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Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance (1994)

Chapter: A Committee Activities

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Suggested Citation:"A Committee Activities." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Page 379

A
Committee Activities

In order to cover the variety of topics of its charge, the committee undertook many activities in addition to full committee meetings—including site visits to relevant field settings and laboratories, detailed briefings by experts, and reviews of relevant literature.

The committee met four times during 1991-1993, twice at the National Research Council facilities in Washington, D.C., once at the Beckman Center in Irvine, California, and once at the Army's National Training Center (NTC) at Fort Irwin, California. The NTC meeting included briefings, discussions, and demonstrations of training procedures used to prepare soldiers for combat missions. The meetings and site visits included presentations by the following experts:

James Banks, research psychologist, Army Research Institute, Presidio of Monterey Field Unit

Barbara Black, chief, Army Research Institute Field Unit, Fort Knox, Kentucky

John Seely Brown, Vice President for Advanced Research, Xerox, Palo Alto Research Center

Brigadier General William G. Carter, II, Commanding Officer, National Training Center

Neil Cosby, manager, Institute for Defense Analysis Simulation Center Gerald C. Davison, professor of psychology, University of Southern California

Michael Drillings, research psychologist, Army Research Institute James Greeno, research scientist, Xerox Palo Alto Research Center Captain Grimsley, National Training Center

Suggested Citation:"A Committee Activities." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Page 380

Jack Hiller, director, Training Systems Research Division, Army Research Institute

Nels Klyver, Los Angeles Police Academy

Major Milton Koger, research psychologist, Army Research Institute

George Lawton, research psychologist, Army Research Institute

Major Robert D. Leitzel, National Training Center

Staff Sergeant Marconi, Fort Knox, Kentucky

Colonel Pat O'Neal, National Training Center

Zita Simutos, director, Manpower and Personnel Research Division,

Army Research Institute

Robert Sulzen, research psychologist, Army Research Institute

Most of the rest of the committee's work was carried out through subcommittees on specific topics. Our subcommittee organization tracks almost directly to the chapter organization of this report, and members wrote the drafts of chapters. In one case, the work of a subcommittee (team building and team training) resulted in two chapters.

The Effect of Context on Training

Lynne M. Reder and Roberta Klatzky constituted this subcommittee, and Gen. Paul F. Gorman (ret.) of Cardinal Point, Inc. provided advice. It carried out site visits to the Federal Aviation Administration Academy in Oklahoma (April 1992) and to Xerox Palo Alto Research Center in California (November 1992), where John Seely Brown and James Greeno briefed the subcommittee. Site visits were also made to the Los Angeles Police Academy (December 1992) and to the Institute for Defense Analysis, Alexandria, Virginia (April 1993).

Illusions of Comprehension

Larry L. Jacoby and Robert A. Bjork constituted this subcommittee, which was advised by Colleen M. Kelley, of Macalester College. The subcommittee visited the Institute of Defense Analysis in Alexandria, Virginia, in April, 1993.

Cooperative Learning

Donald F. Dansereau and David W. Johnson constituted this subcommittee. It carried out a site visit to the Federal Aviation Administration Academy in Oklahoma (April 1992).

Team Building and Team Training

David W. Johnson and Daniel Druckman constituted this subcommittee. It carried out site visits to the Federal Aviation Administration Academy in

Suggested Citation:"A Committee Activities." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
×

Page 381

Oklahoma (April 1992) and to the Sillin Nuclear Energy Center in Connecticut (October 1992). The subcommittee was briefed by Gary Shirts, president of Simulation Training Systems and David Crookall, editor of Simulation & Gaming. It also benefited from discussions with Nancy Dixon of George Washington University.

Self-Confidence and Performance

Deborah L. Feltz constituted this subcommittee. Research assistance was provided by Brenda A. Riemer of Michigan State University, and Bernard Weiner, professor of psychology at the University of California at Los Angeles provided advice.

Altered States of Consciousness

John F. Kihlstrom and Eric Eich constituted this subcommittee. It carried out site visits to Illusions Engineering in Westlake, California (June 1992 and October 1992), and to Fort Knox, Kentucky (April 1992). The subcommittee was briefed by Peter Suedfeld, professor of psychology at the University of British Columbia. Its review of the transcendental meditation literature was aided by material supplied by David Orme-Johnson and his colleagues at the Maharishi International University in Fairfield, Iowa.

Socially Induced Affect

Daniel Druckman and Robert B. Zajonc constituted this subcommittee, which benefited from consultant Daniel McIntosh of the University of Denver. Daniel McIntosh prepared a review paper for the subcommittee, ''Enhancement of Performance Through Socially Induced Affect."

Mental-Control Strategies

Daniel M. Wegner, Eric Eich, and Robert A. Bjork constituted this subcommittee.

Organizational Cultures and Performance

Robert A. Bjork chaired this subcommittee with the collaboration of Daniel Druckman and David W. Johnson. It made a site visit to the Sillin Nuclear Energy Center in Connecticut (October 1992), where it was briefed by Michael Brown, Director of Nuclear Training, and a site visit to the Los Angeles Police Academy in California (December 1992) where it was briefed by Nels Klyver.

Suggested Citation:"A Committee Activities." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Suggested Citation:"A Committee Activities." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
×
Page 379
Suggested Citation:"A Committee Activities." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
×
Page 380
Suggested Citation:"A Committee Activities." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
×
Page 381
Suggested Citation:"A Committee Activities." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
×
Page 382
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Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance Get This Book
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Can such techniques as sleep learning and hypnosis improve performance? Do we sometimes confuse familiarity with mastery? Can we learn without making mistakes? These questions apply in the classroom, in the military, and on the assembly line.

Learning, Remembering, Believing addresses these and other key issues in learning and performance. The volume presents leading-edge theories and findings from a wide range of research settings: from pilots learning to fly to children learning about physics by throwing beanbags. Common folklore is explored, and promising research directions are identified. The authors also continue themes from their first two volumes: Enhancing Human Performance (1988) and In the Mind's Eye (1991).

The result is a thorough and readable review of

  • Learning and remembering. The volume evaluates the effects of subjective experience on learning--why we often overestimate what we know, why we may not need a close match between training settings and real-world tasks, and why we experience such phenomena as illusory remembering and unconscious plagiarism.
  • Learning and performing in teams. The authors discuss cooperative learning in different age groups and contexts. Current views on team performance are presented, including how team-learning processes can be improved and whether team-building interventions are effective.
  • Mental and emotional states. This is a critical review of the evidence that learning is affected by state of mind. Topics include hypnosis, meditation, sleep learning, restricted environmental stimulation, and self-confidence and the self-efficacy theory of learning.
  • New directions. The volume looks at two new ideas for improving performance: emotions induced by another person--socially induced affect--and strategies for controlling one's thoughts. The committee also considers factors inherent in organizations--workplaces, educational facilities, and the military--that affect whether and how they implement training programs.

Learning, Remembering, Believing offers an understanding of human learning that will be useful to training specialists, psychologists, educators, managers, and individuals interested in all dimensions of human performance.

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