Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Airport passenger terminals cannot be planned effectively in isolation. Planners and designers must address and find solutions to an increasingly wide range of technical and operational challenges within the terminal building. At the same time, they must have a thorough understanding of the overall planning context within which the new facility will be developed, both in terms of the airport itself and the region it serves. They must also have a good grasp of wider airport planning considerations and the technical, operational, and regulatory requirements that will have an effect on the terminal planning task. This chapter provides an overview of the following key contextual issues: â¢ Airport Master Plan â¢ Land use compatibility â¢ Ground access transportation â¢ Terminal site planning â¢ Airport security â¢ Information technology and communications â¢ Environmental protection â¢ Sustainability â¢ Business planning III.1 Airport Master Plan According to FAA Advisory Circular (AC) 150/5070-6B, Airport Master Plans (13), an Airport Master Plan is âa comprehensive study of an airport [that] describes the [airportâs] short-, medium-, and long-term development plans to meet future aviation demand.â Depending on the airportâs size and the complexity desired in developing the master plan, the substance and detail of the document may vary. However, the main elements that are typically considered and contribute to key content in an Airport Master Plan are long-term traffic demand forecasts, airfield configuration, and a land use plan showing the positioning of passenger and cargo terminals and their associated aprons and of other key airport support facilities. III.1.1 Airport Demand Forecasts As part of a typical Airport Master Plan, a 20-year forecast of aviation demand must be developed. These projections are used to determine the extent of safeguarding required for future new or expanded facilities (terminal and airfield related). The aviation demand forecast should include aircraft operations and identify the critical aircraft and future fleet mix as well as passenger enplanements. The forecasts of aircraft operations and passenger activity should be developed both on an annual and a peak hour basis so that future facilities are planned to be able to cope 34 C H A P T E R I I I Planning Considerations
with demand levels even at the busiest times. This topic is addressed more fully in Chapter IV, Forecasts. III.1.2 Airfield Configuration The major elements of airfield configuration involve the positioning of runways and taxiways within the airport property. Some major factors affecting the orientation and dimensions of an airportâs runway and taxiway system are based on the type and size of aircraft, air traffic management procedures, natural and man-made constraints on and surrounding the airport, wind and weather conditions, and federal regulations and design standards. The size of the âcritical aircraftâ that is forecast to utilize the airport will determine the design category by which an airport is classified. According to the FAA, the âcritical aircraftâ is âthe most demanding itinerant aircraft with at least 500 annual operations at the airportâ (14). This critical aircraft size will also determine the separation dimensions necessary for the runway and taxiway configuration. III.1.2.1 Airport Reference Code The airport reference coding (ARC) system, established in FAA AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design (15), is used to classify airports for design purposes. The ARC is composed of the aircraft approach category (determined by the aircraft approach speed) and the airplane design group (based on the wingspan or tail height, whichever is the most restrictive) of the airportâs largest operating aircraft with a minimum of 500 annual operations. The aircraft approach category is depicted by a letter, and the airplane design group (ADG) by a Roman numeral, as shown in Table III-1 and Table III-2. Appendix D provides a list of commercial aircraft and their associated ADG. The classification of an airport determines the centerline separation and object clearances applicable to the runway and taxiway system. The airfield configuration depends on many factors other than the ARC including airspace availability, environmental concerns, air navigation obstructions, topography, Air Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) visibility, wildlife hazards, and wind patterns. III.1.2.2 Airspace Availability The configuration of the airspace above a particular location has a considerable influence on the positioning, alignment, and length of runways. All existing and planned instrument approach, Planning Considerations 35 Category Approach Speed A Less than 91 knots B 91 knots or more, but less than 121 knots C 121 knots or more, but less than 141 knots D 141 knots or more, but less than 166 knots E 166 knots or more Source: FAA AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design Group No. Tail Height Wingspan 94<02< I 97<-94 03<-02 II III 30-<45 79-<118 IV 45-<60 118-<171 V 60-<66 171-<214 VI 66-<80 214-<262 Feet Meters Feet Meters <6 6-<9 9-<14 14-<18 18-<20 20-<24 <15 15-<24 24-<36 36-<52 52-<65 65-<80 Source: FAA AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design Table III-1. Aircraft approach category. Table III-2. Airplane design group.
missed approach, and departure surfaces must be entirely clear of obstacles. Special use and restricted airspace may alter the air traffic patterns around a particular location and reduce the airspace available for aircraft operations. III.1.2.3 Environmental Concerns Environmental impact reviews should be undertaken prior to finalizing the airfield configu- ration. These studies should consider the environmental effects of the airfield configuration to existing and proposed land use and noise on surrounding residents, air and water quality, wildlife, any historical or archeological features, and other features as identified by the National Environ- mental Protection Act (NEPA). Generally, an airportâs Environmental Assessments and Envi- ronmental Impact Statements fulfill the requirements necessary for determining these factors. III.1.2.4 Air Navigation Obstruction Identification Identification of obstructions in the airspace around the airport should be conducted when considering airfield layouts. These obstructions may include man-made constraintsâsuch as buildings, towers, and antennasâor natural constraintsâsuch as mountainous terrain. The purpose of obstruction identification is to aid in the placement of runways in an orientation that allows approach and departure areas to be clear of obstacles interfering with air navigation. To identify potential obstructions, it will be necessary to develop and analyze the Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 77 imaginary surfaces and the TERPS arrival and departure obstacle clearance surfaces. See Section V.1.1, FAR Part 77 and TERPS Requirements, for further discussion of these obstacle clearance surfaces. III.1.2.5 Runway Safety Areas The runway safety area (RSA) shall be cleared of all objects, except those needed because of their function. The area shall also be graded to minimize damage to an aircraft and support snow removal and emergency equipment. Any objects that are in excess of 3 inches in height should be constructed on low-impact-resistant support to minimize damage. III.1.2.6 Topography The degree of surface elevation change at an airport site serves as an additional factor in deter- mining runway orientation. The elevation differential impacts the degree of grading and drainage work necessary to build a runway in compliance with FAA standards. An airfield configuration requiring minimal grading would thus be considered optimal when determining ultimate place- ment of the runway and taxiway system. III.1.2.7 Air Traffic Control Tower Visibility A clear line-of-sight between the ATCT and all portions of the airfield are a top priority when laying out the runway and taxiway system. The ATCT should have a clear view of air traffic patterns in the immediate vicinity of the airfield, runway thresholds and hold pads, runway structural pavement, and other operational surfaces controlled by Air Traffic Control (ATC). A clear view of all aircraft âmovement areasâ including runways and taxiways is also essential. Where there is no apron tower present, it is important for the ATCT to have a clear view of all aircraft ramp areas. III.1.2.8 Runway Visibility Zone If there are intersecting runways, a clear line-of-sight between the ends of the runways is recommended. Terrain needs to be graded and permanent objects need to be designed or sited so that there will be an unobstructed line-of-sight from any point 5 feet above one runway center- line to any point 5 feet above an intersecting centerline, within the runway visibility zone. See FAA AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design, Section 503 (15) to determine the runway visibility zone. 36 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
III.1.2.9 Wildlife Hazards The potential for any wildlife hazards, including the risk of bird strikes, should be evaluated when considering runway configurations. The propensity for wildlife hazards increases in areas located near bird sanctuaries, sanitary landfills, bodies of water (i.e., lakes, rivers, reservoirs), and other areas that can attract a significant amount of wildlife. To minimize these hazards, the run- ways should be positioned as far away as possible from such areas and specific hazard abatement procedures should be implemented as necessary. III.1.2.10 Wind Wind patterns, including prevailing velocity and direction, play a major role in runway configurations. So far as possible, the primary runway should be oriented in the direction of the prevailing winds. The most desirable runway orientation based on wind is the one that has the largest wind coverage and minimum crosswind components. Wind coverage is the percentage of time that crosswinds are below an acceptable velocity. The desirable wind coverage for an airport is 95%, based on the total number of weather observations. If the wind coverage is below 95%, the FAA recommends construction of a crosswind runway. III.1.3 Other Land Use Considerations III.1.3.1 Positioning of Passenger Terminal Apron and Cargo Facilities When possible, it is desirable to locate aircraft parking gates for the terminal complex at a location that is approximately at the mid-point of the primary runway and on the side that offers the most convenient ground transportation access. Mid-point positioning will provide an equal taxi distance to the runway ends for departure operations and minimize taxi distance when exiting from the runway. If there is a dual parallel runway system, it is desirable to locate the terminal between the two runways. This will minimize aircraft taxi distance to and from each runway, and will also minimize the number of runway crossings and the potential for runway incursions. Air cargo operations also benefit from being centrally located from runway ends and having a direct connection to ground transportation access. III.1.3.2 Fuel Farm Facilities Airport fuel farm facilities primarily exist in centralized locations either near the terminal building or near the perimeter of the airport property boundary. Depending on the airport size, fuel facilities can be a single, self-service station; or for larger operations, it may include a fuel farm with multiple storage tanks. Generally, fuel farms serve as a source for mobile fuel trucks to re-supply aircraft, or connect to an underground apron hydrant fueling system. Fuel farm facilities may also provide storage for ground service equipment (GSE) that operates on the airport. III.1.3.3 Airport Maintenance Facilities A wide range of services falls under the umbrella of airport maintenance, and the facilities that support these services generally consist of buildings for the maintenance of equipment and general supply storage. Specifically, these types of buildings include those for GSE storage and maintenance, electrical repair (buildings and visual navigational aids), painting (buildings and airfield markings), and mechanical repair. Airport GSE facilities may house equipment and vehicles such as those used for snow removal, general property maintenance (lawn care), materials storage (sand and salt), and aircraft ground servicing. III.1.3.4 Aircraft Maintenance Facilities The space requirements necessary for aircraft maintenance facilities is predicated on the type of aircraft maintenance (checks) that will be conducted at the airport and the type of aircraft to Planning Considerations 37
be serviced. Airports handling general aviation and business jet operations generally provide one or more fixed-base operator (FBO) facilities on or adjacent to the property to provide aircraft maintenance. These facilities typically include aircraft maintenance repair hangars with storage space, a building that contains a main office and customer lounge, an apron area for aircraft parking, and vehicle parking adjacent to the main office facility. FBO facilities primarily service regional jets, turboprops, and smaller aircraft. For airports with large commercial and airline operations, maintenance bases for inspection and repair may be established on the airport. No matter what type of aircraft maintenance facilities are provided, consideration must be given to site compatibility with taxiway systems to avoid runway crossings, as well as the noise issues associated with the testing of aircraft engines. III.1.3.5 Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting Facilities For all Part 139âcertificated airports, adequate Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting (ARFF) facilities must be provided within the airport boundary. The size, location, and number of vehicles are dependent on the largest aircraft using the airport and the airfield geometry. The ARFF stations should be located such that the first responding vehicle can reach the mid-point of any runway within 3 minutes of the alarm (in optimum surface conditions and visibility) and begin application of fire-extinguishing agent. The location of these facilities is crucial when considering that the time to reach an accident area is a key factor in the efficacy of emergency response. Potential structural fires and other duties employed by firefighting personnel should also be considered when planning ARFF facilities. An adequate number of fire stations should be located on the landside portion of the airport to provide firefighting services to all structural buildings and emergency medical services inside the terminal buildings and roadway network. Airports that lack Part 139 certification should coordinate with local municipalities to determine the appropriate emergency response services that can be provided at the airport. III.1.3.6 Aircraft Deicing Facilities Aircraft deicing facilities are recommended at airports where icing conditions are expected. For some airports, centralized deicing facilities at or adjacent to the terminal can adequately meet the deicing/anti-icing demands of users and still allow acceptable taxiing times to the departure runways under varying weather conditions. In some cases, remote deicing facilities located near departure runway ends or along taxiways are recommended when taxiing times from terminals or other centralized deicing facilities frequently exceed holdover times. No matter what the location, it will be necessary to provide adequate land area to accommodate such aircraft deicing facilities as the following: â¢ Aircraft deicing apron â¢ Bypass taxiway â¢ Environmental runoff containment system â¢ Portable nighttime lighting â¢ Crew shelter (kitchen and toilet) â¢ Storage tanks for deicing/anti-icing fluid â¢ Equipment storage area For additional assistance in determining the optimum location and sizing of the aircraft deic- ing facilities, refer to FAA AC 150/5300-14B, Design of Aircraft Deicing Facilities (16). III.1.3.7 Air Traffic Control Tower The ATCT is responsible for managing and directing airborne and ground aircraft traffic movements. The site for the ATCT requires a clear unobstructed view of the airportâs traffic pattern, runway approach areas, and aircraft movement areas (runway, taxiway, and apron areas). The land area should be large enough to accommodate the ATCT, base building, and auto parking, 38 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
with adequate land for future expansion needs. The actual land area will be based on the ATC level of activity and should be coordinated with the local FAA Regional Office. III.1.3.8 In-Flight Catering Services/Flight Kitchens The preparation and storage of in-flight meals, snacks, and beverages typically requires separate facilities apart from the passenger terminal building. In some cases, each airline or a consortium of airlines will have a third party provide these types of services. It is recommended that the catering facilities (preparation and main stores) should be located to provide quick secure airside access to the aircraft terminal ramp areas. There will also need to be landside access to the catering facilities for the delivery of food products and materials. III.1.3.9 Airport Administrative Facilities The airport administrative facilities may house airport management offices, aircraft operator offices, government control authorities [i.e., Transportation Security Administration (TSA)], and airport police and security facilities. Some airports may establish these facilities as a complex separate from the terminal, whereas other airports may integrate these functions into the terminal building. If a separate administration complex is developed, an optimum location for these services is close to public transportation facilities with quick access to secure airport operations areas. III.2 Land Use Compatibility One of the primary objectives of the airport master planning process is to assess the compat- ibility of further airport development with surrounding land uses. While the terminal planner will not normally be involved in addressing this wider issue, it is important that s/he be familiar with the status of local land use planning that may have an important interface with the terminal planning process. Specifically, two levels of land use plansâregional and communityâdeserve particular attention in order to identify plans and projects that may affect, or be affected by the proposed passenger terminal project. III.2.1 Regional Land Use Plans Regional land use plans typically cover several jurisdictions and are usually prepared by the local Metropolitan Planning Organization (MPO). These documents are normally available on an MPO website or in hard copy for a nominal fee. When requesting these documents, it is prudent to ask the status of any revisions because they are updated periodically. It is important to use these plans in the early planning stages of the project to identify any potential incompatibility between the terminal and other planned transportation projects in the region. Conversely, there may be opportunities to coordinate the passenger terminal project with other regional projects. Airport Sponsor Assurances, which are signed when receiving federal funding, mandate that airport projects, including terminal projects, are reasonably consistent with plans of public agen- cies that are authorized by the state, such as the local MPO (17). When reviewing regional land use plans, the areas that have the greatest relationship to passenger terminal projects are typically highway projects; mass transit projects, such as light/commuter rail; and intermodal transportation centers. III.2.1.1 Highway Projects As most air passengers in the United States access the airport by car or some other form of road transport, passenger terminal projects may require off-airport highway interchanges to be upgraded or, in some cases, new interchanges to be built. Understanding the planned improvements to nearby highways may provide valuable information when determining the location of a new Planning Considerations 39
terminal. Likewise, a regional land use plan may also indicate if there are constraints to upgrading or constructing new interchanges near the airport. III.2.1.2 Light Rail/Commuter Rail Many commercial passenger airports are either directly or indirectly linked to regional light rail and commuter rail systems. Because these systems are large public undertakings that may take years to implement, it is critical to determine whether the planned alignments make a direct connection to the airport feasible and, more specifically, whether an airport rail station can be incorporated into the new terminal. Such an undertaking affects not only the physical design of the terminal, but also the ability to provide a right-of-way for the train to enter and exit the airport property. If regional mass transit is a factor in the planning of the passenger terminal facility, it is important to identify the potential benefits of linking the airport to the system and to discuss potential funding sources for the projects. When exploring mass transit at airports, another factor to consider is the potential for collateral development to occur near the train station. This development may include retail opportunities, parking for non-airport passengers, and increased surface transportation due to buses and taxis providing service to the station. III.2.1.3 Intermodal Transportation Centers Similar to light/commuter rail, some airports have true intermodal transportation centers that provide seamless connectivity between air, rail, bus/taxi, and automobiles. Regional land use plans will provide information regarding future plans to develop such facilities off-airport. Depending on the geographic relationship of the airport to these facilities, it could be a benefit to the airport and the region to host the facility on the airport in conjunction with an existing or planned passenger terminal facility. Furthermore, airport and terminal planners can recommend this type of facility, when it is appropriate, and coordinate with the MPO to have it included in the future regional plans. Inclusion in the MPO plans may make the project eligible for additional federal funding. III.2.2 Community Land Use Plans Similar to regional land use plans, community land use plans should be examined during the early planning stages to identify any constraints or opportunities. These plans are kept at local government offices and typically cover the areas immediately adjacent to the airport. When reviewing community land use plans, the areas that have the greatest relationship to passenger terminal projects are local roadway projects; recreational facilities, such as parks and hiking paths; and secondary/collateral development. III.2.2.1 Local Roadway Projects The local roadway system is the key mode of access for residents of airport support communities and neighboring towns. These residents include airport and airline employees, passengers living near the airport, and the multiplicity of service providers making regular truck deliveries. Passenger terminal projects may require local roadways to be upgraded or, in some cases, closed or re-routed. Understanding the planned improvements and the potential effects to nearby roadways is impor- tant, especially if there is some flexibility with regards to the precise location and orientation of the new terminal. Increased airport traffic may lead to congestion and/or increased traffic delays and pollution on local roadways. Sensitivity to these issues in the planning phases of a new terminal can be critical to building local support for the project. III.2.2.2 Recreational Facilities A number of airports and neighboring communities have developed recreational amenities, such as parks, golf courses, and hiking trails on or adjacent to airport property. These facilities 40 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
provide opportunities for relaxation, pedestrian connectivity, and healthy exercise for the com- munities living near the airport. If community land use plans include proposals for new or expanded recreational facilities that may be negatively affected by the terminal development, the issue should be tackled proactively to see if ways can be found to mitigate these effects. III.2.2.3 Secondary/Collateral Development The location of an airport passenger terminal has a direct relationship to secondary development, such as hotels, rental car facilities, restaurants, gas stations, and off-airport parking. Therefore, plans for a new or expanded passenger terminal facility should be closely coordinated with the neighboring communitiesâ land use plans to ensure that the secondary development that will occur can be accommodated. III.2.3 Other Land Use Compatibility Issues III.2.3.1 Environmental Wetlands Passenger terminal projects have the potential to include impacts associated with wetlands. Wetlands are defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) as areas that are inundated by surface or groundwater with a frequency to support, and under normal circum- stances does or would support, a prevalence of vegetative or aquatic life that requires saturated or seasonally saturated soil conditions. Locating the presence of wetlands is a particularly important element in the compatibility planning step of the process because wetlands have special protection through federal and most state laws. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) will not allow a wetland to be filled unless it can be demonstrated that there is no reasonable or practicable alternative. In addition, Executive Order 11990, Protection of Wetlands, instituted a âno net lossâ policy for wetlands, which the FAA implements by requiring airport sponsors to demonstrate attempts to avoid and minimize impacts to wetland before moving to mitigation planning. To avoid or minimize a potential effect to wetlands, an inventory of potential wetlands within the project area should be prepared. This inventory should make use of the national wetlands inventory or site-specific wetland delineation. As mentioned above, all wetland areas identified should be avoided if feasible. If impacts to wetlands are unavoidable, then early coordination with the USACE should be conducted to determine ways to minimize or mitigate the impacts to these wetlands. III.2.3.2 Grading and Drainage Passenger terminal projects have the potential to increase the amount of impervious surface at an airport, which will increase water runoff resulting in additional pollutants being washed into nearby streams. An airport may use detention/retention ponds to handle the increased water runoff and to treat for water quality. These issues are usually handled at a local level and require permits from the community where the airport is located. Having a complete understanding of these issues early in the process is helpful because if there is a need to create or modify detention basins, there can be secondary impacts. III.2.3.3 Highest and Best Use Principles As the privatization of airport ownership and management has not been adopted in the United States in the way it has in Europe, Asia, and Australasia, there has been less pressure on airport management to maximize commercial revenues. However, there is now an evolving trend to adopt the real estate land use principle of highest and best use of the property surrounding terminal facilities. Increased economic pressures to achieve maximum revenues from the passenger activity passing through airport terminals is driving a re-examination of land use priorities in relation to property adjacent to or conveniently connected to airport passenger processing centers. Planning Considerations 41
At large hub airports, particular priority is now being given to realizing the inherent revenue potential of property developed in immediate proximity to terminals that process millions of passengers a year. Generally the closer the property is to these passenger processing activities, the greater the potential for revenue generation from hotel, office, and high-end retail developments, as well as, convention centers and other similar land uses. This highest and best use of land principle is the driving force behind the airport city concepts that have and are currently being developed with varying degrees of success overseas at airports like Hong Kong International Airport, with its adjacent SkyCity and major shopping malls associated with the airport rail in-town check-in facilities on Hong Kong Island and in Kowloon. The integration of a new passenger terminal with a major multi-modal ground transportation center and associated commercial and residential developments at the Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport shown in Figure III-1 is another example. Figure III-1 is from Graphic Illustration of Hongqiao Integrated Transportation Hub. III.3 Ground Access Transportation Ground access facilities at airports are the interface between the airport terminal(s) and the surrounding region. As such, planning for these facilities cannot exist in a vacuum. Coordination is required on the part of local, state, and federal governments from airport planning and opera- 42 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design Courtesy of: Shanghai Airport Authority Figure III-1. Shanghai Hongqiao Airport.
tions representatives; local and state highway and transit officials; and private transportation providers who utilize airport facilities. Ground access transportation planning at airports occurs on both a regional and a local scale. Regionally, the projected future needs of airport users must be taken into account during long- range planning processes and the strategic aspects will normally be considered in some depth during the Airport Master Plan development process. At a more detailed level, connections between components of the airport facility must be planned and designed to accommodate the expected traffic flows. Components of the ground transportation planning process are described in the following sections. III.3.1 Regional Airport System Plan The Regional Airport System Plan addresses air traffic demand and capacity, alternatives to meet future demand, air traffic forecasts, and environmental effects of airports on a regional basis. One of the most important parts of this document is the Ground Transportation Report. This report addresses the effects of increased aviation activity on ground traffic, the ground access improvements needed to support new airfield and terminal developments in the region, and a summary of existing and proposed improvements needed to support airport development. III.3.2 Regional Transportation Plan Each metropolitan area in the United States with a population greater than 50,000 has an MPO, which is responsible for coordinating transportation planning processes within its region. Under the requirements of federal transportation laws and regulations (SAFETEA-LU), the MPO has the responsibility to prepare a Regional Transportation Plan (RTP), often called a Long-Range Transportation Plan. The RTP covers a 20-year planning horizon and must be updated every 4 years in areas that have not attained or maintained requisite air quality standards and every 5 years for areas that have. In development of RTPs, MPOs are encouraged to coordinate with local agencies and planning officials, including airport operators. Improvements to ground access facilities, in order to support airport operations, need to be programmed through the MPO process. Therefore, it is crucial for airports and MPOs to share information to increase the accuracy and efficiency of the planning process. III.3.3 Airport Ground Access System III.3.3.1 Roadway The airport access road system, also known as the airport entrance/exit roadway system, connects the interior airport roads to the local and regional roadway system and is the point of transition between the local and regional roadway system and the airport terminal area. It will need to have the capacity to handle the volume of traffic for now and the future. This facility can vary from arterial roadways with traffic signal control to limited access/freeway type roadways at larger airports. One of the main considerations to take into account in planning airport access roads is to make sure that they are used only by airport users. Non-airport traffic should be discouraged. Such traffic can best be discouraged by designing a roadway system that does not provide any incentive for other drivers to use the airport roadway, such as travel time advantages for drivers who are searching for a route to another destination. This roadway design needs to be given careful consideration in all types of traffic conditions. For instance, there may not appear to be any advantage during normal conditions, but an advantage may arise when traffic conditions on off-airport roadways are especially congested. Planning Considerations 43
The best way to discourage non-airport traffic is to ensure that the only destination for the airport entrance road is the airport terminals and the other airport facilities. One of the ways that this is typically done is by employing a loop roadway that serves the terminals, parking, and other facilities. Another important consideration is signage. A lot of information needs to be conveyed to drivers approaching the airport, including which airlines and flights are served by each terminal and which parking areas are open. Many passengers and visitors are infrequent users of the airport, so it is important to minimize the number of decisions to be made at any one point, as well as to provide adequate information sufficiently in advance of the decision points. Wayfinding signage should be simple and concise, with the amount of text on one sign limited to what can reasonably be digested quickly by a driver. III.3.3.2 Rail Connection to a regional rail transit system is a very important enhancement to the airportâs ground access system. Connection to a regional system provides more flexibility for air travelers. It also provides an alternative means of access for airport, airline, and concession employees. A main consideration in planning for a facility of this type is to place it as close as possible to the areas with the highest demand. Normally a regional rail system would connect to only one station on the airport. Rail connections, for example, should preferably deliver passengers directly to a dedicated airport station, rather than requiring them to take a bus or taxi to complete the journey. Figure III-2 depicts light rail transit to an airport. This station should ideally be located in the highest areas of passenger demand, such as a high-volume terminal. This location often involves significant design challenges, especially if the terminal is already built. Fitting a rail station in the terminal area can be very difficult. Not only do the station and the platform need space, but there also needs to be a lot of space for passenger circulation, fare collection, and queuing outside of the platform. Given the space considerations, the airport rail station may need to be in a location away from the terminal, such as at a ground transportation center. From here the passengers and employees can walk to the terminals or connect to an on-airport bus or automated people mover system. 44 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design Courtesy of: Â© Steve Uzzell Figure III-2. Light rail transit at MinneapolisâSt. Paul International Airport.
Another consideration in planning for regional rail stations is flexibility. New station and track locations should be placed so as not to restrict future growth and flexibility of airport facilities. While placing the station close to the major activity centers is desirable, it may restrict the ability to make adjustments to the layout in the future. Location of the station farther away from the terminal may maintain more flexibility for future improvements. III.3.4 Intermodal Connections Airports often become a point of convergence for many different modes of transportation including road, rail, and, in some cases, ferry. Increasingly, airport planners worldwide are seeing merit in encouraging the use of public transportation to access airports, in order to reduce road congestion and the amount of land required for the parking of private vehicles, and to facilitate travel for airport employees. Good connectivity between the airport terminal and the various public transportation modes is an essential component of this strategy. During the planning process, the needs of the various airport user groups must be taken into account. Regular airport users will soon work out the most efficient mode of travel from their perspective, while first time users will place a high priority on assurance of getting to the terminal in good time for their flight. Ease of use and wayfinding are important in ensuring that various transport modes are used to their full potential. The need to make multiple transfers between modes before reaching the destination significantly reduces the likelihood of users selecting that mode. Intermodal facilities on the airport provide for connections among different providers of ground access services. These facilities bring together access for private vehicles, taxis, limousines, on- and off-airport shuttle buses, local and regional bus service, and possibly on- and off-airport rail service. An intermodal facility located adjacent to the terminal has the advantage of being within convenient walking distance of the terminal. The most common type is the use of the terminal curbfront. In the case of multiple terminals, this curbfront location would require multiple facilities. One of the main planning considerations of this type of facility is signage and wayfinding. This type of facility is typically spread out along a long length of curbfront. It is important to direct passengers correctly into and out of the terminal and from, or to, whichever mode of transport they are using. An intermodal facility located away from the terminal is often called a âground transportation centerâ (GTC) and provides a centralized area for a variety of public transportation modes to pick up and drop off passengers. This option provides greater flexibility for expansion in the future than one located next to the terminal. The major planning consideration for a GTC is access to and from the terminals. Sometimes access can be achieved by positioning the GTC between two terminals and maintaining reasonable moving walkwayâassisted walking distances. If distances are too long, however, a supplementary shuttle bus or people mover system becomes necessary. Both systems will require a change of mode for the passenger, which increases travel time. A bus system has a much lower initial capital cost and provides the most flexibility. A rail-based system has a higher initial capital cost but offers a higher quality of service than a bus system. If the demand is especially high, the rail system, such as an automated people mover (APM), should be considered seriously. III.4 Terminal Site Planning III.4.1 Airfield Considerations The design and siting of the terminal complex requires an examination of the existing and future airfield layout requirements. The fundamental airfield-associated components that largely determine the terminal design and location include the Obstacle Clearance Surface requirements, taxiway/taxilane requirements, ATCT sight lines, runway exit locations, and other airfield design Planning Considerations 45
standard considerations. Each aspect heavily relies on the type and size (or number) of aircraft operations expected to occur at the airport. III.4.1.1 Taxiway and Taxilane Requirements When designing the airfield and terminal complex, it is important to provide an adequate taxiway/taxilane network to provide flexibility in aircraft movements throughout the entire airport. The taxiway and taxilane network will provide for safe, efficient, and expeditious travel between airport facilities (passenger terminal, cargo structures, general aviation facilities, etc.) and the runway system. Specifically, the taxiways function as the airportâs paved network for aircraft between the runways and the apron, while the taxilanes provide aircraft routes on the aprons between the taxiways and terminal gate positions. Both taxiways and taxilanes must follow appro- priate dimensional criteria based on current FAA and International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) design standards. For more information on taxiway and taxilane definition and funda- mental design requirements, see Section V.1.2, Aircraft Maneuvering and Separations. III.4.1.2 Airport Obstacle Clearance Surface Requirements Navigable airspace in the vicinity of airports is governed by FAR Part 77 standards, which exist to protect the airspace and runway approaches from obstacles and hazards to aircraft in flight. Planning and design of the terminal building must consider any potential effect to these imaginary surfaces. An optimum design configuration avoids or minimizes any significant penetration of the existing and future airport imaginary surfaces. Imaginary surfaces include the primary, approach, transitional, horizontal, and conical surfaces. See Section V.1.1, FAR Part 77 and TERPS Requirements, for further discussion of these imaginary surfaces. If intrusion into these surfaces occurs as a result of terminal development, marking and lighting of the obstruction should take place as described in FAA AC 70/7460-1, Obstruction Marking and Lighting (18). The building restriction line (BRL) is used to identify suitable building area locations on airports. The BRL should encompass the runway protection zones, the runway object free area, the runway visibility zone, navaid critical areas, areas required for terminal instrument procedures, and ATCT clear line-of-sight. III.4.1.3 Runway Visibility Zone If there are intersecting runways, a clear line-of-sight between the ends of the runways is recommended. Terrain needs to be graded and permanent objects need to be designed or sited so that there will be an unobstructed line-of-sight from any point 5 feet above one runway centerline to any point 5 feet above an intersecting centerline, within the runway visibility zone. See FAA AC 150/5300-13, Airport Design, Section 503 (15) to determine the runway visibility zone. III.4.1.4 Air Traffic Control Tower Sight Lines A clear and unobstructed line-of-sight must exist between the ATCT and all runway approach paths and movement areas (runways and taxiways) on the airfield. This requirement warrants consideration during the terminal siting analysis and design so that interference between ATCT and critical runway, taxiway, and apron areas does not occur. Besides general building structure, aspects of terminal design for consideration include aircraft parking configurations, tail heights, and ramp lighting, because they can result in line-of-sight shadows for the ATCT. The controller must be able to, at a minimum, see the fuselage of all aircraft types operating on the airfield. Section V.1.3 presents additional information relevant to ATCT line-of-sight requirements. III.4.2 Landside Considerations The primary landside elements that are important in the design and location of a terminal are intermodal facilities, roadways, pedestrian facilities, and parking facilities. Because each of these 46 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
elements needs to be located very close to the terminal, they will have a great impact on how the terminal is situated and how it functions. III.4.2.1 Intermodal Facilities Intermodal facilities include regional transit links to the airport (such as light rail or heavy rail) and on-airport commercial vehicle staging areas. The primary considerations for regional rail links are the right-of-way needed for the trains, the station layout, and the access links between the station and the terminal. The rail right-of-way and station layout will typically be covered in the design standards for the entire rail system. These can be adapted for the airport environment. Access from the station may be horizontal (sidewalks, moving walkways, overhead walkways) or vertical (escalators, elevators, and stairs). Stations located more than 1â4 mile from the station may require a separate transit link to the terminal. There is more flexibility in the layout and location of commercial vehicle staging areas, because these areas are entirely under the control of the airport design team. They can be dispersed or consolidated. Further discussion of the requirements for intermodal connections is contained in Section VII.2. III.4.2.2 Roadways Depending on the size of the airport, many different types of roadways can affect the terminal. However, for most airports, the main ones will be the terminal approach roads, the terminal curbfront roads, and the recirculation roads. The terminal approach roads will widen out as they approach the terminal into the terminal curbfront roadway, which has the widest footprint. The terminal curbfront roadways need to provide for loading and unloading lanes at the terminal and for lanes to accommodate vehicles not stopping at the terminal. For a two-level terminal, the height of the upper level roadway should be a consideration in air flow for the lower level. Recirculation roads deserve special consideration. They are roadways that allow drivers to leave the terminal and either come back to the same terminal curb or go to another level of the same terminal or to a different terminal. Typically recirculation roads are one-lane roadways, with a wide shoulder to accommodate bypass in case of a vehicle breakdown. The turning radius on these roadways is much tighter than on a typical roadway, and ramp slopes (for two-level terminals) may be steeper than typical roadways. Requirements for roadways are discussed in more detail in Section VII.3 and for terminal curbfronts in Section VII.4. III.4.2.3 Pedestrian Facilities Landside pedestrian facilities include sidewalks in front of the terminal and, in many cases, sidewalks in between curbfront lanes. These facilities increase the width of the footprint needed in front of the terminal and, consequently, have an impact on the siting of a terminal. Requirements for pedestrian facilities are contained in Section VII.4.1. III.4.2.4 Parking Facilities Typically only passenger parking facilities are located adjacent to the terminal. Other parking facilities (such as employee, rental car, and cell phone lots) are located away from the terminal. Passenger parking can be provided in surface lots, in a parking garage, or in a combination of both. Parking can be placed facing the terminal or on the side of the terminal. For busy airports, the parking lots or garages can take up almost as much land as the terminal itself. Parking facility requirements are presented in Section VII.5. III.4.3 Utilities Considerations Utilities can be classified into four main categories: water, sewerage, natural gas, and electric power. Existing terminal expansion or new terminal infrastructure projects should take into Planning Considerations 47
consideration each of these utility systems as each can have an effect on the planning and design process. Early in the planning of a new airport terminal or substantial terminal renovation, the site utilities should be assessed to ensure that sufficient capacity is available and that the planner is aware of the location of primary utility alignments. Adequate access considerations should be taken into account when planning the terminalâs utility infrastructure in order to provide for proper maintenance and operation of an efficient system. Additionally, careful consideration should be given to incorporating sustainability principles, which are more fully presented in Section III.8. III.4.3.1 Water There are two basic patterns of water distribution systems: branching pattern or gridiron or network pattern. Built-up areas, which often require a reliable supply for firefighting capabilities, are more commonly found utilizing a gridiron pattern. Valves installed with valve boxes provide maintenance access from the surface, while larger valves are typically installed in pits or manholes. Pipe diameter and water flow rates are determined by fire protection requirements. Rainwater collection systems are a type of a sustainable building practice that captures rainwater for reuse in landscape irrigation. Another sustainable building practice that contributes to water use reduction is the use of water-conserving fixtures such as urinals, water closets, and metering faucets (infrared). III.4.3.2 Sewerage Sewerage systems can consist of either a combined system that collects both wastewater and stormwater runoff from domestic and industrial sources or a waste collection system and separate stormwater system. Separate sanitary and stormwater sewers allow for separate collection and treatment before release. Gravity flow is more typically favored in the design of a sewer system and must be installed with an appropriate downward slope, which may result in varying sewer depths based on the siteâs topographical features. Pumped or pressurized systems can be installed to address gradient challenges; however, the costs of energy and the possibility of power loss and pump failures reduce the benefits of this type of alternative. Sustainable wastewater building practices can reduce the demand required for a sewer system by utilizing wastewater recovery systems such as the reuse of gray water or on-site wastewater treatment. Gray water is typically defined as wastewater that does not involve human waste or food processing. Typical examples include wastewater from sinks, showers, and washing machines; cooling tower bleed down water; and condensation from air conditioning systems. Because deicing/anti-icing and glycol fluids are chemical products that have environmental consequences that affect the water quality of local waterways, it will be necessary to provide for the collection and treatment of aircraft deicing and airfield glycol fluids. The recommended structures are those that compose a mitigating alternative that collects and retains runoff for proper disposal or recycling. The deicer runoff must be isolated from the airfield storm sewers or from terminal areas that do not divert seasonal flows of glycols. Deicing facilities enhance the feasibility and economic benefits of recycling glycols by collecting higher concentrations, as compared to drainage systems where glycols are further diluted with other runoff and precipitation. III.4.3.3 Natural Gas Natural gas systems typically are supplied via a distribution system fed by a transmission system under reduced pressure. Operation and maintenance are managed by means of access to valves located in vaults or vault boxes. III.4.3.4 Electric Power Electric power is either distributed via underground or aerial power cables. It is typically distributed via high voltage transmission lines to substations serving commercial and industrial 48 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
users such as airports. Typical substations transform from high to low or low to high voltage using transformers. Underground cables can be either buried in the soil or run through ducts or conduits placed underground separately. These duct systems allow for removal and replacement of cable in future applications or the addition of new cable runs without excavation. Transformer space and switching devices are typically installed in underground vaults adjacent to the build- ing or placed in the buildingâs basement. Adequate space for these devices should be taken into consideration early in the planning stages and sized appropriately during the building plan phase. Additional space requirements may be necessary if utilizing certain sustainable building practices that reduce the demand for grid-supplied electric power. III.4.3.5 Solar Orientation Solar orientation refers to the use of active or passive systems for capturing the sunâs energy. Active systems can capture energy through the use of tilted and/or fixed panels or tracking panels. Passive solar technology is used for harnessing the sunâs renewable source of heat during winter months; ventilation during the cooling season; and natural daylighting, which reduces the need for artificial lighting during daylight hours. Elongation of buildings in the east/west axis limits the exposure to the east and west sides, which are more difficult to shade in the morning and afternoon because of the sunâs lower angle at these times of day. The more exposed south side can take advantage of the sunâs lower angle during the winter months increasing solar heat gain, and shade devices can be implemented to reject the sunâs higher direct rays during the summer months, as well as using the prevailing winds for natural ventilation during the cooling season. The long east/west axis also maximizes natural daylight, but glare resulting from direct sunlight should be studied and corrective measures should be taken to diffuse this light. Regardless, the airportâs physical location and local climate will ultimately dictate the suitability of other types of this sort of power generation. III.5 Airport Security Planning for security of the airport in general, and the terminal in particular, should begin early with a security review of the schematic design efforts of the architects and engineers. A threat and vulnerability assessment should be initiated to identify the strengths and weaknesses of any given elements of design and provide the opportunity to address them in advance on paper, rather than in subsequent expensive and time-consuming change orders to move bricks, steel, and fiber. Further, terminal security is not limited to anti-terrorism and hijack concerns; the airport operator must also seek to protect the public from theft, physical attack, vandalism and vehicle damage in parking facilities, and all the typical concerns found in a very dynamic and highly transient and stress-filled public environment. These are not trivial matters; they are the daily operational issues around which the rest of the terminal must find a comfortable co-existence. Over the years, and particularly since September 11, 2001, security issues permeate virtually every aspect of the planning of the terminal complex. This security planning includes not just the TSA passenger and baggage screening operations, but also the federally required access controls to the various levels of security-related operational areas and the closed circuit television surveillance that supplements many of those areas due to dual safety and law enforcement requirements. Terminal complex security issues include the placement of approach roads, parking facilities with adequate standoff, vehicle barriers, blast resistant facades and glazing, limited concealment areas/structures, and a multitude of secure operational pathways, corridors, stairwells, and elevators inside and outside the terminal. Planning Considerations 49
While security concerns for the airport typically begin at the airportâs perimeter boundary, this Guidebook will focus on the three primary areas of the terminal complex: â¢ Airside security â Vehicle and pedestrian gates and portals â Planning for vehicle checkpoints â Apron areas â¢ Terminal security â Terminal lobby issues â Employee screening â Baggage screening â¢ Landside security â Access roadway and terminal curbside â Multi-modal and multi-terminal connections The topics of airside, terminal, and landside security are discussed in detail in Section V.1.5, Airside Security; Section VI.1.6, Terminal Security; and Section VII.7, Landside Security. III.6 Information Technology and Communications From a terminal building systems perspective, the information technology (IT) system is the lifeblood of the entire terminal operation; it is the primary means by which information is transferred to and from airport users, their customers, and business partners. Airport IT systems also underpin key airport management functions including building safety, building services, building maintenance, gate assignments, and airport security and environmental control. Figure III-3 depicts the range of users and applications that a modern airport IT network should be capable of supporting; each will require attention during terminal design, both as an individual function and part of an overall integrated IT system. Like physical security and public safety, IT must be a part of the planning process from the very beginning. Issues such as wired vs. wireless, bandwidth availability, network infrastructure and security, Common Use Terminal Equipment, public internet access, and airline and tenant support are all integral parts of IT provisioning for terminal facilities. Without those, and many more, being fully functional and relatively fail-safe, the airport cannot function efficiently. IT planning for terminal services is not limited to the routing of fiber and copper within the cable plant; it extends to maintaining the availability and functionality of every piece of equipment along the entire network. The IT system must support passenger check-in facilities at curbside and ticket counters, public address systems, baggage handling equipment, internal communications, security and administrative functions of not only the airport and airlines, but also a wide diver- sity of tenants, public users, and government support agencies, as well as emergency systems and automated systems such as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) power management and lighting controls. The topic of IT systems is explained more fully in Section VI.4.2, Information Technology Systems, which will discuss the importance of early attention to choices between distributed vs. central design of network architecture; system performance capabilities among the alternative structures; trends in IT networks for common use facilities; scalability to accommodate future demand and some of the more esoteric issues surrounding cabling, system maintenance, and power and network backups; and overall IT systems management, including security of the network itself. In summary, IT system design is an overriding concern that reaches into virtually every corner of airport planning and operations, from the publicâs curbside arrival through their airline and 50 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
airport processing, visits to services and concessions, safety and security maintenance, and ultimate departure or connections. Terminal planning, from front door to departure gate, determines the essence of the passenger experience, but none of that is possible without an appropriately designed and configured IT network that functions as an integrated whole and can be readily adapted to a very rapidly evolving technology. III.7 Environmental Protection A range of environmental issues are relevant to the terminal planning process. In particular, the planner should be fully aware of the implications of the environmental regulatory requirements described in the NEPA, the role of the FAA, compliance requirements of other state and special purpose environmental laws, and the relationship between NEPA and sustainability. Information on techniques used to effectively integrate development planning and environmental activities throughout the airport project development process are available in ACRP Synthesis 17 (19). III.7.1 National Environmental Policy Act NEPA of 1970 requires all federal agencies to integrate environmental protection values into their decision-making processes by considering both the environmental impacts of proposed policies and projects and whether reasonable alternatives exist to mitigate those impacts. NEPA created the Council on Environmental Quality as the environmental policy arm of the federal government, and the FAA is required to comply with its rulings. Planning Considerations 51 IT Systems & Telecommunications Airport Special SystemsCommunication SystemsNetwork Infrastructure Cable Plant Operating Systems Network (wired/wireless) Radio Systems Security & Safety Systems Airport Operations Application Programs â¢ Perimeter Intrusion Detection System â¢ Physical Access Control System â¢ Video Surveillance Systems â¢ Public Safety â¢ Security Operations Center (SOC) â¢ Parking Management â¢ Maintenance Management â¢ Building Management Systems â¢ Vehicle Traffic Management â¢ Fire Detection & Alarm Systems â¢ Alert and Evacuation Systems â¢ Trunked Radio Systems Terminal Systems â¢ CUTE/MUSE & Ticketing Systems â¢ Baggage Handling & Reconciliation â¢ Status Systems FIDS-MUFIDS-BIDS â¢ Concessions â¢ Airport Operations Center (AOC) â¢ Structured Cabling â¢ Fiber Cabling â¢ CATV Cabling â¢ Cable Management â¢ Cable Management â¢ Fire Alarm Cabling â¢ Network Services â¢ Internet & Web Services â¢ Digital Storage â¢ NOC â¢ Telecommunications Rooms â¢ Datacenters â¢ Equipment Infrastructure Antenna Systems â¢ Wired Voice â¢ IP Voice â¢ Audio & Visual Paging Paging & Public Notification â¢ Internet & Web Services (WiFi & WiMAX) â¢ Airport Communications â¢ Shared Carrier Facilities Telephone Synchronized Timing â¢ Master Clock System Source: TranSecure Figure III-3. Airport IT and telecommunications services.
To comply with the requirement to implement NEPA, the FAA promulgated Order 5050.4B (20) and Order 1050.1E (21). Any airport development that requires federal involvement or action must comply with NEPA. Examples of federal involvement or action include the following: â¢ Use of federal funding of any kind â¢ Approval for a new public use airport â¢ Approval of a new or amended Airport Layout Plan (ALP) â¢ Authorization to use Passenger Facility Charges (PFC) funds â¢ Use or transfer of federally owned land â¢ Release of federally owned airport land for non-aeronautical use â¢ Approval of noise compatibility programs â¢ Approval of the restriction of Stage 3 aircraft â¢ Issuance of a Part 139 certificate â¢ Approval of a wildlife hazard management plan The use of federal funding, PFC funding, and approval of an ALP are the most common federal actions associated with passenger terminal projects. There are three levels of environmental review that may be required prior to receiving envi- ronmental approval from the FAA. These levels, from least to most extensive, include a Categorical Exclusion (Cat-Ex), Environmental Assessment (EA), and Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The selection of which type of environmental review will be required for a specific project is dependent on the size of the project and the scale of potential impacts of the project on the environment. III.7.1.1 Categorical Exclusion According to FAA Order 1050.1E (21), Cat-Exs apply in cases when, based on past experience, the FAA has concluded that projects of this nature do not normally require an EA or EIS because they are not likely to cause significant effect on the environment. Many minor passenger terminal projects (such as small additions) can be processed and receive approval under this category. The preparation of a Cat-Ex for a passenger terminal project can be as simple as completing a checklist or may include some environmental analysis to support the findings that no extraordinary circumstances exist that would require further analysis. As such, most Cat-Ex documents for passenger terminal projects can be prepared in 1 to 2 months. There is no requirement for a public review or hearing with a Cat-Ex, although the FAA may suggest some coordination with regulatory agencies when there is reason to do so. III.7.1.2 Environmental Assessment The purpose of an EA is to identify if significant impacts would occur as a result of the proposed action. There are two possible outcomes to an EA. The first is that there would be no significant impacts as a result of the project. In this case, a Finding of No Significant Impact would be prepared and the environmental review is complete. The second outcome would be that significant impacts would occur and an EIS must be prepared as described in Section III.7.1.3. Passenger terminal projects that are of a substantial nature, or include impacts that may be significant, require an EA to be prepared. This effort involves a more rigorous evaluation of potential environmental impacts than required by the Cat-Ex procedure. As a result, the prepa- ration of an EA may take many months to complete, depending on the issues. Coordination with regulatory agencies is required, and a public hearing may be recommended by the FAA. III.7.1.3 Environmental Impact Statement The most intense level of environmental review is an EIS. The main purpose of an EIS is to identify and disclose all impacts that would occur as a result of the proposed action. In cases where an EIS is required, the FAA is responsible for the management of the EIS, including the selection 52 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
of a consultant if necessary. Most passenger terminal projects alone will not require an EIS, because they are typically constructed in areas on airports where similar activity is already taking place. However, passenger terminal projects are sometimes packaged with other development projects in a consolidated EIS Study. Because this is the most intense level of review, it can take many years to complete, depending on the size and the impacts that would result from the project. An EIS requires formal coordination with other regulatory agencies throughout the process, and a public hearing is required. III.7.2 Environmental Considerations in Passenger Terminal PlanningâNEPA When undertaking a passenger terminal project, environmental considerations should be considered during all phases of the planning process as discussed below. III.7.2.1 Initial Planning Phase During the initial planning phase of a passenger terminal project, the general criteria for size, number of gates, and potential locations will be determined. It is appropriate at this time to start developing the arguments that explain the purpose and need for the project. As specified in FAA Order 1050.1E (21), the proponent must demonstrate both the need for the project and how the proposed project will meet that need (commonly referred to as Purpose and Need); the proposed timeframe for implementing the development should also be indicated. At this point in the process, the focus should be on identifying the major deficiencies in the existing terminal and the demand, operational, or regulatory triggers that are driving the need for new or expanded terminal facilities. Some example needs follow: â¢ The existing terminal will exceed its current design capacity at a specific number of annual enplaned passengers. â¢ The existing terminal facility cannot accommodate required security screening. â¢ The existing terminal cannot be expanded because of age, site constraints, or safety requirements. When evaluating alternative passenger terminal locations, attempts should be made to avoid or minimize impacting sensitive environmental resources. While all environmental categories need to be considered, the following environmental categories are the most likely to be impacted by a passenger terminal project. Air Quality. The air quality status of the county in which the airport is located determines the extent of the air quality analysis required under the Clean Air Act conformity regulations. Based on the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for various air pollutants, the USEPA designates the status of counties according to whether the relevant air quality standards have been attained (or not) and, if attained, are being satisfactorily maintained. These designations determine the thresholds against which new project-related emissions are compared to determine the potential for significant air quality impacts. Air pollutant emissions at an airport result from a combination of aircraft operations: the use of GSE, heating equipment, fuel storage, automobiles, and construction activities. In most cases, the area of greatest concern is the passenger terminal curbfront where cars, taxis, and buses have the potential to be stopped and idling for long periods of time during peak periods of activity. Areas in the vicinity of aircraft parking gates are also of concern due to emissions from taxiing aircraft and GSE and activities such as refueling and the use of auxiliary power units while the aircraft is being serviced. There are a number of ways to minimize pollutant emissions when planning a passenger terminal facility: â¢ Curbfront initiatives â Remote taxi staging areas â âKiss-n-flyâ parking areas Planning Considerations 53
â Consolidated remote rental car facilities â Free-flow traffic control at the departure and arrival curb areasâgrade-split curbfronts â Intermodal connections with public transportation systems â Use of âgreenerâ fuels by airside vehicles and public and hotel buses â¢ Airside gate initiatives â Installation of a hydrant fueling system â Electrifying of aircraft gates through the use of 400 Hz power systems â¢ Construction/design initiatives â Fuel efficient and low-emission heating units â Energy-efficient building methods â Use of construction equipment that meets the applicable federal non-road emission stan- dards (tier compliant) â Efficient construction phasing Hazardous Materials and Solid Waste. Passenger terminal projects have the potential to include impacts associated with hazardous materials and solid waste. There are a number of ways to avoid or minimize these potential impacts when planning a passenger terminal facility: â¢ Hazardous materials: A waste is considered hazardous if it is listed as such by the USEPA or it exhibits characteristics of ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Airports routinely use, transport, and store potentially hazardous materials such as aviation fuel, compressed gases, batteries, and deicing fluids. Additionally, should a passenger terminal project include the demolition or modification of existing structures, these structures may contain asbestos and/or lead, depending on their age. To avoid or minimize impacts, an inventory of hazardous materials on the airport or on the sites where the facility may be located must be conducted. This inventory should include reviewing previous environmental documents and potentially conducting field surveys. When feasible, locating terminal and support facilities in these areas should be avoided. When avoiding impacts due to hazardous materials is not possible, then steps should be taken early in the process to determine the extent of the impacts and to develop a mitigation plan that includes monitoring of the site. â¢ Solid waste: Passenger terminal projects typically include an increase in solid waste. There are temporary increases that occur during the construction phase of the project, and then, when the facility is open, it is not uncommon to have an increase in solid waste from the additional concessions, gates, and airline spaces. Early coordination should occur with the local waste management agency to ensure that increases in solid waste can be accommodated. Airport-wide recycling programs should be instituted and built into the lease agreements with terminal tenants. Solid waste accrued during international travel may constitute a hazard. The waste material must be isolated and dealt with in accordance with government regulations intended to protect the environment and public health. Natural Resources and Energy Supply. Passenger terminal projects have the potential to include impacts associated with natural resources and energy supply. To avoid or minimize these potential impacts when planning such facilities, it is important to consider the following: â¢ Natural resources: A majority of passenger terminal projects utilize materials that are readily available and therefore, typically, will not result in impacts to natural resources; however, should the project include materials that are not considered typical in terminal projects, suppliers should be contacted to determine if those materials would be available. The airport should consider implementing projects to reduce use of natural resources such as replacing existing vehicles with vehicles that run on alternative fuels such as electric or hybrid. â¢ Energy supply: Passenger terminal projects typically result in an increase in the airportâs demand for electric and natural gas to power and regulate interior climate. To determine if there would be adequate energy supplies for the project, early coordination with the airportâs supplier 54 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
should occur. An airport should reduce its use of energy by using energy-efficient products such as compact fluorescent light bulbs, skylights, and other energy-efficient heating and cooling systems. Water Quality. There are two main areas of potential effect on water quality associated with terminal projectsâwastewater management and drainage of surface water: â¢ Wastewater: It is common for there to be an increase in the amount of water being used as a result of a passenger terminal project. Temporary impacts would result from the construction of the project, but increases also may result from the increase in additional passengers and concessions that are typically included with these projects. Water-saving programs should be considered when developing the project. â¢ Surface water: Any increase in impervious surface at an airport will have the potential to increase water runoff, which may result in additional pollutants being washed into nearby streams. An airport may use detention/retention ponds to handle the increased water runoff and to improve water quality. These issues are usually handled at a local level and require permits from the community that the airport resides in. Having a complete understanding of these issues early in the process is helpful because the creation or modification of detention basins can cause secondary impacts. Wetlands. Wetlands are defined by the USEPA as areas that are inundated by surface or groundwater with a frequency that, under normal circumstances, does or would support a prevalence of vegetative or aquatic life that requires saturated or seasonally saturated soil con- ditions. Wetlands are often important as âstopoverâ points for migrating birds and can have an ecological significance extending far beyond the neighboring region. To avoid or minimize a potential effect to wetlands, an inventory of potential wetlands within the project area should be prepared. This inventory should make use of the national wetlands inventory or site-specific wetland delineation. All wetland areas identified should be avoided when feasible. If impacts to wetlands are unavoidable, then early coordination with the USACE should be conducted in order to determine ways to minimize or mitigate the impacts to these wetlands. III.7.2.2 Design Phase Recently, the concept of âsustainable designâ has received a great deal of attention. These efforts include the incorporation of materials, systems, and procedures that are self-sustaining, require less energy, require less maintenance, and in some cases actually return energy. While these concepts may be studied in the planning phase, it is the design phase when these concepts will be developed and decisions can be made to include them in the project. More information on the use of sustainable methods in the design of terminal facilities can be found in Section III.8. III.7.2.3 Environmental Review Phase As discussed above, the implementation of a passenger terminal facility will likely trigger the need for an environmental review in accordance with NEPA and FAA Orders 1050.1E (21) and 5050.4B (20). Depending on the level of environmental review, the process may take from a month to several years. Understanding this process and the amount of time that may be required is critical to successful implementation planning. In addition, understanding the amount of time it may take to obtain the environmental approval will determine when the environmental review process should begin. To accomplish this phase most efficiently, the following steps should be taken. Early Coordination. The project should be discussed with the FAA early in the process after the basic plan is developed and potential environmental impacts are known. This discussion may require that a brief environmental overview is initially prepared. The purpose of meeting with Planning Considerations 55
the FAA at this point in the process is to accomplish two goals. The first is to inform the FAA of the project, to share the preliminary Purpose and Need and the anticipated timeframe, and to identify any areas of concern. The second is to obtain a decision on the level of environmental review that will be required. The sponsor of the project should come prepared for the meeting with drawings of the project, a project schedule from initiation to planned opening day (with some time shown for environmental review), and a brief summary of the environmental resources in the area and the potential for impacts. Any concerns raised by the FAA and decisions regard- ing the level of environmental review should be documented and circulated to all parties after the meeting. Depending on the types of impacts anticipated, the FAA may also request that the sponsor of the project contact other federal, state, or local regulatory agencies to discuss impacts and potential mitigation. For example, impacts to known historic or archaeological sites should be coordinated as early in the process as possible. Preparation of Environmental Documentation. Once the planning for the project has been completed, the formal environmental review can begin. The specific requirements of each level of environmental review are provided in FAA Orders 1050.1E (21) and 5050.4B (20). The timing for starting this review is dependent on the timing for the overall project and the level of review that will be required. An environmental approval from the FAA will almost always be required prior to initiating construction; therefore, it is important to understand the amount of time it will take so that the project is not delayed. However, environmental approvals from the FAA have an expiration date of 3 years if substantial activity on the project has not occurred (e.g., grading, demolition of existing structures, land acquisition, etc.). Environmental Permitting. After preparation and approval of the environmental review document, there may still be additional effort required to obtain environmental permits for the project. The most common of these include a permit for impacts to a wetland, which may require both a federal and a state permit, as well as a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit for the release of pollutants into the water system during construction. These permits can take many months to obtain and should not be ignored in the project schedule. The USACE and/or the state will be the responsible agency for providing wetland impact permits. It is recommended that a pre-application meeting with the USACE should be conducted early in the process if wetland impacts are likely to occur. III.7.2.4 Construction Phase Construction activities associated with passenger terminal projects typically create temporary impacts. These impacts are usually associated with air emissions, noise, runoff/erosion, changes in traffic patterns, and the disturbance/release of hazardous materials. Construction of a terminal complex will cause a temporary deterioration in air quality due to dust and other particulates and emissions from the use of construction vehicles. This temporary increase in pollutants will be measured against the same standards as emissions that result from completion of the terminal. The discharges of these pollutants are typically minimized with the use of Best Management Practices (BMPs). Temporary impacts to surface water quality could result from erosion and siltation arising from site disturbance activities. This risk of effect to water quality can be minimized through the adoption of BMPs specified in a Construction Erosion and Sedimentation Control Plan. Activity at airports can generate increased noise for the communities located near the airport. This noise is primarily a function of aircraft overflights, but also includes increased automobile and truck traffic that is typically found near airports. Therefore, construction projects can 56 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
exacerbate the noise problem and can easily upset airport neighbors. Therefore, when preparing to undertake a terminal project, it should be recognized that noise will increase in the vicinity of vehicles and equipment involved in the construction process. Typically, terminal complexes are located near the center of the airfield and the noise would not be distinguishable from the usual noise being produced at the airport. However, there may be cases where this additional noise will be distinguishable and should be addressed with a thoughtful noise reduction plan. An example of this plan may be limiting particularly offensive noises, such as pile driving and equipment with back up alarms, to daytime hours whenever possible. In addition, it should also be noted that existing and temporary roadways providing access to the site will see a temporary increase in traffic flow thus increasing the level of noise. Should buildings need to be demolished during the project, there is a possibility that some debris may contain hazardous materials such as asbestos, solvents and lead paints. These materials are typically found in older buildings and measures exist to dispose of them properly. Additionally, the storage of equipment and construction vehicle staging may result in small fuel and oil spills. III.7.3 Environmental Regulatory Considerations in Terminal PlanningâOther Than NEPA While NEPA and FAA guidance provide the basis for most of the environmental review requirements for airport projects, there are other considerations that must be considered when undertaking a passenger terminal project. These include state-based environmental laws and other federal environmental laws. III.7.3.1 State Environmental Policies Most states have environmental laws in place that will apply to airport projects, including passenger terminal projects. A thorough review of the state environmental laws and policies should be conducted at the same time as the NEPA environmental review. It should be noted that, at this time, most state environmental policies are consistent with federal standards and therefore covered in the course of preparation of the NEPA environmental review document. However, there are other states that have different requirements and may be more onerous than federal standards. For those states, a separate environmental review document may be necessary and should be considered when planning the project schedule. Examples of additional analysis that may be required under a state environmental policy include greenhouse gas emissions, forestland/fire hazards, seismology, and mineral resources. III.7.3.2 Federal Special Purpose Laws In addition to NEPA and state environmental policies, a number of special purpose laws also may need to be complied with for a passenger terminal project. These laws have their own processes and may require considerable consultation depending on the level of impacts. There- fore, it is important to understand the type and level of impacts a project may have as early in the process as possible. The following paragraphs discuss the most common laws and acts that airport projects have to consider. Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. This act requires federal agencies to take into account the effects that their federally funded activities and programs have on signifi- cant historic properties, those included or eligible for the National Register of Historic Places. If a historic place, typically over 50 years of age, is located at the project site, a Section 106 review must be conducted. This review will determine the significance of the structure and what effect the project will have on the structure. This review is typically coordinated with the state historic preservation office. Planning Considerations 57
Coastal Zone Management Act. The Coastal Zone Management Act was established to pre- serve, protect, develop, and restore the nationâs coastal zones. Should the project be located within a coastal zone, coordination with the state department of environmental protection will need to occur to determine if the project is consistent the stateâs coastal management program. Endangered Species Act. The Endangered Species Act protects plants and animals that are listed by the federal government as endangered or threatened. During the environmental review for the project, it must be verified that species on this list do not inhabit or rely on the area to survive. This can be done through coordination with the Department of Fish and Wildlife. Migratory Bird Treaty Act. This act makes it unlawful to pursue, hunt, capture, kill, or sell birds listed as migratory birds. Similar to the Endangered Species Act it must be verified that species on this list do not inhabit or rely on the area to survive. This can be done through coordination with the Department of Fish and Wildlife. Farmland Protection Policy Act. The Farmland Protection Policy Act is intended to minimize the effect federal programs have on the unnecessary and irreversible conversion of farmland to non-agricultural uses. If farmlands exist on the site where the project is to be developed, a Farmland Conversion Impact Rating Form must be filled out and submitted to a local office of the Natural Resources Conservation Service or U.S. Department of Agriculture. Clean Water Act. The Clean Water Act regulates the direct and indirect discharge of pollutants into waters of the United States, including navigable waters and their tributaries, interstate waters, and oceans out to 200 miles. If the project will discharge wastewater or stormwater into the nationâs water from a point source such as a pipe, ditch, channel, or tunnel an NPDES permit must be completed prior to initial discharge. This permit may also be required for the construction of the facility. Executive Order 11988: Floodplain Management. Executive Order 11988 requires federal agencies to avoid, to the extent possible the long- and short-term adverse impacts associated with the occupancy and modification of flood plains and to avoid direct and indirect support of floodplain development. Direct support results from an encroachment, while indirect support results from an action out of the base floodplain that stimulates growth to occur within a floodplain. If a project significantly encroaches on a floodplain, the following findings must be present: â¢ There is no practicable alternative. â¢ The project conforms to applicable state and/or local floodplain protection standards. III.7.4 Relationship of Environmental Sustainability to NEPA Environmental sustainability is a concept that has garnered a great deal of attention lately and can sometimes overlap the goals and policies associated with NEPA. There is a relationship between environmental sustainability, but they are not the same thing. As discussed above, NEPA established a national environmental policy and goals for the protection, maintenance, and enhancement of the environment and provides a process by which environmental impacts are disclosed and decisions about proceeding with a project are made. In essence, NEPA is a dis- closure of the potential environmental impacts of a project so that decision makers can weigh the relative benefits and costs to the environment before proceeding. Environmental sustainability is much broader and is concerned with identifying and imple- menting programs that minimize the effect on the environment, minimizes the consumption of natural resources, and looks for opportunities to replenish natural resources if possible while meeting the needs of the present. There is no federal requirement to ensure that a project includes 58 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
sustainable initiatives; however, there are significant advantages to including such initiatives into a passenger terminal project. Sustainability projects can be implemented for many of the areas of concern that fall under NEPA, such as air quality and water quality. As stated above, sustainability initiatives are not required in order to obtain NEPA approval for a passenger terminal project; however, by pro- actively implementing these initiatives, an airport can demonstrate their willingness to avoid, minimize, and/or mitigate environmental impacts and reduce the consumption of natural resources. This demonstration may lead agencies, such as the Department of Natural Resources or USEPA, to be more willing to approve passenger terminal projects and any required permits, thereby resulting in a quicker NEPA approval process. The implementation of such sustainability projects may also help to build better relationships with environmental regulatory agencies and with the public. Although environmental sustainability projects would by definition have the reduction of environmental impacts as a goal, elements of proposed plans may themselves be subject to a NEPA review and approval. A NEPA review and approval is required for all federal actions, which for environmental sustainability projects could include federal funding or a sustainability project that results in a change in an ALP. Here again, this highlights just some of the differences between environmental sustainability initiatives and NEPA. More information on sustainability can be found in Section III.8. III.8 Sustainability Sustainability is defined as embracing the best possible environmental, social, and fiscally responsible practices in order to meet the needs of the present without compromising the sub- stance or quality of life of future generations. The concept is born out of the growing conviction that mankind cannot continue to deplete the worldâs natural resources and generate pollution at current levels without seriously compromising the long-term well being of the planet and its inhabitants. Key strategies to promote sustainability include efforts to reduce the environmental impact of the built environment by reducing all types of pollution of the natural environment; to conserve energy and thus the natural resources that generate it; and to minimize the effect of major infrastructure development on the conservation of natural resources, while at the same time creating financial and operational benefits for a project, and social benefits for the community at large. Within the overall framework of sustainability, the âgreen buildingâ movement has been growing rapidly in recent years, driven primarily by rising energy costs, the challenge of solid waste disposal, and increased awareness of the environmental effect of building design and operation. At all levels of government and in the private sector, programs have been developed to encourage sustainable design practices; currently, the federal government has mandated that all new build- ings constructed by the General Services Administration must meet green standards and many state and local governments and private institutions are following suit. A âwhole buildingâ approach is a proven method for achieving an efficient use of resources, lower operating costs, and improved quality of the interior environment over a buildingâs lifetime. This approach addresses site issues such as stormwater runoff, water conservation, energy efficiency, material resources, indoor air quality, and other measures to ensure the health and well being of the building occupants. These guidelines are grouped into five major categoriesâeach composed of requirements that share a common environmental goal. One of the financial goals of a whole building approach is to minimize the effect on initial costs (construction costs) by offsetting the cost increases from some requirements by decreases in other areas. For example, the cost of improving the insulation of the exterior envelope of the building may be offset by a reduction in Planning Considerations 59
the size and subsequent cost of heating or cooling systems. Initial cost is further offset by reduced operating costs over the life of the building. III.8.1 LEED Certification for Airport Terminals The information contained in this section follows the U.S. Green Building Councilâs (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEEDÂ®) Green Building Rating System. LEED certification provides independent, third-party verification that a building project meets the highest green building and performance measures. While LEED certification is a desirable goal for most airport terminal projects, it is a voluntary program administered by the Green Building Certification Institute (GBCI). LEED is a continuously evolving standard, and project teams interested in pursuing a LEED rating are encouraged to register the project in the early stages of design and review the LEED Credit Interpretation Rulings to learn how other transportation projects have met LEED require- ments for these unique building types. The most likely category of the LEED Rating System to be considered for the planning and design of a new or renovated terminal is the LEED Accredited Professional (AP) specialty of Building Design + Construction (BD+C) formerly called LEED for New Construction. Terminal A at Boston Logan International Airport marks an important precedent as the first LEED-certified airport terminal project in the United States. While it may be difficult for some airport terminal building projects to achieve certification, the majority of new airport terminal projects in the United States are including LEED certification as a major goal. Building off of LEED, the City of Chicago Department of Aviation has developed the Sustainable Airport Manual (SAM) as an integral part of Chicagoâs ongoing efforts toward implementing more environmentally sustainable buildings and civil infrastructure, as well as incorporating best practice guidance for planning, operations, and maintenance of all City airport facilities and functions, and those of its tenants. The purpose of the SAM is to integrate airport-specific sus- tainable planning and practices early in the design process, through construction, operations, maintenance and all airport functions with minimal impact to schedule or budget. While certain elements of the SAM are specific to the Chicago Department of Aviation, they can easily be customized and interpreted for any airportâs unique environment. The vast majority of SAMâs guidance is already applicable to any airport. III.8.2 Sustainability in the Planning and Design Process III.8.2.1 Conceptual Planning During the conceptual planning phase of airport terminal development, the following key factors should be considered to optimize the performance of the building: â¢ Orientation of the building is important to maximize the use of daylighting and can significantly affect the amount of solar-heat gain of the project. If possible, the building should be oriented on an east-west axis, so that areas that need the most light face north, maximizing the daylighting while minimizing the solar-heat gains. Expanses of glazing on the northern faÃ§ade can pro- vide ample amounts of indirect light. â¢ Maximize the use of daylighting to decrease the amount of artificial lighting, as well as minimize the amount of heating and cooling of the area. Automatic daylight dimming controls for the lighting can greatly reduce energy costs, but consideration of glare control is also important to ensure occupant comfort. â¢ Establish goals for energy and water use within the terminal building. â¢ Engage airport authorities in pilot programs for the testing of new materials and systems. Develop a program that tries out new products, system technologies, and materials in a nearby existing terminal to establish if it would be a benefit in the newest terminal. 60 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
â¢ Research regional, state, and federal funding or incentive programs to increase the payback period of certain technologies and products. â¢ Develop the potential scope for achievement of âgreen buildingâ objectives in the initial phase of the planning including commissioning of the systems, daylight modeling, energy modeling, etc. For LEED projects, check that all prerequisites can be met. For example, projects that will tie into a central distribution plant for chilled water will need to make sure that the plant chillers do not use chlorofluorocarbon-based refrigerants. Register project with the USGBC. III.8.2.2 Schematic Design During the schematic design phase of airport terminal development, the following key factors should be considered to optimize the performance of the building: â¢ Prepare and facilitate an integrated design charrette with all key members of the design team. During the initial design charrette, project sustainability goals should be determined and then act as a guide for the remainder of the project. â¢ Start modeling the efficiency of the design alternatives for the base building mechanical system. For example, will the base building run off of a central plant or will the most efficient option be a discreet system like ground-source heating and cooling (geo-thermal). Compare first costs and payback costs when determining the best options. Teams should also consider maintenance costs and replacement costs and look at a 20- or 30-year Net Present Value comparison. For Projects Targeting LEED Certification. Start LEED documentation and continue documentation as the project progresses. Calculations to be documented include the following: â¢ Stormwater runoff â¢ Heat island effect reduction â¢ Water conservation â¢ Recycling of waste and other materials â¢ Locally sourced materials â¢ Daylighting III.8.2.3 Design/Development During the design/development phase of airport terminal development, the following key factors should be considered to optimize the performance of the building: â¢ Begin the building systems commissioning process. Select commissioning authority to lead, review, and administer the commissioning process. â¢ Begin energy modeling when base building mechanical system has been selected. Model alter- native energy efficiency measures to increase performance of systems. Consider strategies such as mechanical system controls, lighting controls, optimization of the building envelope, peak load reduction, and premium efficiencies for all fans, pumps, and motors. â¢ Review the outline specifications for the project. Evaluate alternative product choices and fixture selections for optimal performance. For Projects Targeting LEED Certification. Continue LEED documentation and start upload- ing applicable design phase templates to LEED-Online. III.8.2.4 Contract Documents During the preparation of contract documents for an airport terminal project, the following key factors should be considered to optimize the performance of the building: â¢ When issuing bid-set drawings, include design elements within the drawings. Pertinent design elements include but are not limited to: walk-off mats, bicycle racks, shower facilities, recycling locations. Planning Considerations 61
â¢ Review and edit product specifications, focusing on important environmental standards for the products selected (i.e., volatile organic compound limits, minimum levels of recycled content, prohibited compounds, etc.). Include process specifications for Construction Indoor Air Quality Management and Construction and Demolition Waste Management. For Projects Targeting LEED Certification. Submit design phase credits to LEED-Online for review. III.8.2.5 Construction Administration During the construction administration of airport terminal development, the following key factors should be considered to optimize the performance of the building: â¢ Monitor and photo-document progress throughout the construction phase. â¢ Review all contractor submittals relevant to the projectâs sustainability goals. Products that fall into this category include products from Division 2-10 in most industry-accepted formats of the Construction Specifications Institute. For Projects Targeting LEED Certification. Submit remaining targeted LEED credits for final review at or around substantial completion. III.8.3 Major Elements of Sustainability for Terminal Planning and Design III.8.3.1 Site Development Site development affects biodiversity, water quality, urban climate, energy consumption, and light pollution. This section addresses issues associated with the selection of new sites for terminals and the site design of existing terminals. Designing and constructing a sustainable airport terminal begins with appropriate building orientation. The orientation of the airport terminal allows the building to take advantage of lighting and heating from the sun, as well as natural ventilation. Future additions or expansions should also be considered in the orientation of the building encouraging smart growth. Minimize development of open space or greenfields by selecting previously developed land, brownfields, or building retrofits. Restore the health of degraded sites by improving habitat for indigenous species through native and adaptive plants. Avoiding development of sensitive areas, like wetlands and areas with endangered species, decreases the likelihood of distressing sur- rounding ecosystems further and minimizes habitat disturbances. Taking such a strategic sus- tainable approach also assists in reducing the potential for public objections to the airport terminal project. Adopt landscaping methods to control erosion and stormwater runoff from the site. Techniques include grading, bioswales, bioretention, constructed wetlands, and pervious pavement to decrease stormwater runoff. Pervious paving material can be incorporated on both landside and airside paving applications, but maintenance costs should be considered. Pervious paving may not be suitable for all climates. Constructed stormwater containment basins in conjunction with on-site treatment facili- ties can help curb significant amounts of pollutants from contaminating adjacent watersheds and water bodies. Activities that possibly contribute to the pollution of the surrounding environ- ments are deicing of aircrafts, transportation of fuels, and landside and airside transportation vehicles. Reduce heat island effects using landscaping, building design methods, and high-albedo materials. Use trees and other shading vegetation around walkways and parking areas to reduce 62 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
the amount of heat absorption of constructed surfaces, yet also keep in mind that landscaping should be of types that are not wildlife attractants. High-albedo and vegetated roofs reduce the heat island effect, as well as maximize energy savings. When specifying high-albedo roofing material, the slope of the roof is important to note because of the possibility of glare to ATCTs. When specifying vegetated roof plantings, consider sedum and other species that are not known to be wildlife attractants and not known as species that can attract or create harborages for birds not desired in proximity to airside activities. Transportation solutions that can reduce the volume of single-occupancy vehicles should be considered when feasible. These may include provision of secure bicycle parking for terminal staff, carpool staging, preferred parking for low-emitting vehicles, and improved access to mass transit. Consider employing strategies to encourage car rental companies to consolidate rental areas, which greatly decreases the need for passenger buses shuttling customers to and from the rental site. III.8.3.2 Water Conservation Water consumption in airport terminals is affected by landscape irrigation demand; demand from commercial/retail facilities, restrooms, and kitchen spaces; as well as cooling towers and maintenance uses. Decreasing the demand for large volumes of water can decrease overall main- tenance costs and life-cycle costs, as well as reduce costs through lower water usage and lower sewage charges. There are many techniques and resources to help reduce the demand for water at airport terminals. Specifying low-flow fixtures for restroom lavatories, toilets, and urinals can significantly reduce the amount of water used on site, without large up-front costs and a relatively short payback period. Specifying 0.5 gallon per minute (GPM) flow rates on bathroom lavatory faucets and employing automatic shut-off sensors can reduce the amount of water used from these fixtures by more than 80% when compared to the maximum allowable flow rate of 2.5 GPM established by the Energy Policy Act of 1992. Dual-flush valves are available with two different flushing options for optimum water savings. There is a full flush 1.6 gallons per flush (gpf) for solid waste and a 1.1 gpf option for liquid waste. Installing signage to explain how the flush valves work in each stall helps ensure the toilets will be used correctly and water efficiency will be maximized. Because airport terminals are hubs for international visitors, the dual-flush instructional signage should be in several different languages. Low-flow urinals and fuzzy logic urinals are big contributors to water savings in menâs rooms. Fuzzy logic flushing systems conserve water by measuring the length and frequency of use, and flush an appropriate amount (0.5 to 1.0 gpf). Low-flow urinals are any urinal that uses 0.5 gpf or less. There are low-flow urinals on the market that currently use only 0.125 of a gallon of water per flush compared to the maximum allowable 1 gallon per flush. Dry urinals or waterless urinals also contribute to water and sewage savings in menâs rooms. These urinals eliminate the use of water for flushing except for maintenance. Specialized sealant liquids and innovative urinal traps are used to prevent odor. High-traffic airport terminals like Boston Logan International Airport Terminal A and Austin-Bergstrom International Airport in Austin, Texas, have employed waterless urinals in back-of-house areas. Both airport terminals have conserved a great deal of water while lowering their sewage cost using the waterless urinals. When considering this technology, make sure to research local codes as a variance may be required in some jurisdictions. Capturing stormwater on site and using it on the project can reduce both the amount of runoff and reduce the overall water consumption. Catchment basins or cisterns can be constructed to store stormwater on site allowing it to be used for irrigation, maintenance, toilet flushing, and cooling tower make-up. Planning Considerations 63
Decrease or eliminate the need for permanent irrigation by incorporating xeriscaping and drought-tolerant species, as well as low- to no-mow grass species. The use of native and adaptive species also has significantly lower life-cycle costs when compared to conventional planting and landscaping because they require less fertilization and irrigation. III.8.3.3 Energy Conservation and Ozone Protection Energy conservation can be achieved by a combination of good building design and judicious building management and operational practices. Terminals that can reduce energy consumption help to lower energy-related carbon emissions and achieve significant cost savings. Energy modeling has a key role to play in the design of an energy-efficient building as it enables the project sponsor and the design team to analyze a variety of energy efficiency measures and make decisions on which to include in the design based on savings in energy and energy costs. At a minimum, energy modeling needs to be performed soon after the base building HVAC system has been selected. However, energy modeling can also be a useful tool to compare base building HVAC systems. During the conceptual design phase of the project, determine if the project will be required to tie into a central plant for heating and/or cooling. If the project is required to draw from a central plant, the efforts to reduce energy consumption in the building should be focused on lighting, the building envelope, and ventilation/air exchange. A variety of energy modeling software programs can be employed on a given project. The software used should be rigorous enough that it can model how much energy the building uses on an hourly basis over an entire year. In addition to the architectural, mechanical, and electrical aspects of the design, the modeling should also factor in local weather data, the operational schedule, and the building and use of the HVAC system. The following should be considered when evaluating energy efficiency measures. Lighting. Reduce the light power density for the project by selecting efficient fixtures and ballasts and by increasing the surface reflectivity of walls, floors, and ceilings. Lighting controls can also have an effect. Consider occupancy sensors when appropriate and employ automatic daylight dimming controls. Daylighting. Daylighting can reduce the energy used in some climates when daylight- responsive dimming controls are employed. Use of such controls helps reduce the energy needed for lighting and, because artificial lighting can generate unwanted heat gain inside the building, it can also reduce the energy needed for cooling. The resulting savings in energy costs due to daylight dimming systems can be significant. Energy modeling for Deltaâs Terminal A at Boston Logan International Airport demonstrated an annual savings in energy costs of over $100,000 annually. Other advantages of daylighting include increased occupant satisfaction and productivity along with a decrease in accidents. Ventilation. In large-volume spaces like ticketing areas and holdrooms, employ ventilation strategies that do not waste energy by cooling air in spaces (such as roof vaultings) that are never occupied. Employ demand control ventilation in all multi-occupant spaces so that the supply of conditioned outside air can be provided based on the constant variation in occupancy. This will allow, for example, the project to cycle down fans and motors when holdrooms are not occupied, but ensure that ample amounts of conditioned outside air will be provided automatically via carbon dioxide monitors when these and similar spaces are at peak occupancy. Central plants that provide chilled water, hot water, and/or steam can be cost-effective and energy-efficient ways to power airport passenger terminals. Upgrading a central chiller/steam 64 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
plant can increase efficiency and decrease harmful emissions. When upgrading or adding to the central chiller plant, combined heat and power (CHP) (or cogeneration) should be considered. CHP can utilize less-expensive fuel sources like natural gas to generate electricity via micro turbines. Recovered waste heat from these systems can then be used for domestic hot water. Also consider the effect of refrigerants used in a central chiller plant. Choosing refrigerants with low global warming potential and low ozone depletion potential minimizes the emission of harmful compounds into the environment. The inefficiencies of aging central chiller plants, as well as heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration equipment can further contribute to global climate change. Selecting and upgrading building equipment reduces the possibility of unnecessary compounds being released into the atmosphere. At a minimum, the use of CFC-based refrigerants should be eliminated or phased out on all existing central plants. III.8.3.4 Material Procurement The construction and operation of buildings consumes over 40% of all mined resources. The building materials used for the construction of airport terminals are a major contributor to its life-cycle environmental effect. Sustainable building materials offer benefits to the owners and occupants including lower energy and maintenance costs and improved health of building occupants. Selection of building materials should optimally aim for the following: â¢ Use of high amounts of recycled content whenever possible â¢ Wood materials sourced from sustainably managed forests â¢ Limitation or elimination of the use of materials that pollute or are toxic during manufacturing â¢ Preference given to locally harvested, processed, and manufactured materials â¢ Reused or salvaged materials substituted for virgin materials â¢ Use of rapidly renewable materials The cement portion of the concrete design mix used in the construction of the terminal building and surrounding hardscapes should contain at least 20% fly ash or other alternative pozzolans. Higher percentages are common and preferred. The production of 1 ton of portland cement emits approximately 0.5 ton of carbon dioxide and requires about 6 million British Thermal Units in energy to produce. Supplementing portland cement with fly ash exchanges a highly energy-intensive product with a by-product of coal-fired power plants, thus decreasing demand for cement and electricity, and finding a use for material that otherwise ends up in a landfill. The use of synthetic gypsum over virgin gypsum board is preferred when feasible. III.8.3.5 Indoor Environmental Quality Indoor environmental quality principally addresses issues associated with indoor air quality, in particular good air circulation; suppression of dust, mold and other contaminants; and good temperature and humidity controlâall of which benefit the health and well being of building occupants. This section identifies opportunities to prevent indoor air contaminants, increase daylighting, and maximize occupant comfort. The quality of the indoor environment of airport terminals is important for the people working in the terminal, as well as the passengers passing through. Airport terminals are unique in that there will be times of very low occupancy and times of peak occupancy which can happen several times a day. Bad weather also affects the occupancy numbers and duration of transient use. Bad weather, locally or at other airports, can delay departing flights, which can quickly increase the terminalâs occupant loads. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are substances found in many conventional paints, coatings, primers, glues and adhesives, building materials and furnishings, as well as thousands Planning Considerations 65
of other products. VOCs are at the very least respiratory irritants; some have been found to cause cancer and VOC levels have been shown to be two to five times higher indoors than outdoors. Specifying materials and products that have significantly reduced, or have no VOCs should be a priority. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) Rule 1118 provides limits for VOC content for adhesives, sealants, and sealant primers. SCAQMD Rule 1113 provides limits for architectural adhesives. Green Seal Standard GS-11 provides VOC limits for paints and coatings. III.8.3.6 Construction Practices Construction Waste Management Plan. Implement practices and procedures to meet the projectâs environmental goals within the project specifications. Specific project goals that affect this area of work include the implementation of construction waste management (CWM) practices that do the following: 1. Reduce waste generation 2. Reuse, salvage, or recycle waste materials 3. Minimize waste disposal in landfills As part of measures to ensure that these goals are implemented to the fullest extent, the CWM Plan should outline the provisions to be implemented to recycle and salvage demolition and con- struction waste generated during a project. The end-of-project recycling rate should equal, at minimum, 75% (by weight) of the total waste from construction, demolition, and land-clearing activities. The CWM Plan should be implemented throughout the duration of the project. As an initial step, develop a list of the waste materials from the project that are targeted for reuse, salvage, or recycling. The following materials are examples of the types of materials that can be recycled: â¢ Cardboard, paper, and packaging â¢ Clean dimensional wood and palette wood â¢ Beverage containers â¢ Land-clearing debris â¢ Soil â¢ Concrete â¢ Bricks â¢ Concrete masonry units â¢ Asphalt â¢ Metals from banding, stud trim, ductwork, piping, rebar, roofing, other trim, steel, iron, galvanized sheet steel, stainless steel, aluminum, copper, zinc, lead, brass, and bronze â¢ Drywall â¢ Carpet and pad â¢ Paint â¢ Asphalt roofing shingles if applicable for any existing building demolition â¢ Rigid foam â¢ Glass â¢ Plastics The CWM Plan typically also includes information on landfills, sorting method, packaging waste, field conditions, recycling facilities, as well as any additional information deemed relevant to describe the scope and intent of the CWM Plan to the owner, architects, and subcontractors. The CWM and recycling requirements should be incorporated into all subcontractorsâ contracts to ensure effective implementation. 66 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
Construction Indoor Air Quality Management Plan. The development of a Construction Indoor Air Quality Management Plan establishes that the project goals should include minimizing the detrimental impacts of construction activities on indoor air quality (IAQ). Factors that contaminate indoor air, such as dust entering HVAC systems and ductwork, improper storage of materials on site, and poor housekeeping, should all be closely monitored and kept to a minimum. The IAQ Plan should specify that construction activities shall be planned to meet or exceed the minimum requirements of the Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning National Contractorsâ Association (SMACNA) IAQ Guidelines for Occupied Buildings under Construction (22). The SMACNA guidelines include measures such as the following: â¢ HVAC protection: describe the filtration media and replacement criteria for the following equipment and processes â Return side â Central filtration â Supply side â Duct cleaning â¢ Source control â Product substitution â Modifying equipment operation â Changing work practices â Local exhaust â Air cleaning â Cover or seal â¢ Pathway interruption â Depressurize work area â Pressurize occupied space â Erect barriers to contain construction areas â Relocate pollutant sources â Temporarily seal the building â¢ Housekeeping Protect vulnerable materials from moisture damage when stored on site and after installation. If air handlers are to be used during construction, filtration media with a minimum efficiency reporting value (MERV) of eight should be used at each return air grill, as determined by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) 52.2-1999. Replace filtration media immediately prior to occupancy. Filtration media shall have a MERV of 13 as determined by ASHRAE 52.2-1999. Low-Emission Equipment. Vehicles that transport passengers to, from, and within airport grounds emit pollutants such as carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxide (NOX), sulfur oxide (SOX), and carbon monoxide (CO). Terminal planning should include goals to reduce and/or limit the amount of airport-generated emissions caused by airside and landside equipment. Achieving and maintaining air quality is critical for the well being of building occupants and the economic vitality of the community. Determining the amount of global-warming and ozone-depleting pollutants that will be emitted by equipment within the terminal allows for the terminal authority to quantify reductions and possibly engage in emissions or carbon credits purchasing. The Voluntary Airport Low Emissions (VALE) Program, created in 2004, provides financial assistance for airports seeking to reduce airport ground emissions in areas that fail to meet or maintain USEPAâs ambient air quality standards. Planning Considerations 67
Pollution-reducing practices also help reduce the amount of global-warming and ozone- depleting compounds being released by airport terminal vehicles. Using low-emission/fuel-efficient, as well as alternative-fuel GSE will reduce emissions and save on fuel costs. Vehicles transporting passengers on the landside also contribute to increased air pollution. Incentivizing the use of hybrid taxis and car rental shuttles increases awareness and decreases pollution. Most airports have a taxi access fee in place; decreasing the price that hybrid taxis pay incentivizes taxi companies to purchase more hybrids if only to use at airports. Also, consideration should be given to alternative fuels for construction vehicles and equipment, as well as everyday shuttle service between terminals to and from on-site parking areas, and to and from off-site parking areas. As part of the City of Bostonâs continuing commitment to sustainable transportation, the CleanAir CABS Program was launched on April 1, 2007. Through the CleanAir CABS initiative, taxi owners will have the opportunity to replace ordinary taxis with cleaner vehicle technology. There are benefits for taxi owners to make the switch to hybrids. Hybrids burn much less gasoline than ordinary vehicles (from 50% to 70% less in the city) and compressed natural gas (CNG) generally costs less per gasoline gallon equivalent than gasoline. Drivers of CNG vehicles may qualify for a rebate from a natural gas company and a federal tax credit. III.9 Business Planning III.9.1 Business Considerations The construction of a new airport terminal, like any major capital investment, should be supported by a clear business case. In addition to focusing on the need to meet forecast traffic demand, it is also important that, from the outset, the planning process integrate key business considerations to guide planning and inform analyses of inevitable tradeoffs among project features. Strategic positioning of the airport, adaptability to respond to uncertain future conditions, and affordability are three important considerations when developing a business case for a new terminal project. III.9.1.1 Strategic Positioning Suffice to say, a challenging responsibility falls on those charged with management of the business enterprise to balance operational enthusiasm to design to the âupsideâ against the preservation of financial integrity of the organization, particularly in the event of less favor- able future conditions. This responsibility calls for foresight and expertise beyond managing the current business of the airport. A careful analysis of the business case for a new terminal must build on a solid under- standing of the service and business philosophy of the airport, as well as the service standards and performance of airport management, airlines, and service providers. The analysis must also draw on a thorough understanding of the aviation market being served by the airport, the potential for growth, and the downside risks including future competitive factors and market fluctuations. An airportâs âbusiness leaderâ would typically develop the business case for the planning team and provide guidance on various business issues. As an example of the application of business considerations in the terminal planning process, an airportâs business leader will have very good information about concession space demand, as well as future trends. During programming and planning, the business leader can provide helpful validation of assumptions about concession locations, facility sizing, desired 68 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
adjacencies, and ancillary needs based on the specific market served by concessionaires serving the airport. As another example, an airportâs business leader will have an understanding of the risks asso- ciated with tailoring terminal facilities to a specific new entrant. The business leader undoubtedly will be called on to help balance goals for the project with risks such as those posed by responding to a new entrant. Later in programming and planning, the business leader should vigilantly monitor for opportunities to further mitigate risk through adaptable, rather than rigid, structures and systems. While a broad-based strategic background will provide a sound basis for evaluation, there remain some fundamentals that set the envelope of options and choices the terminal planner will face. These fundamentals include whether the terminal is being built to accommodate the following: â¢ Origin and destination (O&D) traffic or airline hubbing â¢ Low-cost carriers or network (legacy) carriers (or a combination of both) â¢ Domestic or international traffic (or a combination of both) (23) â¢ Specialized visitor requirements The physical parameters of the facility (including the amount of space, number of gates, space functionality, walk and wait times, peaking characteristics, general levels of service, types of concessions to be offered, etc.) will differ markedly depending on those factors. Some examples of these differences include the following: â¢ A terminal that is used primarily for hubbing activities would need much less ticket counter and security checkpoint space and curbside than one used primarily for O&D activityâeven if the traffic throughput of the terminal is exactly the same in both cases. â¢ A terminal that is used to process international passenger arrivals would need significant amounts of space dedicated to the Federal Inspection Services, i.e., customs and immigration. â¢ A terminal that is used for low-cost carrier operations could have fewer gates than one used for international departures and would also have a different concession profile (e.g., no duty-free shop, fewer âhigh-endâ offerings). Each of these factors will have a dramatic effect on the type of building that is developedâthe cost of the building, the subsequent cost of operating and maintaining the building, the revenue profile of the facility, and the overall ability of the facility to generate enough cash to repay debt issued to build it (with an appropriate debt service cushion). Consequently, it is very important when planning the terminal to be clear about what type of facility it is intended to be, i.e., the type of airline tenant it intends to cater to, the profile of the travelers that are expected to use the facility, and the structure of business relationships with the airlines. A tool to align the airport business leaderâs views and those of the planning team is use of a strengths/weaknesses/opportunities/threats (SWOT) analysis. Results of a SWOT analysis will strengthen the business case by establishing mutually understood perspectives with which to critically evaluate proposals and, when necessary, engage in course corrections or confirmations throughout the programming and planning processes. III.9.1.2 Adaptability With strategic positioning as a background, the airportâs business leader will be well informed to engage in discussions about the range of future demands that may confront the airport (e.g., types of passenger traffic, industry trends, and consumer demands). These discussions, in turn, should provide a basis to assess questions related to adaptability of the terminal, such as the appropriate design life for the shell and internal elements of the terminal (24). Planning Considerations 69
Also, the airportâs business leader should bring value to evaluation of tradeoffs inherent in selection of current technological, security, environmental, and other solutions versus provision of broadly adaptable core systems. Similarly, the business leader should help assure that reasonable balances are reached between competing factors like the following (25) â¢ Practical requirements of service providers versus other planning criteria such as passenger flow, customer service, cost, and aesthetics. â¢ Modularity or flexibility of plan versus layouts focused on cost-efficient design-day considerations. III.9.1.3 Affordability A critical step at the earliest stages of a terminal development project is to determine if a project is affordable given the resources available to the airport. While some development projects may have very straightforward funding plans, airport development projects typically are funded from sources that are nested in fairly complex financial structures. This is particularly true when regulatory regimes influence rate-making methodologies, as is the case with airports in the United States. The key to understanding affordability and anticipating sensitivity to changing conditions is long-term financial planning supported by models calibrated to the unique financial and regulatory structure of the airport. A selection of financial metrics, such as airline costs and concessions sales per enplaned passenger, can provide helpful summary statistics for effectively communicating results of alternative actions. Users of this guidebook are cautioned against using industry averages of metrics like airline cost per enplaned passenger as litmus tests of affordability and instead are encouraged to be aware of such averages and the reasons circumstances at their airport warrant uniquely higher or lower standards. Continuous updates to reflect the passage of forecasts into history (including comparison of actual results with forecasts) and revisions to forecasts (including estimated costs and time to complete the terminal project) should be elements of the ongoing management process. Engaging airline and other key tenant management representatives in program consultations early and throughout the planning process through well-established means is important to assure that rules are followed to gain âofficialâ positions and to address cost increases due to delays and scope change requests. Otherwise, changes of a strictly proprietary nature that should be funded by the requestor may incorrectly become project costs. Airport tenants are a diverse group whose interests will not always be consistent. The programming, planning, and eventual design processes involve many parties. This dynamic of multiple parties with their own sets of preferences and priorities sets up ample opportunities for mixed signals and unsatisfactory results. Careful management of these interactions can help preserve affordability objectives. Affordability from the airport business leaderâs perspective will reflect reasonable life-cycle evaluations. Such evaluations track an assetâs life-cycle costs beginning with initial planning, design, development, and commissioning costs; continuing with operational and maintenance costs throughout the useful operational life of the asset; and ending with asset refurbishment and ultimately decommissioning and disposal costs (as applicable). Results are assessed using techniques such as net present value or internal rate of return to facilitate comparisons of alternatives in todayâs dollars, thereby ensuring a consistent âapples to applesâ comparison is employed in cases where alternative terminal development plans are being evaluated. These very real cost tradeoffs between capital costs now and future operations and maintenance costs plus replacement costs will be considerations of financial planning and may lead to terminal planning actions that otherwise might be overlooked. Use of more durable and expensive flooring materials allowing lower maintenance expense and longer replacement cycles is an example (26). 70 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
A further consideration is that any given airport sponsor will likely have a range of capital needs for its airport beyond the terminalâmost notably capital improvements that relate to airfield operations, automobile parking, rental car activities, and landside development. The affordability of the terminal project needs to be determined in the context of the overall affordability of the capital program for the airport. III.9.2 Funding Options III.9.2.1 Types of Funding In the United States, the vast majority of terminal developments are controlled by the govern- mental body owning the airport. In a few cases in the United States, and much more commonly in other countries, private entities (including, sometimes, airlines) are granted rights to develop and operate terminals. Governmental owner developers in the United States typically use a mix of funding sources, which include the following: â¢ Bond proceeds supported by general airport revenues â¢ Bonds repaid from a PFC â¢ PFC revenues on a âpay-as-you-goâ basis â¢ Airport Improvement Program (AIP) grants, which encompass both âentitlementâ grants and âdiscretionaryâ grants â¢ Unrestricted airport cash balances (net free cash flow generated from airport operations) Short-term liquidity requirements can be addressed through commercial paper programs or internal borrowing. Several of these funding sources can be used to fund only certain types of capital spending, and under certain conditions: â¢ PFCs (whether leveraged or pay-as-you-go) can be spent on projects only if those expenditures have first been approved by the FAA, following airline and public consultation (23). â¢ PFCs cannot be used to fund terminal concession space, or most categories of non-public terminal space (23). â¢ Typically, terminal projects are about 70% eligible for PFC funding. â¢ For large, medium, and small hub airports, AIP discretionary grants cannot be expended on the terminal building itselfâonly on terminal apron and roadway access to the terminal (and even then, roadways are low on the FAAâs priority list for AIP discretionary funding, so are unlikely to actually receive such funding, even though they are eligible). Non-public spaces, or concession areas, are generally not eligible for entitlement or discretionary AIP funds. Advance review of grant eligibility with regional FAA officials is advisable. â¢ Airport cash (equity) is typically used sparingly by airport sponsors for terminal development projects, but a good use of such monies would be to fund preliminary planning, conceptual design, and environmental analysis of a potential terminal development project. Further, it should be noted that among government-sponsored airports in the United States, general airport revenue bonds used for terminal development often are legally secured by all airport revenues (including, but not confined to, revenue generated from the terminal). Bonds repaid from PFCs are not (except for a few large airports) legally secured solely by the PFC revenue stream. Rather, they are secured more often by general airport revenues, but the source of payment for interest and principal payments is PFC revenues. Non-governmental terminal developers may rely on loans secured by the developerâs business, as a whole, rather than the specific revenues associated with the proposed terminal. However, it Planning Considerations 71
is more common for project revenues to provide repayment security; for example, the terminal development financing by a private entity for the International Air Terminal (Terminal 4) at JFK International Airport was arranged through debt secured solely by revenues anticipated from the completed terminal, net of operating and maintenance expenses, which included rent payable to the airport owner, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey (24). There are some other instances of special facility bonds being used to develop airport terminals in the United States. In addition to the JFK International Air Terminal noted previously, the Massachusetts Port Authority redeveloped its Terminal A at Boston Logan International Airport using Special Facility Bonds originally secured by Delta Air Lines (25). The airport business leaderâs role includes understanding the project funding requirements and anticipated cash flows of the development. This understanding should allow a plan of finance to be developed so that appropriate funding sources and funding availability can match requirements. Of course, financial resources are limited in both magnitude and timing, either or both of which may serve as a governor on the project. In summary, the business plan for a terminal development project should include the following: â¢ A capital funding plan that considers the myriad of available funding sources and the various rules and regulations about using those funds, determines the optimal funding strategy for the project, considers the timing of receipt of the funds, and also considers the impact of the ter- minal project on overall airport finances (including plans for financing the rest of the airportâs capital program) â¢ Airline user charges that are appropriate for the specific situation, reasonable in terms of industry averages and norms, and calculated taking into consideration applicable rules such as FAAâs prohibition of including in the airline rate base capital costs funded with AIP grants (26) â¢ A healthy stream of non-airline revenues from the facility â¢ Reasonable operating cost levels that consider all aspects of terminal operations (staffing, janitorial, utilities, materials and supplies, security, maintenance, contracted services, etc.) â¢ Sufficient levels of debt service coverage that includes a cushion in the event that passenger traffic is lower than anticipated â¢ Provision for ongoing maintenance of the facility (reflecting the manufacturersâ warranties that the major categories of equipment in the new facility will be under for a period of time) â¢ Provision for replacement of worn-out equipment and major rehabilitation of the facility at intervals during its life cycle â¢ Provision for modular build-out of the facility to accommodate increasing passenger demand over time III.9.2.2 Timing of Funding The terminal planning team and airport business leader must maintain close collaboration beginning at the earliest programming phases to assure that financial feasibility, inclusive of timing of funding, is achievable within the schedule constraints for the project. A plan of finance will be developed by the business leader. A range of factors particular to each airportâs circumstances will influence the shape of the financing plan. This high degree of customization precludes any but the broadest generalizations regarding timing of funding. The plan, as likely to be developed, will be structured in conformity with federal, state, and local laws, as well as U.S. Department of Transportation rate policies, the airportâs financial framework (including bond ordinances, debt policies, etc.), and possibly airline and other tenant lease agreements. The plan will identify sources, uses, and timing of funding. Together with a team of professionals, which may include financial consultants, financial advisors, and bond counsel, the business leader will establish an optimized plan of finance that seeks the 72 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
most efficient timing to secure funds to meet local contracting regulations and project cash flow requirements. To a certain extent, short-term funding mechanisms, such as commercial paper, grant anticipation notes, or bond anticipation notes, can be used to âmatch upâ funding availability with funding need. III.9.3 Concessions Planning The development of a culture of strong in-terminal concessions planning in the United States has lagged behind the development of very strong non-aeronautical revenue streams from commercial concessions in Europe, Asia, Australasia, and, more recently, the Middle East. In these markets, the focus has been on the marketing of high-end duty-free productsâwith a strong emphasis on âboutiqueâ designerâbranded goods combined with local specialty retail, souvenir, and gift items. This formula has evolved largely because of the predominantly international nature of air travel in these markets, as well as high local taxes and duties that help make items purchased on-airport less expensive than those purchased off-airport. In the predominantly domestically driven U.S. market, the increasing interest in airport concessions by airport operators is the result of the following: â¢ Increased expectation levels of passengers and airport/airline employees for the airport to offer a wide variety of products and services â¢ Reductions in complimentary food and beverage and other services provided in-flight by most air carriers â¢ Increased airport dwell times, especially in airside areas of the terminal â¢ Increased pressure on airport operators to maximize non-aeronautical revenue streams â¢ Increased interest in providing a relaxing and pleasurable airport experience to passengers III.9.3.1 Impact on Passenger Satisfaction The worldâs highest-rated airports all provide an extensive range of retail and food and beverage offerings for passengers and airport employees. These airports, however, have achieved the appro- priate balance between maximizing concessions revenues (e.g., they all provide large shopping areas that are easy to find and close to the primary passenger flows) and maximizing passenger service levels (e.g., the shops do not hinder these passenger flows and do not create confusion for passengers who want to go directly to their gate). In fact, the quality of an airportâs concessions program can serve as a key contributor to the overall satisfaction level of the airport to its passengers. As depicted in Figure III-4, passenger surveys performed on behalf of IATA reveal the close relationship between passengersâ satis- faction with airport shopping and restaurant facilities and passengersâ overall satisfaction with the airport. III.9.3.2 Impact on Airport Revenues Major in-terminal concessionsâcomprising news/gift, food/beverage, and specialty retail activitiesâat the 50 busiest U.S. airports in 2007 generated more than $5 billion in gross sales and provided in excess of $750 million in net revenues to airport operators (27). Considering that the average U.S. airport in 2007 generated an average of $170 per square foot of leased terminal shop space in concession fee income to the airport operator, providing additional space for these income-generating activities can be quite beneficial to an airportâs financial position. â¢ In 1997, news/gift, food/beverage, and specialty retail at the countryâs 20 busiest airports generated an average of $4.80 in gross sales per passenger. Planning Considerations 73
â¢ By 2007, average sales per passenger enplanement at the countryâs 20 busiest airports had increased to $8.50 for these same product categories. III.9.3.3 Importance of Early Commercial Planning The planning of commercial concessions should begin at the very early stages of the terminal planning process for the following reasons: â¢ Over a 20-year period, an airport that currently serves 10 million enplanements and has current sales of $9.00 per enplanement in news/gift, specialty retail, food/beverage, and duty-free activities may generate nearly $3 billion in total sales, and more than $390 million in concession- aire royalty payments to the airport operator. These calculations are based on 2.5% per annum inflation, 2.5% per annum enplanement growth, and assumed average concession fee pay- ments of 13% of sales. Even a 1% improvement in these amounts is significant to tenants and landlord alike. â¢ The quality of retail and food and beverage outlets is particularly important at airports with high levels of non-local and/or leisure travelers and/or higher-than-average airside dwell times as they provide passengers with options for amusement and whiling away the time before flight departure. â¢ Ensuring that commercial activities are prominently located and a feature of newly designed terminal facilities are usually important to both the airport and shop operators. â¢ Being able to assess the financial impacts of alternative terminal layout configurations on com- mercial sales and associated concessionaire payments to the airport operatorâwhile planning is being performed, instead of afterwardsâserves to optimize the financial feasibility of the airportâs redevelopment project. Ensuring that construction and development of the new terminal facilities has minimal effect on existing commercial activities is important to all airport stakeholders. III.9.3.4 Case Study Example: Airport Commercial Planning Assessment at a Major International Airport A good example of how airport operators can benefit from commercial planning can be found in a case study example of analysis performed by a leading AsiaâPacific airport. This airport, in 2007, generated the worldâs highest levels of duty-free sales per enplanement and had the second highest level of total airport duty-free sales (greater than US$1 billion in 2007). 74 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design PAX SATISFACTION WITH AIRPORT AND RETAIL SHOPS (1=Low, 5=High) 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 Overall Satisfaction with Airport Sa tis fa ct io n w ith Sh op pi ng PAX SATISFACTION WITH AIRPORT AND RESTAURANTS (1=Low, 5=High) 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 Overall Satisfaction with Airport Sa tis fa ct io n w ith E at in g Fa ci lit ie s Source: IATA Global Airport Monitor, IATA, 2002. Figure III-4. Passenger satisfaction survey results.
As part of the development of a new, midfield satellite concourse, airport planners had provided for three lower-level gate holdrooms: â¢ The gate holdrooms were to be located immediately below a large commercial cluster at the center of the concourse. â¢ In an effort to reduce concourse development costs, each holdroom was to be served by a single (down) escalator so, if passengers wanted to return to the commercial facilities above, they would be required to climb stairs, as no return (up) escalator was planned to be provided. As part of costâbenefit analysis and other commercial planning tasks, the airport operator deter- mined that the financial effect to the airport operator of the lost commercial sales at these three gate holdrooms (if no up escalators were provided) would total US$84.3 million over a 20-year period. (These estimates incorporated conservative assumptions for the financial affect that not providing return escalators at these holdrooms would have on commercial sales and concessionaire payments to the airport operator). Thus, the opportunity cost to the airport operator of not providing each return (up) escalator would be US$28.1 million, far exceeding the cost of its development. III.9.3.5 Types of Concessions Typical in-terminal concessions at U.S. airports often include the following six categories of offerings for passengers and other customers, including airport meeters/greeters, well wishers, and airline/airport employees: â¢ News/gift â Newspapers and magazines â Convenience items and sundries â¢ Specialty retail â Apparel â Souvenirs â Gifts â Sunglasses â Jewelry â Personal care/health products â Entertainment products (movies, music, others) â Prepackaged food and wines â¢ Food and beverage â Food courts and other self-service units â Full-service restaurants â Cocktail lounges and bars â Coffee stand â Vending machines â¢ Duty-free shops â¢ Services â Massage, spa â Entertainment (arcades, movie rentals, others) â Pay-per-use passenger lounges, business centers â Currency exchange â Luggage storage and wrapping â Hair salon, barber â Medical services â Shoe shine â Post office â¢ Advertising Planning Considerations 75
III.9.3.6 Trends in Terminal Concessions General and Retail Trends. Airport concession programs continue to mature and gain increasing importance as a source of revenues for airports large and small. The following general trends are affecting airport concessions programs around the world: â¢ Increased security concerns are affecting commercial sales directly and indirectly: â Additional immigration and security inspection requirements are affecting some airport programs by limiting the time available for duty-free shopping and negatively impacting per-passenger duty-free sales. â Restrictions on liquids, aerosols, and gels (LAG) and continued passenger uncertainty about LAG regulations could continue to constrain sales of certain products, while increasing others, such as the purchase of beverages at post-security locations. â¢ Specialty retail, including fragrance and cosmetics, candy, fashion items and accessories, and luxury goods, have shown the largest growth rates over the past several years. â¢ Some concessionaires are shifting focus from customer sales as commodity-based transactions to an interest in triggering desire. Operator marketing strategies include increased emphasis on the following: â Gifting: Duty-free products as gifts for non-traveling family and friends. â Aspirational demand: Products that convey the buyerâs socioeconomic status. â Uniqueness/difference: Products and/or packaging that can be found only at this location (either this particular airport or this city/region). â Service/comfort/happiness: Customer service associated with the transaction increases traveler comfort and helps to reduce the stresses that can be associated with travel. â¢ Increased focus on customer service and personal interaction with the customer that serves as a key method for differentiating airport duty-free shops with Internet and other mail orderâbased operations. â¢ Some concessionaires are increasing the entertainment value of the shopping experience by means of the following: â In-store promotions. â Entertainment, to encourage customers to remain in the shops. â Blurring the boundaries between shop and public circulation and waiting areas. â¢ The preference for unique or customized (non-generic) products and the desire of suppliers to differentiate and promote their brands has led to increased segmentation of airport offerings. For example, large, multi-purpose retail shops will still exist, but the space within these shops will increasingly be divided by merchandise brands and differentiated visually. Food and Beverage Trends. Food and beverage concessions generate a significant share of airport revenues. Food and beverage activities help to (1) draw passengers to commercial clusters at which passengers and other customers pass by retail shops and services and (2) create high passenger satisfaction levels. The following general trends are affecting airport food and beverage concessions around the world: â¢ Passengers expect availability of internationally recognized brands, which do particularly well because of the instant recognition and positive associations they have for potential customers. â¢ However, passengers also want to experience successful local brands as part of their travel experience. â The use of local brands also allows the airport operator to reinforce the passengerâs positive impression of the destination. â Local brands usually enable the food and beverage operator to provide some flexibility in the types of products offeredâglobal products (such as McDonaldâs) do not allow that same amount of flexibility in facility design and menu offering. 76 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
â¢ Including a mix of recognized international brands and local brands allows the airport to maximize passenger satisfaction levels and to promote local operators and cuisine. â Being part of an airportâs food and beverage concessions program (with international brands) increases the awareness and positive associations of local food operators and cuisines. â The value of this positive association should not be undervalued. Duty-Free Trends. Duty-free product categories with high growth rates per passenger (sales per passenger are increasing) include the following: â¢ Perfume and cosmetics â¢ Fashion and luxury goods â¢ Candy and other luxury packaged food Product categories with low or negative growth rates per passenger (sales per passenger are flat or decreasing) include the following: â¢ Liquor and wine â¢ Tobacco Increased governmental efforts to restrict general tobacco consumption could have competing impacts on demand for tobacco products at airport duty-free shops: â¢ Increased taxes and duties imposed on nonâduty-free sellers could increase demand for products sold without these costs as the disparity between duty-free (airport) and duty-paid (Main Street) prices widens. â¢ This effect may be more than offset by general efforts to reduce public consumption, by means of increased restrictions on tobacco advertising, marketing, and shop display of products. â¢ Therefore, overall demand per passenger for tobacco products at duty-free shops may continue to decline. Many on-airport duty-free operators face increased competition from off-airport operators, including Internet operators and sellers of âgray marketâ goods: â¢ Customer recognition of the airport duty-free operator/brand, especially by travelers from countries in which gray market and counterfeit goods are prevalent, will become increasingly important. â¢ On-airport duty-free operators will need to provide âadded valueâ services to retain their competitive advantages over non-airport, Internet sellers. â¢ Duty-free concessionaires will need to increase their efforts to generate âimpulseâ purchases and rely less on demand for bulk goods (such as tobacco and liquor), which are driven primarily by pricing advantages. The success of duty-free activities at a U.S. airport depends substantially on (1) a critical mass of international passengers and (2) the characteristics of these passengers. High demand for duty-free products is typically the result of the following: â¢ High duty tax rates at the country of destination and/or in the travelerâs home country â¢ Cultural norms, which may include significant levels of gift giving to friends and relatives upon return from a trip â¢ High personal income levels of travelers â¢ Large number of products available for sale at the airport â¢ Competitive duty-free prices â¢ Low amounts of competition from âgray marketâ or counterfeit products sold locally â¢ Unavailability of arrivals duty-free shops at the travelerâs final destination â¢ High share of passengers that are traveling non-stop to/from their final destination (i.e., traveling to/from the airport on an O&D basis). Planning Considerations 77
Duty-free sales per international enplanement can, at select AsiaâPacific and Middle East airports, reach $50.00. Duty-free sales at U.S. airports average approximately $8.00 per inter- national enplanement based on analysis prepared by The S-A-P Group in 2008 (28). III.9.3.7 Planning of Terminal Concessions A concessions plan should optimize the airportâs revenues and levels of customer service. Summarized below is a typical approach for developing a comprehensive airport concessions master plan: â¢ Calculate optimal concession space amounts for near- and long-term periods using supportable space analysis, space profitability analysis, and benchmarking. â The analysis and benchmarking include assessments of space per enplanement (square feet per enplanement), sales per enplanement ($ sales amounts per enplanement), and sales per amount of space ($ sales amounts per square foot). â Supportable space analysis incorporates assumptions for the amounts of space that can be supported by anticipated sales volumes, as calculated on a âper square foot of shop spaceâ basis. â Shops with low sales volumes per square foot of shop space may be âunder-tradingâ and generating low levels of profit for the shop operator, as well as constraining monies available to pay the airport landlord. â Conversely, shops with high sales volumes per square foot of shop space may be âover-trading,â an indication that additional shop space is needed to serve potential demand. â¢ Prepare detailed financial analyses (to assess the potential profitability of new commercial activities and space), which should include ad hoc costâbenefit analyses to assist other ter- minal planners with identifying the implications of alternative terminal/concourse layouts on airport income. The airport case study presented previously provides an example of ad hoc costâbenefit analysis that assisted planners with the development of optimal terminal facilities. â¢ Identify the optimal terminal and concessions layout configurations, which should be depen- dent on aeronautical operating considerations, concession and financial considerations, and passenger satisfaction. â Consolidated passenger flows, consolidation of commercial activities into clusters, and visibility between gate seating areas and centrally located commercial areas are all essential components of a world-class concessions program. â Integrate the concession clusters with primary passenger flows and in-terminal transport nodes (such as vertical circulation points, access to APM, and passenger convenience facil- ities, such as toilets and airline lounges). â Aircraft gate locations (by aircraft size and daily utilization) affect concession space require- ments, the ability to provide centrally located concession clusters, and concession spending and shop operator costs. â Providing good shop visibility, while still providing intuitive wayfinding and minimal walking distances to gate holdrooms, will help to maximize overall retail sales and passenger satis- faction levels. â¢ Ensure that walking distances are minimized and post-security (airside) dwell times are maximizedâthese factors affect both passenger satisfaction levels and airport operator income amounts. â Passengers departing from gate holdrooms distant from main commercial clusters at an airport spend, on average, 20% less than passengers that depart from gates located immediately adjacent to commercial areas. The ability to see commercial facilities from gate seating areas helps to minimize passenger anxiety and also develop impulse purchasing. 78 Airport Passenger Terminal Planning and Design
â As such, terminal layout configurations that maximize the number of gate holdrooms close to commercial clusters will generate higher overall sales than will decentralized layouts. â Airside dwell times significantly affect commercial sales. One extra minute of airside dwell time at an airport may increase commercial sales per passenger by approximately 1%. â¢ Assess the financial and other implications of development phasing on airport operator income levels. For example, accelerated development of certain terminal facilities could generate incremental revenues that exceed the incremental development and operating costs of pro- viding the facilities in advance of passenger-driven demand. â¢ Determine appropriate shop locations and sizes by concessions activity (retail, food and beverage, services). â¢ Ensure flexibility in the terminal design. â The concessions layout plan should provide flexibility for the future, in order to ensure that changes in passenger flows and customer demand can be accommodated with minimal financial burdens to the airport and concessionaires. â Until demand warrants its use, planned retail space could be used on a near-term basis for storage or for temporary passenger services, such as corporate exhibit space. â¢ Provide for development phasing that minimizes construction impacts. The optimal conces- sions master plan should attempt to minimize affects on shop operators (financial and oper- ational), the airport (financial), and customers/passengers (quality of service levels). â¢ Assess the successful attributes of the worldâs leading airport commercial programs, includ- ing those inside and outside of the United States. Planning Considerations 79