the final destination for passengers to reclaim. Baggage Handling The system(s) by which all checked baggage is tagged, sorted, and System (BHS) assigned to the correct location for loading onto a departing aircraft or collection by passengers on arrival at their final destination. Baggage Information Information systems designed to inform passengers which baggage Display Systems (BIDS) claim unit will be used to deliver their luggage. Also includes multi- user systems (MUBIDS). Baggage Make-up Area Area of the baggage handling system in which departing baggage is sorted and placed in carts or containers for loading onto aircraft. Baggage Reconciliation Method of baggage management that creates a bag tag and tracks System the baggage throughout the sortation process until it is delivered to the aircraft or the baggage belt. Baggage Screening Area That part of the baggage handling system to or through which all originating and international re-check baggage will be delivered for explosives detection screening by the TSA. Bandwidth In information technology, the term describes data-carrying capacity—how much (and how fast) data flows on a given trans- mission path. Bandwidth is commonly measured in bits or bytes per second. Baseline Building The annual energy cost for a building design intended for use as a Performance baseline for rating above standard design, as defined in ASHRAE 90.1-2004 Informative Appendix G. Best Management Methods that have been determined to be the most effective, Practices (BMPs) practical means of preventing or reducing pollution from non- point sources, such as pollutants carried by urban runoff. Biomass Plant material such as trees, grasses, and crops that can be con- verted to heat energy to produce electricity. Biometrics A general term used alternatively to describe a characteristic or a process. As a characteristic: A measurable biological (anatomical and physiological) and behavioral characteristic that can be used for auto- mated recognition. As a process: Automated methods of recognizing an individual based on measurable biological (anatomical and phys- iological) and behavioral characteristics. At an airport, biometric identifiers may include fingerprint, hand geometry, iris scan, facial recognition, and/or several other methods currently in development. Bioretention A system (also referred to as a “rain garden” or a “biofilter”) for stormwater management practice, to manage and treat stormwater runoff, using a conditioned planting soil bed and planting materi- als to filter runoff stored within a shallow depression. TERM DEFINITION

Bioswale A shallow depression used to capture stormwater runoff and filter out pollutants. They are very similar to rain gardens, but are gen- erally used in commercial and municipal settings. Blast Fence A barrier used to divert or dissipate jet blast or propeller wash. Blast Resistant Façade A laminated form of glazing installation commonly specified to mitigate injuries from flying glass. Bomb Incident Detailed procedures to be implemented during an actual bombing Prevention Plan or when a facility has received a bomb threat. Brownfield Abandoned or underused industrial and commercial facilities/sites, where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by real or per- ceived environmental contamination. Additionally in an airport planning context the term “brownfield” also refers to any site that has previous development as compared to a “greenfield” site; not necessarily contaminated or abandoned. Building Codes Codes, either local or state, that regulate the functional and struc- tural aspects of buildings and/or structures. Building Envelope The exterior surface of a building’s construction—the walls, win- dows, roof, and floor. (Also referred to as the “building shell.”) Building Footprint The area on the project site that is taken up by the building struc- ture and is defined by the perimeter of the building plan. Parking lots, landscapes, and other non-building facilities are not included in the building footprint. Building Information A model-based technology, linked with a database of project Modeling (BIM) information, used to create a digital representation of the building process to facilitate exchange and interoperability of information in digital format. BIM addresses geometry, spatial relationships, geographic information, quantities, and properties of building components. Building Officials and A group that publishes codes that establish minimum performance Code Administrators requirements for all aspects of the construction industry. (Now International (BOCA) Inc. known as the International Code Council.) Bypass Lane A road lane that allows vehicles to go around other stopped vehi- cles picking up or dropping off passengers on a curbside lane or maneuvering in and out of the curbside lane. Capacity The variable measurement of a specific airport system or sub- system’s throughput, or the system’s capability to accommodate a designated level of demand. Carpool An arrangement in which two or more independent individuals share a vehicle for transportation. Carry-on Baggage An individual’s personal property that is carried into a designated sterile area or into an aircraft cabin and is accessible to an individ- ual during flight. I-6 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design TERM DEFINITION

Glossary I-7 Catchment Basin A storage site (such as a small reservoir) that delays the flow of water downstream. Categorical Exclusion Categories of actions that do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the environment and that have been found to have no such effect by procedures adopted by a federal agency in implementation of these regulations (1507.3) and for which, there- fore, neither an Environmental Assessment nor an Environmental Impact Statement is required. Customs and Border See U.S. Customs and Border Protection Protection (CBP) Cell Phone Lots Designated parking areas that allow drivers, free-of-charge, to sit and wait for passengers without having to enter a formal parking lot, dwell on a curb, or continuously recirculate. Charter Flights Flights performed for remuneration on an unscheduled basis, including related empty flight stages and inclusive tours other than those reported under scheduled services. Checked Baggage Property tendered by, or on behalf of, a passenger and accepted by an aircraft operator for transport, which is inaccessible to passen- gers during flight. Accompanied commercial courier consignments are not classified as checked baggage. Clean Air Act (CAA) The federal law regulating air quality, first passed in 1967, required that air quality criteria necessary to protect the public health and welfare be developed. Since 1967, there have been several revisions to the CAA. The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 rep- resent the fifth major upgrade of clean air legislation. Among other things, the CAA has added requirements for federal actions to con- form to State Implementation Plans (SIPs), expanded the list of hazardous air pollutants from eight to 189, and strengthened the operation permit program. Clean Water Act (CWA) Act that establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into the waters of the United States and regulating quality standards for surface waters. The basis of the CWA was enacted in 1948 and was called the Federal Water Pollution Con- trol Act, but was significantly reorganized and expanded in 1972. “CWA” became the Act’s common name following amendments in 1977. Closed Circuit A non-public television system with typically very limited circulation, Television (CCT) intended to be viewed by restricted personnel and with a dedicated purpose of surveillance. Coastal Zone Administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis- Management Act tration’s Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, and provides for management of the nation’s coastal resources, includ- ing the Great Lakes, and balances economic development with environmental conservation. TERM DEFINITION

I-8 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design Code of Federal A compilation of the general and permanent rules of the executive Regulations (CFR) departments and agencies of the federal government as published in the Federal Register. The code is divided into 50 titles that cover the broad areas subject to federal regulation. Commercial Aviation The business of operating aircraft that carry passengers and freight on a commercial basis. Commercial Service A public airport providing scheduled passenger and/or freight (Airport) services that enplanes at least 2,500 annual passengers. Commissioning The process of ensuring that systems are designed, installed, func- tionally tested, and capable of being operated and maintained to perform in conformity with the owner’s project requirements. Common Use The process, systems, and physical changes needed at an airport to make various airport facilities such as gates, ticket counters, bag claim devices, etc. useable by multiple airlines. Common Use Passenger A system that describes the range of services, specifications, and Processing System standards enacted to enable multiple airlines to share physical (CUPPS) check-in and/or gate podium positions (whether simultaneously or consecutively). Common Use Self-Service A means for multiple airlines to share a self-service electronic (CUSS) check-in application for use by their passengers at a single point of service usually known as a kiosk. Common Use Sortation A system that incorporates all of the carriers’ bags into one System common shared sortation and delivery system to process and sort the bags by carrier destination. Common Use Terminal Computer system provided to airlines by the airport (or other Equipment (CUTE) party) that allows airline staff to access their own computer systems without having their own dedicated equipment, thus promoting more flexible and efficient use of airport facilities. Commuter Carrier Different definitions are used for safety purposes and for economic regulations and reporting. For the purposes of economic regulation and other reporting requirements, commuter air carriers are those carriers that operate aircraft of 60 or fewer seats or a maximum pay- load capacity of 18,000 pounds or less. Commuter Rail Urban passenger train service for short-distance travel between a central city and adjacent suburb. Computer-Aided Design Software that is commonly used for drafting architectural and engi- neering drawings. Concourse The portion of a terminal that contains the aircraft gate holdrooms, related concessions, restrooms and services, and the circulation corridors needed for access. Conical Surface An imaginary obstruction-limiting surface defined in Federal Avia- tion Regulations Part 77 that extends from the edge of the horizon- tal surface outward and upward at a slope of 20 to 1 for a horizontal distance of 4,000 feet. TERM DEFINITION

Connecting Passengers See Transfer Passenger. Constructed Wetland Engineered wetlands that simulate natural wetlands and utilize nat- ural and biological processes for wastewater treatment. Construction Indoor A document specific to a building project that outlines measures to Air Quality minimize contamination in the building during construction and Management Plan to flush the building of contaminants prior to occupancy. Construction Waste A plan that diverts construction debris from landfills through Management Plan conscientious plans to recycle, salvage, and reuse. Cost–Benefit Analysis An analysis of the benefit, cost, and uncertainty associated with a project or action. A formal cost–benefit analysis is required for capacity projects of $5 million or more in Airport Improvement Plan (AIP) discretionary funds. Cost per Enplanement An airline’s airport-related costs, landing fees, and rents divided by the total number of passengers enplaned at the airport. Crisis Management Team A group of individuals managing a crisis to prevent, or at least con- tain, a crisis situation from escalating, jeopardizing safety and facil- ities, attracting unfavorable attention, inhibiting normal operations, creating a negative public image, and adversely affecting the orga- nization’s viability. Critical (Design) Aircraft The most demanding aircraft with at least 500 annual operations that operates, or is expected to operate, at the airport. Crosswind A wind that is not parallel or roughly parallel to a runway center- line or to the intended flight path of an aircraft. Crosswind Component The component of wind blowing across the direction to the runway centerline or the intended flight path of an aircraft. Curb Island A pedestrian area between traffic lanes of a highway or street. In the airport context, a curb island is used to increase curb frontage and separate different vehicle types. Curbside/Terminal The portion of the airport terminal dedicated to the safe and efficient Curb/Curb Frontage transfer of people between the terminal and cars, buses, taxis, and other vehicles. Curbside Check-in An area located along the terminal’s vehicle curb frontage where designated employees accept and check in baggage from departing passengers. Daylighting The controlled admission of natural light into a space through glazing with the intent of reducing or eliminating electric lighting. Deicing The process that removes ice, snow, slush, or frost from airplane surfaces for flight safety purposes. Delay The difference, in minutes, between the scheduled time and actual time of an aircraft arrival or departure. For airport planning pur- poses, it is often expressed as an annual average delay per aircraft operation (in minutes). Glossary I-9 TERM DEFINITION

Demand The number of persons, aircraft, or vehicles who want to use a facility. Deplanement Any passenger getting off an arriving aircraft at an airport. Can be a terminating or connecting passenger. Also applies to freight shipments. Design Day A typical day’s activity used to estimate demand for terminal facil- ities. Most typically this is the average day of the peak month, but can also be an average weekday or a specific day in the case of some airports with highly peaked service. Design Hour The numbers of enplaned and deplaned passengers, in rolling hour of a typically busy (design) day. Destination Coded A type of high-speed automated baggage handling system that uses Vehicle individual carts running on guideways for each bag. Discretionary Grants The funds remaining in the Airport Improvement Plan after appor- tioned grants are approved and dispersed as discretionary grants. Discretionary grants may be appropriated to an airport by the Sec- retary of Transportation or Congress, on the basis of the agency’s goals and congressional direction. Of these remaining funds, 75%, known as capacity, safety, security, and noise, is to be used for pre- serving and enhancing capacity, safety or security, and carrying out noise compatibility and mitigation programs. The remaining 25%, known as remaining or pure discretionary funds, may be used for any project deemed eligible at any airport. Door Sill Height Height from ground to aircraft door sill. Drug Enforcement A federal agency and the part of the U.S. Department of Justice Administration responsible for enforcing laws and regulations governing narcotics and controlled substances. Dwell Time The length of time a vehicle remains stopped at the curbside area to load and unload passengers. e-freight Designed to eliminate the need to produce and transport paper documentation for air cargo shipments by moving to a harmo- nized, industry-wide system of on-line electronic processing. Electronic Check-in The process by which passengers check-in using self-service kiosks at the airport (on airport) or via the airlines’ Internet sites (off airport). Emergency Operations See Airport Emergency Command Post. Center Energy Conservation The installation of equipment or systems, or modifications to Measures equipment or systems, for the purpose of reducing energy use and/or costs. Energy Modeling The use of computer-based tools to simulate the energy use of a building, throughout an entire year of operation, in order to assess the energy use of a building and to quantify the savings attributa- ble to the proposed design. I-10 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design TERM DEFINITION

Glossary I-11 Enplanement The boarding of a passenger, or item of cargo, freight, or mail onto an aircraft at an airport. Entitlement Grants Statutory provisions require that Airport Improvement Program funds be apportioned by formula each year to specific airports, in the form of entitlement grants. Among the recipients of appor- tioned funds are primary airports, cargo service airports, and states, among others. For each primary airport, apportionment is based upon the number of passenger boardings at the airport. Environmental A “concise document” that takes a “hard look” at expected environ- Assessment (EA) mental effects of a proposed action. Depending on project scope and complexity, the EA should be no more than 15 pages. Environmental Impact A document with the primary purpose of being an “action-forcing Statement (EIS) tool” to ensure federal government programs and actions meet the National Environmental Policy Act’s goals and policies. The EIS requires the sponsor of a project to critically assess the relative environmental impacts of no actions, the proposed action, and any feasible and reasonable alternatives. Environmentally An area of environmental importance having natural resources that Sensitive Area if degraded, may lead to significant adverse, social, economic, or ecological consequences. These could be areas in or adjacent to aquatic ecosystems, drinking water sources, unique or declining species habitat, and other similar sites. Equivalent Aircraft (EQA) This metric is used to normalize the capacity of each gate, based on the seating capacity of the aircraft that can be accommodated. 1 EQA is equal to a typical narrowbody aircraft of 145 seats. Erosion and A plan to reduce pollution from construction activities by con- Sedimentation Control trolling soil erosion, waterway sedimentation, and airborne dust Plan (ESC) generation. Ethernet A standard information technology for network area communica- tions in local area networks when all devices in the network are con- nected to a central cable or hub. Explosive Ordnance To render safe either improvised or manufactured explosive devices Disposal with the assistance of appropriately technically trained and equipped personnel. Explosives Detection Equipment designed to automatically detect the chemical signature System (EDS) of explosive materials. The Transportation Security Administration has tested the system against pre-established standards and has cer- tified that the system meets the criteria in terms of detection capa- bilities and throughput. Explosives Trace A device that has been certified by the Transportation Security Detection (ETD) Administration for detecting explosive particles on objects intended to be carried into the sterile area or transported on board an aircraft. FAR Part 77, Objects (a) establishes standards for determining obstructions in navigable Affecting Navigable airspace; (b) defines the requirements for providing notice to the Airspace FAA Administrator of certain types of proposed construction or TERM DEFINITION

alteration; (c) provides for aeronautical studies of obstructions to air navigation to determine their effect on the safe and efficient use of airspace; (d) provides for public hearings on the hazardous effect of proposed construction or alteration on air navigation; and (e) provides for establishing antenna farm areas. Federal Aviation The general and permanent rules established by the executive Regulations (FAR) departments and agencies of the federal government regarding avi- ation, which are published in the Federal Register. These are the avi- ation subset of the Code of Federal Regulations. Federal Inspection U.S. agencies responsible for inspecting arriving international Services (FIS) passengers, baggage, and cargo. Consists of U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Public Health Service. Federal Security The director of the Transportation Security Administration is Director (FSD) responsible for providing day-to-day operational direction for fed- eral security screening and inspection personnel at airports, as well as regulatory compliance of airports and aircraft operators. FSDs are not law enforcement officers; that responsibility falls to local jurisdictions. Fiber Optics Fibers used to transmit digital information over long distances at a high speed. Finding of No Significant A finding issued when environmental analysis and inter-agency Impact (FONSI) review during the Environmental Assessment (EA) process finds a project to have no significant impacts on the quality of the environ- ment. The FONSI document is the EA modified to reflect all appli- cable comments and responses. If it was not covered by the EA, the FONSI must include the project sponsor’s recommendation or selected alternative. Firewall Software that prevents unauthorized users from logging in to a pri- vate network (usually one that’s connected to the public Internet). Fixed-Base Operator An airport-based business enterprise that provides services to the (FBO) operators of general and business aviation aircraft, including air- craft parking and rental, training, fueling, maintenance, parking, and the sale of pilot supplies. Flat Plate Claim Device A flat level rotating baggage reclaim belt for the delivery of relatively low volumes of baggage. These devices are typically configured in an oval shaped, “L” shaped, “T” shaped, or a “U” shaped configu- ration located in the baggage claim area. Fleet Mix A collective term generally used to describe the categorization and breakdown of aircraft within a specific airline fleet by reference to aircraft type. Flight Information A computerized system for conveying and displaying airport and Display System (FIDS) airline operational information to the general public and relevant airport service providers including gate, arrival/departure times, and on-time status. Also includes multi-user systems (MUFIDS). I-12 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design TERM DEFINITION

Glossary I-13 Foot-Candle A unit of luminance equal to 1 lumen of light falling on 1-square- foot area, from a 1-candela light source at a distance of 1 foot. Foreign Object Debris or Any object that does not belong in or near aircraft and that can Foreign Object Damage potentially injure airport or airline personnel and/or damage (FBO) airplanes, such as loose hardware, pavement fragments, catering supplies and other garbage, building materials, rocks, sand, pieces of luggage, and even wildlife. Fuselage The main body of an airplane to which the wings and tail are fastened. Gantt Chart A graphical representation of the duration of specified tasks against a specific timeline. Gate An aircraft parking position that is used for actively loading and unloading passengers. Gate Management A software-based system designed to optimize the assignment of System aircraft gates consistent with specified airport/airline business goals and physical constraints. General Aviation Civil aviation carried out by, or on behalf of, private individuals and corporate entities, including on a commercial basis, but not marketed to the general public. General Aviation Airport An airport that provides air service only to general aviation. Geo-Thermal Also known as geo-exchange or ground source heating and cooling. Geo-thermal systems exploit the ability to exchange heat between the relatively constant temperature of the ground and a building. Glide Slope Equipment that provides vertical guidance for aircraft during approach and landing. Gradient A slope expressed as a ratio of the horizontal to the vertical distance. For example, 40:1 means that for every 40 feet traveled horizontally the surface rises by 1 foot vertically. Green Roof or Also known as rooftop gardens, green roofs are planted over existing Vegetated Roof roof structures and consist of a waterproof, root-safe membrane that is covered by a drainage system; lightweight growing medium; and plants. Green roofs reduce rooftop and building temperatures, filter pollution, lessen pressure on sewer systems, and reduce the heat island effect. Greenfield Airport The development of a new airport or terminal on a new site, as or Terminal opposed to expansion or reconfiguration of an existing facility. Ground Access The transportation system on and around the airport that provides access to and from the airport by ground transportation for passen- gers, employees, cargo, freight, and airport services. Ground Power Unit Equipment used to provide power to an aircraft while parked on (GPU) the ground. Ground Service Equipment used to service aircraft while parked at the gate including Equipment (GSE) maintenance, fueling, baggage transport, cargo, and airline personnel. TERM DEFINITION

Ground Transportation Provides a centralized location where commercial vehicles can pick Center up and drop off passengers. Hazard to Air Navigation An object that, following an aeronautical study, the FAA deter- mines will have a substantial adverse effect upon the safe and effi- cient use of navigable airspace by aircraft, the operation of air navigation facilities, or existing or potential airport capacity. Hazardous Materials Any substances or materials that, if commercially transported, pose unreasonable risk to public health, safety, and property. Includes hazardous wastes and hazardous substances, as well as petroleum and natural gas substances and materials. Heat Island Effect This occurs when warmer temperatures are experienced in urban landscapes compared to adjacent rural areas as a result of solar energy retention on constructed surfaces. Principal surfaces that contribute to the heat island effect include streets, sidewalks, park- ing lots, and buildings. Heating, Ventilation and Systems used to provide thermal comfort and ventilation for Air Conditioning (HVAC) building interiors. Heavy Rail A high-capacity railway characterized by exclusive rights-of-way, multicar trains, high speed, and high-platform loading. Highway Capacity A manual produced by TRB that details methodologies for analyz- Manual ing roadways and intersections and is the standard for roadway analysis both in the United States and in many other nations. Highway Capacity Designed to replicate procedures, manual worksheets, and examples Software in the Highway Capacity Manual that is issued by TRB. Holding Station A location created specifically to hold passengers temporarily at a security screening checkpoint until screeners are available to escort them to the proper area to conduct secondary screening. (A hold- ing station differs from a wanding station.) Horizontal Surface An imaginary obstruction-limiting surface defined in Federal Avi- ation Regulations (FAR) Part 77 that is specified as a portion of a horizontal plane surrounding a runway located 150 feet above the established airport elevation. The specific horizontal dimensions of this surface are a function of the types of approaches existing or planned for the runway. Hub An airport having a high percentage of connecting flights. Hub and Spoke A system for deploying aircraft that enables a carrier to increase service options at all airports encompassed by the system. It entails the use of a strategically located airport (the hub) as a passenger exchange point for flights to and from outlying cities (the spokes). Hubbing A method of airline scheduling that schedules the arrival and departure of banks of aircraft in a close period of time, in order to promote the expeditious transfer of passengers between different flights of the same airline. I-14 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design TERM DEFINITION

Hybrid Vehicles Vehicles that use a gasoline engine to drive an electric generator and use the electric generator and/or storage batteries to power electric motors that drive the vehicle’s wheels. Identification (ID) Badge A personal identification medium compliant with 49 Code of Fed- eral Regulations Part 1542.211, typically used in conjunction with a separate access control medium. May also apply to the use of meth- ods employing decals, signs, or markers to identify authorized per- sons, vehicles, and/or property. Imaginary Surfaces Surfaces established in relation to the end of each runway or designated takeoff and landing areas for heliports, as defined in paragraphs 77.25, 77.28, and 77.29 of Federal Aviation Regulations Part 77, Objects Affecting the Navigable Airspace. Such surfaces include the approach, horizontal, conical, transitional, primary, and other surfaces. Improvised Explosive A device that has been fabricated in an improvised manner and Device (IED) incorporates explosives or destructive, lethal, noxious, pyrotechnic, or incendiary chemicals in its design. In-Line Screening System A form of checked baggage screening where EDS equipment is located along the baggage conveyors to allow bags to be screened at a high rate. Inbound Conveyor Conveyor that carries baggage from the aircraft or baggage carts to the baggage reclaim units. Indoor Air Quality The quality of air inside a building that may affect the health and well-being of building occupants. Interline Baggage Baggage of passengers subject to transfer from the aircraft of one airline to the aircraft of another airline. Intermodal The ability to make connections between different modes of transportation. International Airport Any airport designated as an airport of entry and departure for international air traffic, and carries out the formalities relating to customs, immigration, public health, animal and plant quarantine, and similar procedures. International Operations Aircraft operations performed by air carriers engaged in scheduled international air service. Isolated Parking Position An area designated for the parking of aircraft suspected of carrying explosives or incendiaries to accommodate responding law enforce- ment and/or Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) personnel in search efforts. Jet Blast The force or wind generated behind a jet engine, particularly on or before takeoff when the engine is operated at high/full thrust, but also a planning consideration in respect of aircraft taxiing areas. K-9 (Canine Team) Dog teams used for the detection of explosives, narcotics, or other contraband materials. Glossary I-15 TERM DEFINITION

Landside Areas of an airport to which passengers and members of the non- traveling public have free access. Also used to refer to ground access facilities, and portions of the terminal related to check-in, baggage claim and other functions outside of the secured portion of the terminal. Law Enforcement An individual authorized to carry and use firearms, vested with Officer (LEO) such police power of arrest as determined by federal law and state statutes and identifiable by appropriate indicia of authority. Leadership in Energy A third-party certification program and the nationally accepted and Environmental benchmark for the design, construction, and operation of high- Design (LEED) performance green buildings. Legacy Carrier In the U.S. market, the term specifically refers to those airlines that flew interstate routes prior to the Airline Deregulation Act of 1978. Level of Service (LOS) A defined set of qualitative and quantitative standards against which to measure the quality of the passenger experience in a particular air- port. Planning of an airport terminal typically identifies a particular LOS as the starting point for establishing facilities requirements. Life-Cycle Cost Method A technique of economic evaluation that analyzes, over a given study period, the cost of initial investment (less resale value), replacements, operations (including energy use), and maintenance and repair of an investment decision (expressed in net present or annual value terms). Light Rail A streetcar-type vehicle operated on city streets, semi-exclusive rights-of-way, or exclusive rights-of-way. Service may be provided by step-entry vehicles or by level boarding. (Passenger) Load Factor The number of passenger seats occupied expressed as a percentage of the total seat capacity of an aircraft. Local Area Network A short-distance electronic network used to link a group of com- puters together within a building Long Haul Operating sectors of 5,000 kilometers or more, operated non-stop and presuming an aircraft with a full payload at normal cruising condi- tions and with an adequate fuel reserve to reach an alternate airport. Long-Range A document resulting from regional or statewide collaboration and Transportation Plan consensus on a region or state’s transportation system and serving or Regional as the defining vision for the region’s or state’s transportation systems Transportation Plan and services. In metropolitan areas, the plan indicates all of the transportation improvements scheduled for funding over the next 20 years. Low-Flow Plumbing product fixtures and fittings that meet the water effi- ciency standard of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The term is used interchangeably with the term “low consumption.” Magnetometer or Walk A walk-through archway device, approved by the FAA, to detect Through Metal Detector metal on persons desiring access beyond the screening checkpoint. Metal detection can also be accomplished using hand-held “wand” devices. I-16 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design TERM DEFINITION

Mainline Aircraft (Jet) Generally a medium- to long-haul airliner such as the B737, A320, and larger widebody aircraft. Mass Transit Any form of high-density, low-fare mode of public ground trans- portation. Metropolitan Planning Regional body, required in urbanized areas with populations over Organization 50,000. Amongst other things, it is responsible for cooperating with the state and other transportation providers in carrying out the metropolitan transportation planning requirements mandated by federal highway and transit legislation. Mobile Lounges Used to transport passengers between the terminal and remotely (Transporters) parked aircraft. This special type of airport equipment is designed to elevate vertically, connect with a terminal dock and/or aircraft, and drive between each location. Passengers typically walk directly into the transporter on the same level as the terminal or aircraft. Mode Split The relative proportion of all trips to and from the airport that are (or Modal Split) made on the various modes of transportation, whether private car, taxi, public bus, or rail and so forth. Movement Areas The runways, taxiways, and other areas of an airport that are used for taxiing, takeoff, and landing of aircraft, exclusive of loading ramps and aircraft parking areas. Moving Walkway A fixed conveyor device on which pedestrians may stand or walk while they are being transported. Multi-Modal The availability of transportation options using different modes within a system or corridor. Narrowbody Equivalent This metric is used to normalize the capacity of each gate, based on Gate (NBEG) the wingspan of the aircraft that can be accommodated. 1 NBEG is equal to a typical ADG III narrowbody aircraft with a 118-foot wingspan. National Airspace System The network of air traffic control facilities, air traffic control areas, and navigational facilities throughout the United States. National Environmental An act that requires federal agencies to integrate environmental Policy Act values into their decision-making processes by considering the environmental impacts of their proposed actions and reasonable alternatives to those actions. National Register of The official list of the nation’s historic places worthy of preservation. Historic Places (NRHP) Authorized under the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, it is part of a national program to coordinate and support public and private efforts to identify, evaluate, and protect our historic and archeological resources. Native (Indigenous) Plants that have adapted to a given area during a defined time period Plants and are not invasive. Navigational Aid Any visual or electronic device, airborne or on the ground surface, that provides point-to-point guidance information or position data to aircraft in flight. Glossary I-17 TERM DEFINITION

Net Present Value The present value of the expected future cash flows taking into account initial capital and ongoing recurrent costs. Noise Compatibility List of actions the airport sponsor proposes to undertake to minimize Programs noise/land use incompatibilities. Object Free Area (OFA) An area on the ground centered on a runway, taxiway, or taxilane centerline provided to enhance the safety of aircraft operations by having the area free of objects, except for objects that need to be located in the OFA for air navigation or aircraft ground maneuver- ing purposes. Obstacle An existing object, object of natural growth, or terrain at a fixed geographical location, in respect of which vertical clearance is, or must be, provided during flight operations. Obstacle Free Zone The OFZ is the airspace below 150 feet (45 meters) above the estab- (OFZ) lished airport elevation and along the runway and extended runway centerline that is required to be clear of all objects, except for fran- gible visual navigational aids that need to be located in the OFZ because of their function, in order to provide clearance protection for aircraft landing or taking off from the runway, and for missed approaches. Official Airline A listing of airline flight schedules including flight times, connections, Guide (OAG) and aircraft types. On-Screen Resolution A visual system that allows a TSA screener to visually review an (OSR) image of an alarmed bag on a monitor and clear it prior to reaching the Explosives Trace Detection room, also called Level 2 screening. Operations The landing, takeoff, or touch-and-go procedure by an aircraft on a runway at an airport. Origin and Destination Passengers who begin or end their trip at a particular airport. Passengers Outbound Conveyor Conveyor that takes baggage from the ticket counters and curbside to sort piers or make-up units. Part 139 Certification The FAA is required by 14 Code of Federal Regulations Part 139 to issue airport operating certificates to airports that serve scheduled and unscheduled air carrier aircraft with more than 30 seats, and scheduled air carrier operations in aircraft with more than 9 seats but less than 31 seats. Part 77 See Federal Aviation Regulations Part 77, Objects Affecting Naviga- ble Airspace. Passenger Facility A fee collected by airlines on behalf of the FAA for every enplaned Charge (PFC) passenger at commercial airports controlled by public agencies. Revenues from this source are used to fund FAA-approved projects that enhance safety, security, or capacity; reduce noise; or increase air carrier competition. Passenger Load Factor See Load Factor I-18 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design TERM DEFINITION

Passenger Loading Bridge A mechanically operated, adjustable enclosed ramp used to provide direct passenger access between aircraft and terminal buildings. Synonymous with aerobridge, air bridge, passenger bridge, passen- ger boarding bridge, jet bridge, and Jetway®. Passive Solar Technology Used for harnessing the sun’s renewable source of heat during (Cooling/Heating) winter months, ventilation during the cooling season, and natural daylighting which displaces the need for electrical systems during normal daylight operating hours. Payback Analysis Evaluation of the period of time in which initial expenditures are recovered through subsequent savings. Peak Hour An estimate of the busiest hour in a day. Peak Period See Design Hour. Perimeter The outer boundary of an airport, typically but not necessarily delineated by fences. Also a boundary that can separate areas con- trolled for security purposes from those that are not, which may or may not include physical barriers. Planning Activity Level Selected activity levels that may trigger the need for additional facil- ities or improvements. Post-Check-in Screening Checked baggage screening that occurs after the passenger checks in at the aircraft operator’s ticket counter, including curbside. Potable Water Water suitable for drinking. Pre-Check-in Screening Checked baggage screening that occurs before the passenger checks in at the aircraft operator’s ticket counter, including curbside. Precision and These terms are used to differentiate between navigational facilities Non-Precision that provide a combined azimuth and glide slope guidance to a run- way (Precision) and those that do not. The term non-precision refers to facilities without a glide slope and does not imply an unacceptable quality of course guidance. Preferred Parking Parking places that are closer to the main entrance of the building, exclusive of spaces designated for disabled persons. Premises Distribution A building communications network or a network between groups System of buildings. It is used to connect desktop equipment with a host and to outside networks. Primary Airport A commercial service airport that enplanes at least 10,000 annual passengers. Primary Surface An imaginary obstruction-limiting surface defined in Federal Avi- ation Regulations Part 77 that is specified as a rectangular surface longitudinally centered about a runway. The specific dimensions of this surface are a function of the types of approaches that exist or are planned for the runway. Programmable Logic A small industrial computer with special software and circuits for Controller monitoring and controlling conveyor equipment. Glossary I-19 TERM DEFINITION

Prop Wash A wind caused by the spinning propeller of a plane, sometimes strong enough to be hazardous to aircraft taxiing or landing behind. Public Areas The portion of the airport that includes all publicly accessible real estate and facilities other than the airside operations area and those sterile areas downstream of security screening stations or beyond access-controlled portals. Public Meeting A public gathering for the express purpose of informing and solic- iting input from interested individuals regarding planning issues. Public Transportation Transportation by bus, rail, or other conveyance, either publicly or privately owned, that provides to the public a general or special transport service on a regular and continuing basis. Also known as “mass transportation,” “mass transit,” and “transit.” Queue A line of passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles waiting to move into, out of, or through a processing facility. Queuing Theory The theoretical study of waiting lines expressed in mathemati- cal terms, including components such as number of waiting lines, number of servers, average wait time, number of queues or lines, and probabilities of queue times’ either increasing or decreasing. Radio Frequency A method of identifying items using radio waves, it provides a Identification (RFID) unique signal that identifies that object. The RFID device serves the same purpose as a bar code on a bag tag or a magnetic strip on the back of a credit card. Ramp Areas Areas used by airport tenants for servicing and loading aircraft, located on the Airport Operations Area directly adjacent to the terminal area. These areas are part of the Security Identification Display Area. Also sometimes called “apron” or “tarmac.” Recycling The collection, reprocessing, marketing, and use of materials that have been diverted or recovered from the solid waste stream. Regional Aircraft A small aircraft designed to fly between 19 and 90 passengers. This class of airliners is typically flown by the regional airline divisions of the larger national carriers. Regional Airport System The plan for the region’s public airports. The RASP addresses the Plan (RASP) existing and future need for airport and related improvements from a regional, system-wide perspective. Regional Carriers An airline with annual revenues of less than $100 million whose service generally is limited to a particular geographic region. Regional Transportation See Long-Range Transportation Plan Plan Regression Analysis A statistical technique that seeks to identify and quantify the rela- tionships between a range of independent factors associated with a forecast. I-20 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design TERM DEFINITION

Glossary I-21 Remain Overnight Aircraft remaining overnight at the airport, either at the gate, (RON) remote parking stand, or hangar. Airlines take advantage of remain overnights to perform maintenance, cleaning, and so forth of the aircraft. Renewable Energy A representation of the environmental attributes of green power Certificates (RECs) and sold separately from the electrons that make up the electricity. RECs allow the purchase of green power even when the electrons are not purchased. Reuse A strategy to return materials to active use in the same or related capacity. Rough Order of An estimate done without detailed costing, or based on initial or Magnitude incomplete data. A rough order of magnitude estimate establishes an approximate cost for a scenario or quality of service requirement. Runway A defined length of pavement area at an airport designated for the landing and takeoff of an aircraft. Runway Incursion Any occurrence at an aerodrome involving the incorrect presence of an aircraft, vehicle or person on the protected area of a surface designated for the landing and take-off of aircraft. Runway Threshold Marks the beginning of that part of the runway usable for landing. It extends the full width of the runway. Sally Port A secure entryway that consists of a series of doors or gates. Scope The document that identifies and defines the tasks, emphasis, and level of effort associated with a project or study. Screening Function The inspection of individuals and property for weapons, explosives, incendiaries, and other prohibited items using technical or other means. Secured Area A portion(s) of an airport, specified in the Airport Security Pro- gram, in which certain security measures specified in 49 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1542.201 are carried out and where aircraft operators that have a security program under 49 CFR 1544 or 49 CFR 1546 enplane and deplane passengers. Security Areas Areas defined by and subject to security requirements and regula- tion (e.g., Airport Operations Area, Air Traffic Service Provider Area, Exclusive Area, Secured Area, Security Identification Display Area, and Sterile Area). “Restricted area” is not a Transportation Security Administration–defined term. Security Identification Area established pursuant to 49 CFR Part 1542.205 includes any area Display Area (SIDA) identified in the Airport Security Program as requiring each person to continuously display airport-approved identification, unless the person is under airport-approved escort. SIDA boundaries can dif- fer greatly between airports. Security Operations Typically the central point for all airport security-related monitoring Center (SOC) and communication. It may or may not be co-located with the Airport Operations Center. TERM DEFINITION

Security Screening A checkpoint area established to conduct security screening of Checkpoint (SSCP) persons and their possessions prior to their entering a sterile or secured area. Selectee A person selected for additional screening by a passenger pre- screening system or another process as approved by the TSA. Self-Service Kiosk Equipment installed in airport check-in halls and other locations, allowing passengers to check in independently and print out their boarding passes and baggage tags, eliminating the need to go to the check-in desk. Service Road Roadways, access lanes, and passageways, or other designated areas set aside for the movement of vehicles on the Airport Operations Area. Short Haul Operating distances of less than or equal to 1,000 kilometers non- stop, presuming an aircraft with a full payload at normal cruising conditions and with an adequate fuel reserve to reach an alternate airport. Slope Bed Claim Device One method for passengers to reclaim their checked baggage. These devices are typically configured in an oval or rectangular configura- tion located in the baggage claim area and fed by conveyors. Solar Reflectance The ratio of the reflected solar energy to the incoming solar energy (Albedo) over wavelengths of approximately 0.3 to 2.5 micrometers. A reflectance of 100% means that all of the energy striking a reflect- ing surface is reflected back into the atmosphere and none of the energy is absorbed by the surface. Solar Reflectance Index A measure of a material’s ability to reject solar heat, as shown by a small temperature rise. It is defined so that a standard black (reflectance 0.05, emittance 0.90) is 0 and a standard white (reflectance 0.80, emittance 0.90) is 100. Materials with the highest Solar Reflectance Index values are the coolest choices for paving. Suspect Bag/Item A bag or item that registers an alarm in an Explosives Detection System/Explosives Trace Detection (EDS/ETD) for which the cause of the alarm cannot be cleared with normal alarm resolution procedures. Sustainability Meeting the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Swing Gates Gates with a vestibule that can be configured both to deplane inter- national arrival passengers and to accommodate domestic and out- bound international traffic at other times. Strengths, Weaknesses, A strategic planning tool used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, Opportunities, and opportunities, and threats associated with a project, in a business Threats Analysis venture, or any other situation faced by an organization or individ- ual that requires a decision in pursuit of an objective. Taxi To operate an airplane under its own power; other than during takeoff or landing. I-22 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design TERM DEFINITION

Glossary I-23 Taxilane An aircraft path bounded on either one or both sides by aircraft parking positions, and by which aircraft can only gain access to these parking positions. Taxiway A defined path on an airfield established for the taxiing of aircraft and intended to provide a link between one part of the airport and another. Terminal Area The official forecast of aviation activity, both aircraft and enplane- Forecast (TAF) ments, at FAA facilities. Such facilities include FAA-towered air- ports, federally contracted towered airports, non-federal towered airports, and many non-towered airports. Terminal Building A building or buildings designed to provide the interface between the aircraft and ground transportation facilities. The building accommodates the processes and services necessary for the enplan- ing and deplaning of airline passengers. Terminating Passenger A passenger whose final section of carriage, including aircraft dis- embarkation, baggage claim, etc., takes place at the airport in ques- tion. Synonymous with destination arriving or arrivals passenger. Threat Any indication, circumstance, or event with the potential to cause loss of or damage to an asset. It can also be defined as the intention and capability of an adversary to undertake actions that would be detrimental to U.S. interest. Threat Containment Any of a wide variety of devices intended to be used to contain Units (TCU) wholly, or in part, the blast effects of an explosive device. TCUs may be stationery or may be part of a vehicle or piece of apparatus by which an explosive device may be transported. Threatened Species An animal or plant species that is likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future. Threshold Crossing The height of the straight line extension of the glide slope above the Height runway at the threshold. Trace Portals or Explosives Passenger screening machines that blow puffs of air on a passenger’s Trace Portals or Puffers person and then analyze for trace amounts of explosives. Transfer Passenger A passenger making a direct connection between two flights using different aircraft and flight numbers operated by the same or another airline. Transit Passenger A passenger who arrives and departs on the same aircraft. Transit Staging Areas The location where taxis, limousines, buses, and/or other ground transportation vehicles are staged prior to being allowed access to the terminal to pick up passengers. Transitional Surface An imaginary obstruction-limiting surface defined in Federal Avi- ation Regulations (FAR) Part 77 that extends outward and upward at right angles to the runway centerline and the runway centerline extended at a slope of 7 to 1 from the sides of the primary and approach surface. TERM DEFINITION

Transporters See Mobile Lounges. Transportation Security §1542 requires airport operators to adopt and carry out a security Regulations (TSR) §1542 program approved by the TSA and requires that an airport opera- tor must, in its security program: • Establish a secured area—Air Operations Area and/or Security Identification Display Area; • Control entry into the secure area via access control systems; and • Perform the access control functions required and procedures to control movement within the secured area, including identifica- tion media. Tug and cart The traditional type of baggage handling system, which includes gasoline-, diesel- or electric-powered tug vehicles that pull luggage- carrying carts. Turnstiles (Baffle Gate) A form of gate that allows one person to pass at a time. It can also be made so as to enforce one-way traffic of people, and, in addition, it can restrict passage to people who insert a coin, a ticket, a pass, or similar token. U.S. Customs and Border An agency of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security responsible Protection for regulating and facilitating the flow of legitimate travel and trade across the borders of the United States. Uniform Building One of the family of codes and related publications published by Code (UBC) the International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) and other organizations. Others include those published by the Interna- tional Association of Plumbing and Mechanical Officials (IAPMO) and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), which have similar goals as far as code publications are concerned. The UBC is designed to be compatible with these other codes which, in combi- nation, they make up the regulatory and enforcement tools of a particular jurisdiction. Unit Load Device A standard-sized aircraft container unit for baggage or cargo used to facilitate rapid loading and unloading of aircraft having compat- ible handling and restraint systems. United States Green A non-profit organization dedicated to sustainable building design Building Council and construction. United States Standard for Published flight procedures for conducting instrument approaches Terminal Instrument to runways under instrument meteorological conditions. Procedures [TERPS] Universal Encoding Hand-held laser scanner and keypad used to enter bag tag data Console or Manual and sort baggage manually to the proper designated make-up Encode Stations destination, when the automated tag reader fails to sort baggage automatically. Vehicle Classification The process of identifying vehicles by type and/or size. Vehicle classi- fications at curbfronts may include private auto, taxi, limousine, bus, hotel/motel shuttle, rental car shuttle, off-airport parking shuttle, and off-airport rental car shuttle. I-24 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design TERM DEFINITION Code of Federal Regula- tions (CFR), Title 49, Sub-Chapter C—Civil Aviation Security, §1542—Airport Security

Vehicle Occupancy The number of persons, including driver and passenger(s), in a vehicle. Virtual Local Area A logical grouping of hosts on one or more local area networks Network (LAN) that allows communication to occur between hosts as if they were on the same physical LAN. Virtual Private A network that emulates a private network, although it runs over Network (VPN) public network lines and infrastructure. Using specialist hard- ware and software, a VPN may be established running over the Internet. Visual Approach A visual approach is an Air Traffic Control (ATC) authorization for an aircraft on an Instrument Flight Rules (TFR) flight plan to pro- ceed visually to the airport of intended landing; it is not an Instru- ment Approach Procedure. Also, there is no missed approach segment. Voice over Internet Internet telephony (also called Voice over IP, IP Telephony, and Protocol (VoIP) Digital Phone) enables the user to make telephone calls over a broadband Internet connection instead of a regular (or analog) phone line. Volatile Organic Carbon compounds that participate in atmospheric photochemical Compounds (VOCs) reactions (excluding carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, metallic carbides and carbonates, and ammonium carbon- ate). The compounds vaporize (become a gas) at normal room temperatures. Vulnerability Assessment Any review, audit, or other examination of the security of an air- port to determine its vulnerability to various threats or unlawful interference, whether during the conception, planning, design, construction, operation, or decommissioning phase. A vulnerabil- ity assessment may include proposed, recommended, or directed actions or countermeasures to address security concerns. Walk Through See Magnetometer. Metal Detector Wanding Station Used to separate passengers who have registered an alarm from the walk through metal detector and/or require additional screening via a hand-held metal detector (HHMD or “wand”). Wide Area Network A system for interconnecting many computers and groups of (WAN) computers over a large geographic area, via telephone lines, satel- lite links, and other long-range communications technologies. While a local area network typically services a single building or location, a WAN covers a much larger area, such as a city, region, or country. Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi) The term refers to wireless local networks that can enable users to access the Internet without the need for cables. Worldwide Interoperability Also known as the IEEE 802.16 group of standards. WiMax is a for Microwave Access packet-based wireless technology that provides high-throughput (WiMAX) broadband connections over longer distances than Wi-Fi. Glossary I-25 TERM DEFINITION

TERM DEFINITION I-26 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design Wingspan On a fixed-wing aircraft, the span or straight-line distance between one wingtip and the other, including projecting ailerons. Wireless Telecommunications using electromagnetic waves rather than wires or cable to transmit information. Wireless Access Point A wireless access point or hotspot—an area for connecting to the Internet. Xeriscaping Landscaping with the use of drought-tolerant plants, to eliminate the need for supplemental watering.

Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, Volume 1: Guidebook Get This Book
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TRB’s Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 25, Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design comprises a guidebook, spreadsheet models, and a user’s guide in two volumes and a CD-ROM intended to provide guidance in planning and developing airport passenger terminals and to assist users in analyzing common issues related to airport terminal planning and design.

Volume 1 of ACRP Report 25 explores the passenger terminal planning process and provides, in a single reference document, the important criteria and requirements needed to help address emerging trends and develop potential solutions for airport passenger terminals. Volume 1 addresses the airside, terminal building, and landside components of the terminal complex.

Volume 2 of ACRP Report 25 consists of a CD-ROM containing 11 spreadsheet models, which include practical learning exercises and several airport-specific sample data sets to assist users in determining appropriate model inputs for their situations, and a user’s guide to assist the user in the correct use of each model. The models on the CD-ROM include such aspects of terminal planning as design hour determination, gate demand, check-in and passenger and baggage screening, which require complex analyses to support planning decisions. The CD-ROM is also available for download from TRB’s website as an ISO image.

View information about the TRB webinar on ACRP Report 25, Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design, which was held on Monday, April 26, 2010.

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