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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2307.
×

POLYMER SCIENCE and ENGINEERING

The Shifting Research Frontiers

Committee on Polymer Science and Engineering

Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

National Academy Press
Washington, D.C.
1994

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2307.
×

National Academy Press
2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418

NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance.

This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine.

Support for this project was provided by the National Science Foundation, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Department of Army, Department of Energy (Grant No. DE-FG05-92ER-45478), E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Air Force Office of Scientific Research, Department of the Navy, and the Basic Science Fund of the National Academy of Sciences, whose contributors include the AT&T Foundation, Atlantic Richfield Foundation, BP America, Dow Chemical Company, E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, IBM Corporation, Merck and Company, Inc., Monsanto Company, and Shell Oil Companies Foundation.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Polymer science and engineering : the shifting research frontiers / Committee on Polymer Science and Engineering, Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology, Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, National Research Council.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references and index.

ISBN 0-309-04998-9

1. Polymers—Research. I. National Research Council (U.S.). Committee on Polymer Science and Engineering.

QD281.P6P635 1994

668.9—dc20 94-21613

CIP

Copyright 1994 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2307.
×

COMMITTEE ON POLYMER SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING

RICHARD S. STEIN,

University of Massachusetts at Amherst,

Chair

LESTER C. KROGH,

3M (retired),

Vice Chair

DOTSEVI Y. SOGAH,

Cornell University,

Vice Chair

C. JEFFREY BRINKER,

Sandia National Laboratory

KENNETH A. DILL,

University of California at San Francisco

ROBERT H. GRUBBS,

California Institute of Technology

EDWARD J. KRAMER,

Cornell University

SONJA KRAUSE,

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

JAMES E. MARK,

University of Cincinnati

DAVID W. McCALL,

AT&T Bell Laboratories (retired)

JAMES E. McGRATH,

Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

JAMES E. NOTTKE,

E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co.

DONALD R. PAUL,

University of Texas at Austin

S. ELAINE PETRIE,

Eastman Kodak Company (retired)

DAVID A. TIRRELL,

University of Massachusetts at Amherst

C. GRANT WILLSON,

University of Texas at Austin

Staff

TAMAE MAEDA WONG, Study Director

MARIA P. JONES, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2307.
×

BOARD ON CHEMICAL SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGY

PETER DERVAN,

California Institute of Technology,

Co-chair

EDWIN PRZYBYLOWICZ,

Eastman Kodak Company (retired),

Co-chair

PAUL S. ANDERSON,

Merck Sharp & Dohme

ALEXIS BELL,

University of California at Berkeley

DAVID C. BONNER,

Premix, Inc.

PHILIP H. BRODSKY,

Monsanto Company

GREGORY R. CHOPPIN,

Florida State University

FRED P. CORSON,

Dow Chemical Company

MICHAEL P. DOYLE,

Trinity University

BERTRAM O. FRASER-REID,

Duke University

JOSEPH G. GORDON II,

IBM Almaden Research Center

L. LOUIS HEGEDUS,

W.R. Grace & Co.

KENDALL HOUK,

University of California at Los Angeles

DOUGLAS A. LAUFFENBERGER,

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

MARSHA I. LESTER,

University of Pennsylvania

W. CARL LINEBERGER,

University of Colorado

ROYCE W. MURRAY,

University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

JEANNE E. PEMBERTON,

University of Arizona

W. HARMON RAY,

University of Wisconsin at Madison

JOANNE STUBBE,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Staff

DOUGLAS J. RABER, Director

SCOTT WEIDMAN, Senior Program Officer

TAMAE MAEDA WONG, Program Officer

SYBIL A. PAIGE, Administrative Associate

MARIA P. JONES, Senior Project Assistant

KASANDRA GOWEN, Project Assistant

TANA SPENCER, Project Assistant

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2307.
×

COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS AND APPLICATIONS

RICHARD N. ZARE,

Stanford University,

Chair

RICHARD S. NICHOLSON,

American Association for the Advancement of Science,

Vice Chair

STEPHEN L. ADLER,

Institute for Advanced Study

JOHN A. ARMSTRONG,

IBM Corporation (retired)

SYLVIA T. CEYER,

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

AVNER FRIEDMAN,

University of Minnesota

SUSAN L. GRAHAM,

University of California at Berkeley

ROBERT J. HERMANN,

United Technologies Corporation

HANS MARK,

University of Texas at Austin

CLAIRE E. MAX,

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

CHRISTOPHER F. McKEE,

University of California at Berkeley

JAMES W. MITCHELL,

AT&T Bell Laboratories

JEROME SACKS,

National Institute of Statistical Sciences

A. RICHARD SEEBASS III,

University of Colorado

LEON T. SIL VER,

California Institute of Technology

CHARLES P. SLICHTER,

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

ALVIN W. TRIVELPIECE,

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

NORMAN METZGER, Executive Director

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2307.
×

The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences.

The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering.

The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine.

The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce Alberts and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2307.
×

Preface

The last decade has produced dramatic changes in national scientific and economic issues. Environmental goals have led to new standards, and the end of the Cold War has shifted national priorities from military to economic security. These changes have had direct effects on priorities for research and development in both the public and the private sector. The growing economic and industrial sophistication of other countries also presents new challenges for our economic stability. If the United States is to maintain its leadership role and ability to compete in the global market, we must clearly understand the frontiers of research in order to plan for the future.

In 1992, a committee was established by the Board on Chemical Sciences and Technology (BCST) of the National Research Council (NRC) to assess the research frontiers in polymer science and engineering. Given the scientific advancements in the field since the publication of the 1981 NRC report, Polymer Science and Engineering: Challenges, Needs, and Opportunities (National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.), it was clear that another look at polymer science and engineering was in order. The goals were to examine the recent advances in research and to identify new thrusts in the context of current and long-term national needs and concerns. The committee was charged to

  • Identify ways that polymer research contributes to the solution of important national issues;

  • Encourage the scientific and technological community to give increased attention to advancing the frontiers of research and education; and

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2307.
×
  • Recommend priorities to enable administrators, policymakers, and funding agencies to optimize the use of limited resources.

The study began with a workshop held in Washington, D.C., on March 26 and 27, 1992, at which invited specialists presented their views of their fields, outstanding scientific challenges, and areas that they thought should be emphasized. In addition, the committee surveyed other scientists, engineers, and industrialists by mail to obtain their views. Discussions among committee members were conducted over four meetings during 1992 and 1993, and consensus on the research priorities as identified in the recommendations was reached by the committee members. The broad state-of-the-art report that resulted is aimed at a diverse audience. For polymer research specialists, it offers a summary of current activities in research and commercial technologies. For investigators in other branches of materials science and fields applying polymers such as biomedicine and electronics, it reviews new directions in polymer research, emphasizing important interdisciplinary opportunites. Finally, for leaders in science policy and funding, this report presents topics chosen for their importance to society and delineates priority areas in polymer science and engineering.

The committee's chair is indebted to its members for the many hours that this able and conscientious group devoted to this effort. In particular, David W. McCall is recognized for his dedication and insight in editing the report into its final form. The efforts of BCST staff members Tamae Maeda Wong, Douglas J. Raber, and Maria P. Jones were also of major importance. The contributions of Douglas L. Smith of the California Institute of Technology, who edited the material for the vignettes, are very much appreciated. The appendix lists additional participants and writing contributors. All of us understood the importance of the task, whose results we hope will benefit the polymer community and the nation.

Richard S. Stein, Chair

Committee on Polymer Science and Engineering

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2307.
×
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2307.
×

3

 

MANUFACTURING: MATERIALS AND PROCESSING

 

65

   

Materials

 

66

   

Structural Polymers

 

66

   

Films, Membranes, and Coatings

 

92

   

Inorganic Polymers

 

100

   

Polymer Processing

 

104

   

Melt Processing

 

105

   

Solution Processing

 

108

   

Dispersion Processing

 

110

   

Process Models

 

112

   

Conclusions

 

113

   

References

 

115

4

 

ENABLING SCIENCE

 

116

   

Polymer Synthesis

 

116

   

Control of Chain Architecture

 

117

   

Synthesis of Polymers of Controlled End-Group Structure

 

123

   

Design and Synthesis of Thermally Stable Polymers

 

125

   

Synthesis of Conjugated Polymers

 

127

   

Modification of Polymer Surfaces

 

129

   

Biocatalysis in Polymer Synthesis

 

131

   

Development of New Polymerization Methods

 

132

   

Exploring the Periodic Table: Inorganic Polymers

 

133

   

Reactive Processing

 

137

   

Supramolecular Chemistry

 

137

   

Conclusions

 

138

   

Polymer Characterization

 

139

   

Molecular Characterization

 

139

   

Characterization of Solutions, Melts, and Elastomers

 

144

   

Characterization of Polymer Solid-State Structure and Properties

 

146

   

Characterization of Polymer Surfaces and Interfaces

 

148

   

Characterization of Biopolymers

 

150

   

Conclusions

 

152

   

Theory, Modeling, and Simulation

 

153

   

States of Matter

 

155

   

Dynamics and Properties

 

159

   

Computational Methods

 

163

   

Conclusions

 

167

   

References

 

168

 

 

APPENDIX: Contributors and Participants

 

169

 

 

INDEX

 

173

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Research Council. 1994. Polymer Science and Engineering: The Shifting Research Frontiers. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2307.
×

POLYMER SCIENCE and ENGINEERING

 

The Shifting Research Frontiers

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Polymers are used in everything from nylon stockings to commercial aircraft to artificial heart valves, and they have a key role in addressing international competitiveness and other national issues.

Polymer Science and Engineering explores the universe of polymers, describing their properties and wide-ranging potential, and presents the state of the science, with a hard look at downward trends in research support. Leading experts offer findings, recommendations, and research directions. Lively vignettes provide snapshots of polymers in everyday applications.

The volume includes an overview of the use of polymers in such fields as medicine and biotechnology, information and communication, housing and construction, energy and transportation, national defense, and environmental protection. The committee looks at the various classes of polymers--plastics, fibers, composites, and other materials, as well as polymers used as membranes and coatings--and how their composition and specific methods of processing result in unparalleled usefulness.

The reader can also learn the science behind the technology, including efforts to model polymer synthesis after nature's methods, and breakthroughs in characterizing polymer properties needed for twenty-first-century applications.

This informative volume will be important to chemists, engineers, materials scientists, researchers, industrialists, and policymakers interested in the role of polymers, as well as to science and engineering educators and students.

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