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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Index

A

Abstract instruction, 11, 26, 33, 34, 36-39, 56

Accountability, 16, 141, 144, 156-157, 165, 166, 168

ACT (Adoptive Control of Thought) model, 28-29

Affective processes. See Mental and emotional states; Socially induced affect

Age regression, 226-227

Algorithmic transfer, 30-31, 37

Altered states of consciousness, 8, 17-19, 207-208, 246

see also Hypnosis; Restricted environmental stimulation; Sleep learning; Transcendental meditation

Amnesia, 74-75

posthypnotic, 209, 212

Analogical transfer, 29, 32, 43

based on irrelevant or ambiguous detail, 61-62

Anchored instruction, 39

Anesthesia, hypnotic, 18, 210-214, 247

Animal magnetism, 209, 210

Anxiety

and self-confidence, 17, 201-203

and socially induced affect, 275

and thought suppression and confrontation, 20, 278, 290, 293

and transcendental meditation, 18, 234-235

Apprenticeship, 33, 35, 39

Attention, and socially induced affect, 267-268

Attributional processes, 7, 68

and self-confidence, 17, 179, 182, 191

and team confidence, 185-186

Automatic processing, 48-49

Auxiliary thought suppression, 277, 293n

B

Bargaining. See Negotiation and bargaining

Basic skills and training, 35

Behavioral patterns

modeling of in team training, 152

and self-confidence, 180-181

Bodily expressions. See Facial expressions; Nonverbal expressions

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Page 388

C

California Psychological Inventory, 209

CAMS activities, 102-103

Career counseling, 298-299

Catharsis, 289

Causal attributions

and self-confidence, 17, 179, 182, 191

and team confidence, 185-186

Cognitive consistency theories, 259-260

Cognitive processes and mechanisms, 7, 28-30

in cooperative learning, 13, 102, 107

in self-confidence, 17

and skills transfer, 32, 46

subjective experience, 60-65, 66, 68

Cohesiveness in groups, 7, 13, 14, 15, 19, 118, 119, 129, 186

and cooperative learning, 88

and interteam relations, 14, 130-131, 137-138, 169

and socially induced affect, 273-274

Cohort team training, 16, 140, 163

Collective efficacy. See Team confidence

Combat simulation, 8, 36, 52, 53, 139n, 300

Communication processes, 19, 200-201

among instructors, 21, 303, 306

in cooperative learning, 97, 100-101, 105

see also Feedback

Competition, 17, 130

among instructors, 21, 303, 305-306

Comprehension. See Illusions of comprehension and control

Computer-assisted training, 303

in cooperative learning, 12, 13, 93, 95, 105, 107

in team settings, 144, 150-151

Computer skills, 305

transferability, 27, 32-33

Concentration on unwanted thoughts, 288-289

Conceptual understanding, 16, 56, 145-147

Concurrent feedback, 50-51

Condition-action rules, 29

Consciousness, 6, 7-8, 207

see also Altered states of consciousness

Consumer-oriented improvement methods, 5, 278

Contextual interference, 41-42, 43-44

Contextual variables, 7

in self-confidence, 192-194

in team settings, 13, 14, 118-121

Controversy, 164

structured, 101, 102, 103-105

see also Team training

Cooperative learning, 5, 7, 12-13, 83-84, 106-107, 140, 249

application to adults, 13, 96-111

basic theory and research findings, 13, 87-96

cognitive-developmental theory in, 12, 87-88, 92-93, 97, 99

communication aids in, 12, 13, 105 107

costs and benefits, 110-111

group rewards in, 13, 87, 90-92, 97, 99-101, 107

implementation, 12, 108-111

and individual differences, 96, 106

positive interdependence in, 84-85, 88, 90-91

principles of, 84-87

processing and discussion among members, 86, 93, 95, 107

research needs, 107-108

scripting in, 12, 13, 93, 95, 97, 99-107

social-behavioral theory in, 12, 8790-92, 97

Coping confidence, 201-203

Counseling programs, 296, 298-299

Cultural influences, 120, 264

D

Deception detection, 19, 275

Decision making, 164

Declarative knowledge, 28-29, 39, 140

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Page 389

Delayed feedback, 11, 50, 51, 56

Depression, 20, 278, 288, 291-292, 293

Desert battle training, 36, 53

Directed forgetting, 281-282, 283, 292

Disasters, 289-290

Dispute-management training, 297

Duration training, 43-44

E

Educational games. See Interactive games

Electronic networks, 144, 151

Emotional states. See Emotion dishabituation; Mental and emotional states

Emotion dishabituation, 20, 286-288

Empathy, 258

Endurance, hypnotic effects, 18, 214-218, 247

Environmental context, 39-40

and memory, 39-40, 282, 283

see also Institutional impediments to training

Errors in training, 21, 72, 299-300, 301

Escalante, Jaime, 302-303

Expectancy-by-value theories, 175

Extrinsic feedback, 11, 50, 56

F

Face-to-face interaction, 13, 15, 86151, 155-156, 166, 168

Facial expressions, 151

of instructors, 268

in negotiation, 271-272

and socially induced affect, 9, 57261-263, 264, 268, 274-275, 276n

False consensus effect, 60-61

False memories, 12, 76-79, 80

hypnotically induced, 225, 226, 228 229

Fatigue, 25

hypnosis effects, 18, 214, 247

Fear, 257, 278

and thought suppression and confrontation, 20, 293

Feedback, 11, 50-51, 56

and self-confidence, 190-191, 198, 200

in team settings, 14, 16, 114, 116, 148, 165

to training providers, 301-302, 303

Feeling-of-knowing judgments, 68-69

Feynman effect, 70

Flight performance and training part-task methods, 45, 46, 47

simulators, 52-53, 55

and socially induced affect, 266-267

in team settings, 124, 164

Forensic hypnosis, 225, 228-230

Fractionating of tasks, 46, 47

G

Games. See Interactive games

Gender, 161, 204

Goal-setting, in self-confidence, 192-194, 198

Group processing, 16, 141, 148, 157-158, 166

in cooperative learning, 86, 93, 95, 107

Group rewards, 13, 87, 90-92, 9799-101, 107

H

Habit suppression, 18, 247, 293n

Healthy illusions, 176, 177

Helping behavior, 273

Hindsight effect, 63, 67

Horizontal transfer, 26

Hypermnesia, 224-225, 226-227

Hypnosis, 5, 6, 18, 208-210, 246, 247

forensic, 225, 228-230

and learning, 18, 218-220, 247

and memory, 18, 78, 224-230, 247

in pain control, 18, 210-214, 247

placebo effect, 18, 212, 248n

sensory and perceptual impacts, 18, 211-212, 220-223, 247

strength and endurance effects, 18, 214-218, 247

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Page 390

susceptibility to, 18, 209-210, 248n

and time perception, 218-219, 223-224

I

Identical elements in training and tasks, 11, 26-33, 47, 56

Illusions of comprehension and control, 6, 11-12, 57-59, 302

in self-monitoring of learning, 65-74

see also Subjective experience

Illusions of remembering, 57-59, 80

memory without remembering, 61, 74-76

see also False memories

Immediate feedback, 50

Incentive structuring, 87, 97

Incidental context, 39

Individual processes, 5, 7, 10-12, 23, 140

and cooperative learning, 12-13, 88, 90, 95, 106

learning and remembering, 10-12

in team settings, 140, 141, 143, 166

see also Illusions of comprehension and control; Transfer of skills

Influential context, 39

Innate-ability fallacy, 21, 298-299, 301

and teaching ability, 303, 304

Instance-based retrieval, 30-31

Institutional impediments to training, 6, 7, 20-21, 295, 306

innate-ability fallacy, 21, 298-299, 301

misunderstood aspects of training, 21, 299-303, 306

perception of value, 21, 296-298

for teachers, 303-306

Instructors, 21, 168-169, 303-305

and administrative structures, 21, 303, 305-306

confidence ratings, 196

in cooperative learning, 93, 95, 105, 107, 108, 109, 110

measures of effectiveness, 301-303

and socially induced affect, 9, 268-270, 274-275

and subjective experience, 63, 66, 68, 70, 80

Intentional forgetting, 281-282, 283, 292

Interactive games, 15, 132-136, 137

Interdependence, 7, 8, 16, 141, 153-155, 166

in cooperative learning, 84-85, 87, 88, 90-91, 92, 99

Intermittent feedback, 11, 56

Interteam relations, 13-14, 129-132, 137-138

Intrinsic feedback, 50, 51

Isolation, of instructors, 21, 305

J

Justice motives, 259-260

K

Keller, Helen, 74, 75

L

Language skills, 27-28, 30

Law School Admissions Test (LSAT), 68

Lawsuits, 297

Learned helplessness, 175, 176

Length of training, 11, 47-49, 56

Level of aspiration, 177-178, 182

Like and dislike, 161, 269-270, 273, 275

Los Angeles Police Department, 36, 296, 297

M

Maintenance of skills, 140

Mass hysteria, 272

Mathematical skills, 28, 34, 35, 37-38, 44, 265

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
×

Page 391

Measures of training effectiveness, 301-303

Meditation, 5, 6, 8, 171, 230-231, 234

and socially induced affect, 275

Memory, 7

environmental influences, 39-40, 282, 283

and hypnosis, 18, 78, 224-230, 247

and illusions of comprehension, 70

and sleep learning, 247

without remembering, 61, 74-76

see also Declarative knowledge; False memories; Illusions of remembering; Procedural knowledge; Thought suppression

Mental and emotional states, 7, 8, 16-19, 171

in team settings, 16, 141, 149-150, 162-163, 166

see also Altered states of consciousness; Cognitive processes and mechanisms; Consciousness; Emotion dishabituation; Memory; Motivational processes; Self-confidence; Socially induced affect; Thought suppression

Metacognition, 7, 14, 91, 102, 103, 122-124, 265

Military training, 8-9, 54-55, 124, 300

combat simulation, 8, 36, 52, 53, 139n, 300

Mimicry, 19, 168, 256, 261-263, 268-269, 274-275

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality

Inventory, 209

Minority groups, 161, 298

Models. See Role models and self- confidence; Shared mental models; Socially induced affect; Vicarious information

Morale, 14;

see also Team building and development

Motivational processes, 9, 25

hypnosis, 18, 215-216, 247

self-confidence, 5, 17, 173, 181-184

in team settings, 144-145, 204-205

Motor skills

and mood, 265-266

see also Transcendental meditation transfer processes, 29-30

Myers Briggs Type Indicator, 298-299

N

National Training Center, California,36, 53, 300

Negative feelings, 265-266

and group panic, 272

socially induced affect, 267-268, 269, 274, 275

Negative transfer, 26, 45, 47, 49, 51

Negligent retention, 301

Negotiation and bargaining, 14

intraorganizational, 120-121, 130-131, 138

and socially induced affect, 270-272, 275

Nonhypnotic stress inoculation, 18

Nonverbal expressions

in negotiation, 271-272

and socially induced affect, 9, 19, 57, 264

see also Facial expressions

Nuclear power industry training, 301

Nuclear Training Center, Connecticut, 297

O

Objective bases for judgment, 64

Obsessive thoughts, 278

suppression and confrontation, 20, 278, 291, 293

Opposing force (OPFOR) regiment, 300

Optimism, 176-177, 204

Organizational factors. See Cultural influences; Institutional impediments to training; Interteam relations; Team building and development; Team performance; Team training

Outshining hypothesis, 40

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
×

Page 392

P

Pain

hypnotic control of, 18, 210-214, 247

and thought suppression, 287

Panic behavior, 272, 275

Paramnesia, 226

Participant-modeling, 187-188

Part-to-whole training, 11, 26, 44-47, 56

Pattern identification, 39

Peer relationships, in team settings, 16, 141, 148-150, 161-162, 166

see also Cooperative learning

Perceptual processes

distortions and team identification, 14

hypnosis impacts, 220-223

and mood, 265

part-task training, 46

and perceived competence, 174

Persuasion techniques

and self-confidence, 17, 189-190, 199-201

in socially induced affect, 268-270, 274-275

Pessimism, 175, 176-177

Phase training, 43-44

Phobias, 187, 188, 189, 288, 290

Physiological effects, 276n

of altered states of consciousness, 207, 208

on self-confidence, 180, 191-192

of socially induced affect, 275

Police, 36, 226, 228, 296-297

Positive attitudes and feelings, 265-266

and group panic, 272

socially induced affect, 266-267, 269, 274, 275

in team training settings, 149-150

Positive communication, 200-201

Positive interdependence. See Interdependence

Positive transfer, 26, 45, 49, 51-52

Posttraining performance, 141, 164-166, 168, 301-302, 303

Procedural knowledge

and skills transfer, 28, 29

and team training, 147-148, 166

Production rules, 29, 32

Professional identification

and team training, 151-152

Progressive part task recombination, 46

Promotive interaction, 16, 141, 155-156, 166, 168

Pseudomemories. See False memories

Psychotherapy

and false memory, 79

and thought suppression and confrontation, 279, 290-292, 293

Pure-part task recombination, 46

R

Readiness for training or performance, 8-9, 17

Real-world models, 37

Recall processes, 67, 74-75

Reinstatement hypothesis, 40

Relaxation, 277

and restricted environmental

stimulation, 239

and transcendental meditation, 18, 234

Remembering. See Illusions of remembering; Memory

REM (rapid eye movement) sleep, 244, 245

Repetitive part task recombination, 46

Research activities and evaluation, 4-5, 7, 10

teachers' use of, 303

Restricted environmental stimulation (REST), 5, 6, 8, 18, 236-243, 247

Retraining programs, 296

Revivication, 227

Rewards group, 13, 87, 90-92, 97, 99-101, 107

and self-confidence, 17, 194

Role models, and self-confidence, 17, 187-188, 198-199

Rote motor tasks, 56

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Page 393

S

Schematic knowledge representation, 42-43

School settings, 34, 35, 37, 39, 66, 196

Scripting, 12, 13, 93, 95, 97, 99-107

Segmenting of tasks, 46

Self-actualization, 234, 235

Self-assessment. See Illusions of comprehension and control; Self-monitoring; Subjective experience

Self-concept, 175-176

Self-confidence, 6, 16-17, 171, 173-178

contextual influences, 192-194

information, 178-180, 187-192

and motivation, 5, 17, 173, 181-184

research needs, 203-206

research summaries, 187-203

role of feedback, 190-191, 198, 200

techniques for enhancing, 9, 17, 197-203

theories of, 174, 178-186

see also Illusions of comprehension and control; Team confidence

Self-efficacy. See Self-confidence

Self-esteem, 176

self-help strategies, 278

and team training, 16, 163, 166

Self-help strategies, 278

Self-modeling, 199

Self-monitoring, 57-58, 65-74, 157-158, 173, 177

and evaluation of instruction, 57-58, 67-68, 80

Self-reaction, 173, 177

Sensory deprivation. See Restricted environmental stimulation

Shared mental models, 7, 14, 15, 16, 124, 137, 146

Simplifying of tasks, 46, 47

Simulation devices and exercises, 11, 17, 36, 45, 52-55, 56, 132-136, 137, 138n, 144

combat training, 8, 36, 52, 53, 139n, 300

fidelity of, 11, 26, 52-55, 56

Situated learning, 7, 11, 26, 33-36, 56

Sleep, 8, 208, 246-247

Sleep learning, 5, 6, 18-19, 243-246, 247

Social competency, 16, 162-163, 166, 169

Social loafing, 186

Socially induced affect, 5, 6, 19-20, 249, 251-252, 259-260, 274-275, 275-276n

cognitive mechanisms, 256-260, 274

concordant and discordant affect, 19, 252-256, 258, 259-260, 261, 270, 274, 276n

conditioning mechanisms, 256, 260-261, 274

mechanisms of, 19, 256-265, 274

and mimicry, 168, 256, 261-263,  268-269, 274-275

performance impacts, 265-274, 275

Social processes, 7, 33

and cooperative learning, 12-13

and subjective experience, 60-61

Social support, in team settings, 148-149, 161-162, 165, 166, 167

Sport confidence, 6, 174

Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, 209

Stereotyping, 298

Strategy development, 130-131, 138

Strength, hypnotic effects, 18, 214-218, 247

Stress, 18, 25, 278, 288, 289

in team settings, 149, 158

and transcendental meditation, 18, 247

Structured controversy, 101, 102, 103-105

Subconscious processes, 8;

see also Hypnosis; Thought supression

Subjective experience, 57-59, 60-65, 66, 68, 79-80

assumptions about others', 12, 60-64, 65-66, 76

as basis for judgment, 11-12, 23, 59-74, 80

of hypnosis, 18, 247

Symbolic representation. See Abstract instruction

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Page 394

T

Task analysis, 11, 47

Taskwork, 140, 141, 145-153, 166, 167

Team building and development, 5, 13-15, 121-125, 137-138, 168

and cohesion, 14, 129

gaming exercises, 15, 132-136, 137

and interteam relations, 13-14, 129-132, 137-138

and performance, 13-14, 81, 113-114, 125-129

and shared mental models, 7, 14, 15, 16, 124, 137, 146

Team confidence, 184-186, 195-197, 204-206

Team performance, 5, 12-16, 81, 137-138

contextual variables, 13, 118-121

determinants of, 115-121

and feedback, 114, 116

and part-task training of individuals, 45

and socially induced affect, 273-274

see also Cooperative learning; Interteam relations; Team building and development; Team confidence; Team training

Team training, 7, 15-16, 83, 140-143, 166

accountability in, 16, 141, 144, 156-157, 165, 166, 168

changes in group structure and dynamics, 141, 163-164, 166

of cohort groups, 16, 140, 163

and feedback, 14, 16, 148, 165

group performance impacts, 16, 141, 159, 160

guidelines, 166-168

and individual performance, 140, 141, 159-160

individuals in, 140, 141, 143, 166

inputs, 15-16, 140-141, 143-145, 166-167

mediating processes, 13, 15, 16, 141, 153-158, 166, 168-169

obstacles to, 168-169

outcomes, 15, 16, 141, 158-166, 167-168

peer relationships impacts, 16, 141, 148-150, 161-162, 166

positive interdependence in, 8, 16, 141, 153-155, 166

posttraining activities, 141, 164-166, 168

preparation, 141, 144-145, 166

processing and discussion among members, 16, 141, 148, 157-158, 166

promotive interaction in, 16, 141, 155-156, 166, 168

psychological health impacts, 16, 141, 149-150, 162-163, 166

research literature, 141, 143

resources, 15, 16, 140, 144, 166

task characteristics, 15, 141, 144, 166

taskwork versus teamwork orientation, 140, 141, 152-153, 166, 167

training processes, 15, 141, 145-153, 166

Teamwork, 140, 141, 152-153, 166, 167

Thought patterns, and self-confidence, 181-183

Thought rebound, 283-286

Thought suppression, 5, 6, 8, 20, 249, 277-278, 292-293

alternatives to, 20, 288-292, 293

consequences of, 283-288

effectiveness of, 279-283

of emotional topics, 286-288, 292

motivation for, 278-279

research needs, 20

Time perception, and hypnosis, 218-219, 223-224

Training, definition of, 140, 166

Transcendental meditation (TM), 6, 18, 231-236, 247

physiological effects, 18, 233-234

research status, 18

theory, 232-233

Transfer of skills, 6-7, 11, 25-26, 55-56, 140

and abstract instruction, 11, 26, 33, 34, 36-39, 56

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Page 395

contextual issues, 26, 33-36, 39-40, 56

and cooperative learning, 13, 95-96, 106, 107

failure in, 26, 45, 47, 49, 51, 55, 301

and feedback, 11, 50-51, 56

by identical elements, 26-36, 56

and length of training, 11, 47-49, 56

part-to-whole training, 11, 26, 44-47, 56

prediction of, 51-52

principles of, 36-55, 56

and simulation exercises, 11, 36, 45, 52-55, 56

from team settings, 159-160, 164-165, 167

and variable practice, 11, 25-26, 41-44, 56, 73-74

Trauma, 20, 278, 289-290, 293

Tutoring, 12, 13, 83

U

Unconscious plagiarism, 74, 75, 80

V

Variable practice training, 11, 25-26, 41-44, 56, 73-74, 299

Vertical transfer. See Part-to-wholetraining

Vicarious information

in self-confidence, 179, 180, 188-189

in socially induced affect, 255, 256, 258

Visual aids and displays, 12, 13, 95, 105, 107

W

Worksheets, 12, 13, 95, 107

Z

Zeigarnik effect, 274

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Research Council. 1994. Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2303.
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Learning, Remembering, Believing: Enhancing Human Performance Get This Book
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Can such techniques as sleep learning and hypnosis improve performance? Do we sometimes confuse familiarity with mastery? Can we learn without making mistakes? These questions apply in the classroom, in the military, and on the assembly line.

Learning, Remembering, Believing addresses these and other key issues in learning and performance. The volume presents leading-edge theories and findings from a wide range of research settings: from pilots learning to fly to children learning about physics by throwing beanbags. Common folklore is explored, and promising research directions are identified. The authors also continue themes from their first two volumes: Enhancing Human Performance (1988) and In the Mind's Eye (1991).

The result is a thorough and readable review of

  • Learning and remembering. The volume evaluates the effects of subjective experience on learning--why we often overestimate what we know, why we may not need a close match between training settings and real-world tasks, and why we experience such phenomena as illusory remembering and unconscious plagiarism.
  • Learning and performing in teams. The authors discuss cooperative learning in different age groups and contexts. Current views on team performance are presented, including how team-learning processes can be improved and whether team-building interventions are effective.
  • Mental and emotional states. This is a critical review of the evidence that learning is affected by state of mind. Topics include hypnosis, meditation, sleep learning, restricted environmental stimulation, and self-confidence and the self-efficacy theory of learning.
  • New directions. The volume looks at two new ideas for improving performance: emotions induced by another person--socially induced affect--and strategies for controlling one's thoughts. The committee also considers factors inherent in organizations--workplaces, educational facilities, and the military--that affect whether and how they implement training programs.

Learning, Remembering, Believing offers an understanding of human learning that will be useful to training specialists, psychologists, educators, managers, and individuals interested in all dimensions of human performance.

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