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APPENDIX D Suggested Reading List This reading list was developed to provide background material for scientists interested in participating in K- 12 science education. Annotations provide thumb- nail sketches of the contents of citations. THE TEACHING EXPERIENCE The sources below address issues in the professional lives of K-12 public- school teachers some of which can be generalized across academic disciplines. As with all professions, the experience of teaching varies with each individual, geographic area, and specific work environment. Often, individual experiences differ greatly within one school. The committee hopes that these materials pro- vide insight into the teaching profession, but it believes, as stated in the report, that the best way to learn about the rewards and challenges of teaching is to develop continuing professional relationships with teachers. A good way to begin is to make arrangements with a teacher to visit a classroom for a day. And then perhaps another. Freedman, S. G. 1990. Small Victories: The Real World of a Teacher, Her Stu- dents and Their High School. New York, NY: Harper & Row. Jessica Siegel teaches at a high school that ranks among the worst 10% in New York. Yet, she and her colleagues send 92% of their graduates to college. The author recounts what he has learned about Siegel's classroom 189
190 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE TEACHERS activities and her students' experiences by tracking her professional life throughout the 1987-1988 academic year. Hendrix, J. R., and T. R. Mertens. 1986. Attracting and retaining qualified high school science teachers: views from those on the firing line. American Biol- ogy Teacher 48~1~:32-36. Presents findings from a 20-item questionnaire given to secondary-school life-science teachers selected for an NSF-funded honors workshop on hu- man genetics. The questionnaire, submitted to two groups of teachers, aimed to identify what motivates teachers to maintain excellence in their teaching and ways to attract and retain quality science educators. Herbert, C. 1974. I See a Child. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books. Written by a teacher, this creative book captures the intricacies of student- teacher relationships. Includes photographs and written work by students to provide their perspectives on the issues addressed. Kidder, T. 1989. Among School Children. New York, NY: Avon Books. A poignant account of the author' s 9-month experience with a schoolteacher and her students in Holyoke, Massachusetts. Kohl, H. 1967. 36 Children. New York, NY: New American Library. A teacher's narrative of his first year working in the New York City public schools in 1967. Illuminates issues still pertinent today. National Research Council. 1990. Fulfilling the Promise: Biology Education in the Nation's Schools. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. A report on high-school biology teaching today. Includes analysis of how the scientific community can help to improve the teaching of biology in the nation's schools. Rosen, W. G., ed. 1989. High-School Biology Today and Tomorrow. Washing- ton, DC: National Academy Press. Papers developed from conference proceedings addressing issues in biology education. Includes current teacher perspectives. THE POLITICS AND SOCIOLOGY OF SCHOOLS The following books describe some of the political and sociological forces influencing today's schools that have shaped many current school reform initia- tives. In addition, these sources are intended to help readers understand the complex processes involved in changing schools or programs involved in large- scale, systemic reform efforts. American Association for Higher Education. 1990 and 1991. Improving Student Achievement Through Partnerships: Three Presentations From AAHE's First and Second National Conference on School/College Collaboration. Wash- ington, DC: American Association for Higher Education.
SUGGESTED READING LIST 191 Contains presentations by Kati P. Haycock, Phyllis P. Hart, and Jacqueline J. Irvine on problems and strategies regarding achievement of underrepres- ented and minority-group students. Haycock asserts that the partnership movement needs to keep its focus primarily on student achievement, to look "beyond pet projects" and build a cohesive movement for reform, and to work toward establishing "a continuum for systematizing teaching and learning excellence in grades K-16." Hart, a teacher of 18 years, discusses "remarkable" academic improvement among minority-group students par- ticipating in a model partnership program. Irvine discusses how a "disconti- nuity" between an African American student's culture inside and outside school can limit achievement. Atkin, J. M., and A. Atkin. 1989. Improving Science Education Through Local Alliances: A Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Santa Cruz, CA: Network Publications. Describes examples of successful alliances between businesses, universities, and local school districts. Includes programs with interesting evaluation components. Crawford, J. 1989. Bilingual Education: History, Politics, and Theory and Prac- tice. Trenton, NJ: Crane Publishing Company. A very readable analysis of bilingual education in the United States public schools. Contains useful glossary of related terms. Addresses past and cur- rent debates. Gardner, H. 1991. The Unschooled Mind: How Children Think and How Schools Should Teach. New York, NY: Basic Books. Basing his critique on his research in cognitive science, Gardner challenges current notions about what children should "know" and "understand" in school. He describes how children's minds work, the educational processes in schools, and how schools, owing mostly to low expectations of their students, tend to be unresponsive to students' abilities to gain in-depth un- derstanding of classroom material. He sets forth a new framework for un- derstanding how children learn and makes recommendations for applying these principles to the current school-reform agenda. Gaudiani, C. L., and D. G. Burnett.1986. Academic Alliances: A New Approach to School/College Collaboration. Washington,DC: American Association for Higher Education. Provides a succinct history of the partnership movement between school and college educators. Introduces a partnership model known as the Academic Alliance and describes how discipline-based, voluntary partnerships build productive, collegial relationships among K-12 and post-secondary-school teachers. Goodlad, J.A. 1984. A Place Called School: Prospects for the Future. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
92 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE TEACHERS An in-depth, nationwide study of whole schools and classrooms. Contains data, descriptions, and analyses of specific schools and genres of schools and identifies issues deemed critical to educational change. Asserts that individual schools should be collecting education data that goes well beyond test scores. Offers other recommendations for school improvement but em- phasizes that no single agenda can be created for all U.S. schools. Hord, S. M., W. C. Rutherford, L. Huling-Austin, and G. E. Hall. 1987. Taking Charge of Change. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Cur- riculum Development. Using the "concerns-based adoption model," this work describes how to implement effective strategies for change. Considers factors that tradition- ally have defeated many strategies. Required reading for anyone consider- ing implementing systemwide, institutionalized innovations. Joyce, B., H. Wolf, and E. Calhoun. The Self-Renewing School. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. An example of how one school "buys time" so that teachers can work to- gether on school planning and reform. A good reminder to scientists who have not yet visited their area schools that many of their colleagues are already actively developing and participating in reforms. Kozol, J. 1991. Savage Inequalities: Children in America's Schools. New York, NY: Crown Publishers. Through research drawn from visits to schools in poor urban areas of several major cities and his earlier experience teaching in the Boston public schools, Kozol documents the racial and economic inequalities that have persisted over the last 25 years. Oakes, J. 1985. Keeping Track: How Schools Structure Inequality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Describes how the traditional "tracking" systems in public schools hurt the less-advantaged students, yet do not help the more advantaged students. Explains the benefits of creating groups of students with mixed abilities (academic strengths and weaknesses). Rigden, D. 1992. Businesses and the Schools: A Guide to Effective Programs. 2nd edition. New York, NY: Council for Aid to Education. Describes industry's role in education today. Sizer, T. R. 1992 (previously published in 1984 and 1985~. Horace's Compro- mise: The Dilemma of the American High School. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. Chronicles the experiences of the fictional Horace, a reform-minded high school teacher, developed from the author's study of the American high school. Describes familiar, ineffective practices that take a heavy toll on all Horaces trying to improve their teaching. An afterword describes the prin- ciples of the secondary-school reform movement, the Coalition of Essential
SUGGESTED READING LIST 193 Schools, which developed out of this study of high schools across the coun- try. Sizer, T. R. 1992. Horace's School: Redesigning the American High School. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. Serves as the first report of the Coalition of Essential Schools, a group of schools dedicated to reform. Summarizes what the author has learned since 1984, when he first published findings from a study of U.S. high schools, through the eyes of a fictionalized character, Horace. Conveys what he learned about processes of change within individual coalition schools through conversations with teachers, students, and others. The Coalition of Essential Schools is housed at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island. SCHOOL REFORM From Risk to Renewal: Charting a Course for Reform. By the Editors of Educa- tion Week newspaper. 1993. Washington, DC: Editorial Projects in Educa- tion. Chronicles school reform efforts in the United States since 1981. Hord, S. M., W. C. Rutherford, L. Huling-Austin, and G. E. Hall. 1987. Taking Charge of Change. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Cur- riculum Development. See description under "The Politics and Sociology of Schools." Joyce, B., H. Wolf, and E. Calhoun. The Self-Renewing School. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. See description under "The Politics and Sociology of Schools." Leonard, G. 1987. Education and Ecstasy. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books. Leonard has reissued this popular book on education reform, which was first published in the 1960s. This version includes an essay, "The Great School Reform Hoax," which provides commentary and a general warning about current school-reform activities. Offers an exciting vision of what schools could become. Little, J. W. 1993. Teachers' Professional Development in a Climate of Educa- tional Reform. New York, NY: National Center for Restructuring Educa- tion, Schools and Teaching at Teachers College, Columbia University. Describes a problem of "fit" between existing school reform activities and models of professional development. Points to some of the newer, alterna- tive models of professional development as a remedy to this problem. Toch, T. 1991. In the Name of Excellence: The Struggle to Reform the Nation's Schools, Why It's Failing and What Should Be Done. New York, NY: Ox- ford. A review and analysis of school reform since 1983. Gives insight into a range of issues influencing the status of the nation's schools, including poli
94 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE TEACHERS tics, unions, and the role of schools of education at the nation's colleges and . . . universities. SCIENCE-EDUCATION JOURNALS FOR TEACHERS American Biology Teacher. Reston,VA: The National Association of Biology Teachers. Articles cover a wide range of biological topics targeted for middle- and high-school teachers. Journal of College Science Teaching. Arlington, VA: National Science Teach- ers Association, Society for College Science Teaching. Focuses on lower-division science courses for general education and science majors taken primarily by prospective elementary- and secondary-school teachers. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. Manhattan, KS: National Association for Research in Science Teaching, Kansas State University's Center for Sci- ence Education. Keeps readers up to date monthly (except June and July) on research related to the teaching of science. For subscription information, contact John Wiley and Sons, Inc., (212) 850-6645. The Kappan. A journal of Phi Delta Kappa. A scholarly publication, well read by K-12 practitioners, filled with articles addressing pedagogy. Science and Children. Arlington, VA: The National Science Teachers Associa- tion. Focuses on hands-on science activities for elementary- and middle-school teachers. Science Scope. Arlington, VA: The National Science Teachers Association. Provides activities, strategies, and reviews for middle-school teachers. The Science Teacher. Arlington, VA: The National Science Teachers Associa- tion. Includes articles on topics in the sciences and related current research. Tar- geted for high-school teachers but recommended for elementary-school teachers as well. Today's Education. Washington, DC: National Education Association. Contains articles on both the difficulties and successes in American schools. RESEARCH IN SCIENCE EDUCATION Blank, R. K., and D. Schilder. 1990. State policies and state role in curriculum. In Politics of Education Association Yearbook: 37-62. Taylor and Francis Ltd.
SUGGESTED READING LIST 195 In the 1980s, mathematics and science policy reform at the state level was aimed largely at raising standards in elementary and secondary education. This chapter delivers findings from a 50-state comparative analysis of those policy reforms; mathematics and science curriculum reforms receive par- ticular focus. Mechling, K. R., and D. L. Oliver. 1983. Activities, not textbooks: what research says about science programs. Principal 62~4~:41-43. A two-page article addressing the need for greater interface between good science-education research and classroom practice. Asserts that hands-on, activity-oriented curricula and inquiry-oriented instruction should replace textbooks as tools for improving science education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Educa- tion. 1992. Helping Your Child Learn Science. Washington, DC: U.S. De- partment of Education. A part of a series of publications intended to help parents extend their children's learning experiences beyond the classroom. This publication pro- vides science information and activities to help parents engage their children in science learning at home and foster their natural curiosity about their environment. National Center for Improving Science Education, a Partnership of the NET- WORK and the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS). Summaries of Reports. Andover, MA: The NETWORK. The National Center for Improving Science Education "synthesizes and translates the findings, recommendations and perspectives embodied in re- cent and forthcoming studies and reports" by top researchers in science education. Readers can learn about the range of topics and titles included in the center's resources through this document (e.g., Getting Started in Sci- ence: A Blueprint for Elementary School Science, An Integrative Report and Developing and Supporting Teachers for Secondary School Science Educa- tion), but they will benefit most by reading the reports on their own inter- ests. To order a list of titles, call 1-800-877-5400. Shymansky, J. A. 1989. What research says . . . about ESS, SCIS, and SAPA. Science and Children (April):33-35. The author reviews and synthesizes research on the effectiveness of three science programs, the Elementary Science Study (ESS) Science Curriculum Study (SCIS), and Science A Process Approach (SAPA). He provides rec- ommendations for future programs. DIVERSITY AND EQUITY IN SCIENCE EDUCATION As stated previously in the report, the committee encourages scientists to participate in professional-development activities that help teachers maintain high expectations of all students while considering the diversity among them. The
196 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE TEACHERS following sources address some of the complex issues related to diversity in teaching and learning. The term diversity refers to gender, language, ethnic, racial, cultural, and economic differences. Beane, D. B. 1988. Mathematics and Science: Critical Filters for the Future of Minority Students. Washington, DC: The Mid-Atlantic Center for Race Equity, The American University. A collection of resources intended to help define and evaluate the principal' s role in improving mathematics and science education for minority-group students. Offers data related to the underrepresentation of African-Ameri- cans, Hispanics, and American Indians in advanced classes, components of programs that have been successful in improving minority-group student achievement, and tools for assessing this progress. Its purpose is to help implement successful prevention and intervention initiatives at the local level. Butler, W. T., et al. 1991. Baylor's program to attract minority students and others to science and medicine. Academic Medicine 66:305-311. Describes Baylor College of Medicine's summer enrichment program de- signed to recruit and support students from underrepresented minority groups. Highlights the element of collaboration between faculty from Baylor and surrounding public schools as a reason for its success and states the need for assessment, participation, and financial support. Cole, M., and P. Griffin, eds. 1987. Improving Science and Mathematics Edu- cation for Minorities and Women: Contextual Factors in Education. Pre- pared for the Committee on Research in Mathematics, Science, and Tech- nology Education, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Center for Education Research, School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Madi son. A committee representing multiple disciplines, developed by the National Research Council, explores how contexts (e.g., the school, the classroom,and the home) affect the learning process of underrepresented students in the sciences and mathematics. Reviews existing research and identifies areas of research, institutional policies, and current programs that need further study. Dilworth, M. E., ed. 1993. Diversity in Teacher Education: New Expectations. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. See description under "Teacher Professional Development." Goodlad, J. I., and P. Keating, eds. 1990. Access to Knowledge: An Agenda for Our Nation's Schools. New York, NY: The College Board. A collection of articles by leaders in school reform concerned with educa- tional equity for students. Includes works by James Comer, John Goodlad, Jeannie Oakes, and Linda Darling-Hammond.
SUGGESTED READING LIST 197 Kahle, J. B., and M. K. Lakes. 1983. The myth of equality in science classrooms. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 20~10~:1-10. Analyzes a 1976-1977 survey concerning male and female attitudes toward science. Concludes that by age 9 female students have less contact with classroom-related and extracurricular science activities and acquire negative attitudes toward the discipline. This widely cited paper describes issues per- tinent to elementary- and middle-school classrooms today. Offers sugges- tions to combat the problem. Kahle, J. B., and J. Meece. Research on girls in science lessons and applications. In Handbook of Research in Science Teaching & Learning, D. Gabel, ed. Washington, DC: National Science Teachers Association. An extensive review of literature on the performance and retention of girls in mathematics and science education. The authors criticize existing re- search models for focusing on "what's missing" in girls' skills or upbring- ing. Rather, they suggest considering cognitive, psychological and sociocul- tural variables, with race and class, in studies of school and career achievement among females in mathematics and science. Has a thorough bibliography. Kahle, J. B., L. H. Parker, L. J. Rennie, and D. Riley. 1993. Gender differences in science education: building a model. Educational Psychologist 28~4~:379- 404. (Requests should be sent to Jane Butler Kahle, Miami University, School of Education and Allied Professions, Oxford, Ohio.) The authors propose a model for studying gender and science in the schools intended for researchers, as well as practitioners. Based on a review of inter- national research, the model is informed by existing models used to study gender in mathematics and a series of Australian and American studies ex- ploring how teachers' perceptions of gender and science affect student achievement. The authors' model is proposed as a means of studying exist- ing and new factors influencing girls' interest, confidence, achievement, aspiration, and retention in science. Linn, M. C., and J. S. Hyde. 1989. Gender, mathematics, and science. Educa- tional Researcher 18~8~: 17-27. The authors summarize trends in cognitive, psychosocial, and physical gen- der differences in mathematics and science education. Using meta-analysis, a means of synthesizing results from several studies, and process analysis, a technique for characterizing cognitive skills used in complex tasks, they argue that gender differences in "earning power" and "career access" can best be explained by cultural and situational contexts, rather than cognitive and psychosocial differences. They assert that these differences can be lessened through the design of learning and earning environments that pro- mote gender equity.
198 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE TEACHERS Making Schools Work for Children in Poverty: A New Framework Prepared by the Commission on Chapter One. Summary. December, 10, 1992, Washing- ton, DC. In December 1990, a committee of diverse professionals formed the Inde- pendent Commission on Chapter One to examine the status of economically disadvantaged children in American public schools, to evaluate how Chap- ter 1 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 has in- fluenced the achievement of these children in school, and to write a new Chapter 1 statute based on their conclusions. This paper describes the commission's process and rationale for arriving at its recommendations and summarizes its proposed Chapter 1 framework. Nelson-Barber, S., and T. Meter. 1990. Multicultural context a key factor in teaching. Academic Connections (A newsletter of the College Board) (Spring): 1 - 11. This paper addresses factors involved in teaching increasingly culturally pluralistic classrooms. Authors look at nonverbal cues, methods of question- ing, and other subtleties as factors contributing to both student achievement and cultural misunderstandings. Rosenberry, A. S., et al. 1992. Cheche konnen: scientific sense-making in bilingual education. HANDS ON! (a Newsletter of TERC) 15~1~: 1, 16-19. Authors discuss how to teach science to limited-English-speaking children as a way not only to improve their skills in English, but to "attain scientific ways of knowing and thinking." Tierney, D. 1988. Teaching content through a multicultural lens: a social studies case study. Journal of Educational Issues of Language Minority Students (a journal of a teacher-preparation program at Boise State University) (Sum- mer): 15-21. An article based on a study looking closely at strategies used by teachers to explain information to their students. Explores how issues of diversity might affect teaching strategies, particularly when metaphors are used, and there- fore affect student understanding. Results of the study led the author to conclude that greater attention to ethnic and cultural diversity can enhance teaching and learning. TEACHER PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT Arons, A. B. 1983. Achieving Wider Scientific Literacy. Daedalus 112~2~:91- 122. Arons attributes the current state of scientific literacy among students to poorly designed preservice and inservice training programs. He relates the problem directly to the kinds of science courses taught at college and uni- versities attended by potential teachers. He asserts that teachers are educat- ing their students in the same ineffective manner in which they are taught in
SUGGESTED READING LIST 199 these preparation courses and concludes that no short-term inservice pro- gram, curricula, or set of materials can correct this problem. Dilworth, M. E., ed. 1993. Diversity in Teacher Education: New Expectations. Developed for the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Educa- tion. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Addresses some of the major problems and challenges in teacher education related to issues of ethnic and cultural diversity. Provides tangible sugges- tions for improving teacher programs so that they can successfully address diversity as related to curricula, the teacher work force, and student learn- ing. Contains articles by seasoned practitioners who call for the "develop ment of better programs, better teachers, and. . . better education for all children." Little, J. W. 1993. Teachers' Professional Development in a Climate of Educa- tional Reform. New York, NY: National Center for Restructuring Educa- tion, Schools and Teaching at Teachers College, Columbia University. See description under "School Reform." Shulman, L. S. Those who understand: knowledge growth in teaching. Educa- tional Researcher (February):4-15. Traces the history of the dichotomy between content knowledge and meth- odology in procedures for evaluating teachers. Criticizes current teacher certification, research, and evaluation practices for focusing too heavily on teacher methodology and for overlooking the importance of teachers' con- tent knowledge, their organization of subject matter, and other aspects of classroom teaching. Proposes the use of discipline-based case studies in the classroom as a means of effectively integrating content and process among all aspects of the teaching profession. SCIENCE-TEACHING STRATEGIES Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS). 1993. Developing Biological Lit- eracy: A Guide to Developing Secondary and Post-Secondary Biology Cur- ricula. Colorado Springs, CO: BSCS. Provides resources and suggestions for developing secondary and postsec- ondary science curricula and considers how to teach science as a "process and a way of knowing." Recommends science teaching that encourages students to explore and understand the natural world through inquiry, inter- est, and technology. Suggests an approach to science teaching that integrates biological concepts and themes that are contemporary and personal, and spark students' interest. Elstgeest, J. 1970. Teaching Science by Posing Problems. Prospects: UNESCO 8~1~:66-72.
200 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE TEACHERS The author describes why helping children approach and solve problems logically and thoroughly is crucial for life-long learning and asserts that the acquisition of problem-solving skills should be the objective of science edu- cation. Gurley-Dilger, L. 1992. Gowin's Vee, linking the lecture and the laboratory. Science Teacher 59~3~:50-57. This article demonstrates how to use the pedagogical tool "Vee Heuristicis" to support a conceptual approach to science. Hunter, M. 1984. Knowing, teaching, and supervising. In P. Hosford, ed. Using What We Know About Teaching. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervi- sion and Curriculum Development. A good introduction to one expert's teaching method. Hunter is a veteran and a leader in the field. Leonard, W. H., C. Fowler, C. Mason, N. Ridenour, and C. Stone. 1991. A minimum core curriculum for introductory high school biology. American Biology Teacher 53~0ctober):219-222. Based on a national inquiry, this article reflects the members of the National Association of Biology Teachers opinions on what topics, at a minimum, should be addressed in a high-school biology course. Mechling, K. R., C. H. Stedman, and K. M. Donnellan. 1982. Preparing and Certifying Science Teachers. An NSTA Report. The report cites the lack of attention given to K-12 teacher certification standards across the country as a major problem in science education. Pro- vides recommendations for focusing on elementary-teacher preservice pro- grams. Mestre, J. P. 1991. Learning and instruction in pre-college physical science. Physics Today (September):56-62. Refutes the notion that teachers can best "transmit" knowledge to students through lectures and other forms of traditional classroom communication. Advocates the constructivist approach to teaching and learning, which aims to engage students in activities that illuminate scientific concepts through the process of doing as well as listening. The author also states the need to strengthen students' problem-solving skills through science activities. To improve science education, he states that preservice and inservice programs should better inform teachers about scientific content knowledge, how stu- dents think and learn, and instructional strategies. He also asserts that the reform movement in science should include the participation of teachers, cognitive scientists, and textbook publishers. National Science Resources Center. 1988. Science for Children: Resources for Teachers. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
SUGGESTED READING LIST 201 A comprehensive resource guide to encourage the use of hands-on science activities in school systems. Contains a wealth of information on programs, curriculum materials, books and magazines, professional associations and organizations, and other sources related to science education currently avail- able for elementary-school science. Novak, J. D. 1991. Clarify with concept maps, a tool for students and teachers alike. Science Teacher 58~7~:45-49. A short presentation about how to use concept maps as a pedagogical tool for the purpose of enhancing student learning of concepts rather than knowl- edge bits. Novak, J. D., and D. B. Gowin. 1984. Learning How to Learn. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. The book covers the rationale for meaningful learning. Advocates teaching students through the development of a conceptual framework rather than a sequence of memorized bits. Illustrates how to use concept mapping in the classroom. Addresses the kind of learning that empowers students to de- velop their own knowledge knowledge that is conceptual and connected to what they already know. Raghubir, K. P. 1979. The laboratory-investigative approach to science instruc- tion. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 16~1~:13-17. Outlines an approach to teaching laboratory activities that allows for stu- dent-initiated and student-directed projects. Describes how this approach fosters scientific thinking, a deep understanding of science, important cogni- tive processes, and positive attitudes toward laboratory activities such as curiosity and responsibility that are needed for students to become suc- cessful laboratory scientists. Watson, B., and R. Konicek. 1990. Teaching for conceptual change: confronting children's experience. Phi Delta Kappan (May):680-685. The article describes how teachers who track children's assumptions and misconceptions about science through journals and other methods can help each of their students gain a clearer and deeper understanding of scientific concepts. SCIENCE-CURRICULUM DESIGN AND REFORM Several national and regional science-education reform efforts in science curriculum are under way. Below are some brief descriptions. Alridge, B. 1988. Essential Changes in Secondary School Science: Scope, Se- quence & Coordination. Arlington, VA: National Science Teachers Asso . . crayon.
202 PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE TEACHERS This article launched the national Scope, Sequence, and Coordination Project that is helping secondary schools to rework their traditional course offer- ings. American Association for the Advancement of Science. 1989. Project 2061: Sci- ence for All Americans (Overview Report). Washington, DC: American Association for the Advancement of Science. A report on Project 2061's first phase, which outlines a vision of what scientific information all high-school graduates should know in the year 2061. Other documents from the Project describe the types of curricula, programs, courses, and teaching strategies that will be needed to implement that vision. National Research Council.1996. National Science Education Standards. Wash- ington, DC: National Academy Press. The "Science Standards" report is described and cited in several chapters of the present report. National Science Teachers Association. 1993. The Content Core: Scope, Se- quence, and Coordination of Secondary School Science: Volume I. A Guide for Curriculum Designers. Revised edition. Arlington, VA: National Sci- ence Teachers Association. Provides a framework for designing or restructuring secondary-school sci- ence courses. Emphasizes coordinating or integrating separate high-school courses in scientific subdisciplines. Includes an Apple lie computer diskette. National Science Teachers Association. 1992. Scope, Sequence, and Coordina- tion of Secondary School Science: Volume II. Relevant Research. Arling- ton, VA: National Science Teachers Association. A sampling of research articles that support the Scope, Sequence, and Coor- dination arrangement of science content. BUILDING COMMUNITY SUPPORT FOR SCIENTIST-TEACHER PARTNERSHIPS Alberts, B. M. 1991. Elementary science education in the United States: how scientists can help. Current Biology 1:339-341. A scientist describes his experience learning about elementary science edu- cation. Discusses how and why scientists should participate in science-edu- cation reform. Atkin, J. M., and A. Atkin. 1989. Improving Science Education Through Local Alliances: A Report to Carnegie Corporation of New York. Santa Cruz, CA: Network Publications. See description under "The Politics and the Sociology of Schools." Gaudiani, C. L., end D. G. Burnett. 1986. Academic Alliances: A New Ap- proach to School/College Collaboration. Washington, DC: American Asso- ciation for Higher Education.
SUGGESTED READING LIST 203 See description under "The Politics and Sociology of Schools." Moore, P., and E. Richards. 1992. Science for Science Teachers (S4ST). Berke- ley, CA: Regents of the University of California. A guide to designing and implementing an institute for junior-high-school science teachers aimed at enhancing and updating both scientific knowledge and laboratory teaching skills. For science teachers working to improve science education through efforts that bring together junior-high-school and college and university science teachers. Rowe, M. B. Science education a framework for decision-makers. Daedalus 112(2): 123-142. Rowe offers a new framework for evaluating recommendations, plans, and policies regarding science education that are often voiced by a variety of professional communities. Provides recommendations for improving sci- ence instruction. Schwartz, B. B., and J. J. Wynne. 1991. Pre-college physics education programs from the research community. Physics Today (September):48-54. This article describes a sampling of programs intended to improve K-12 science education that were developed by physicists in response to the 1989 education summit. The article examines programs run by physicists from all sectors of the physics community the professional societies, the na- tional laboratories, and industry. Sussman, A., ed. 1993. Science Education Partnerships: Manual for Scientists and K-12 Teachers. San Francisco, CA: University of California, San Fran c~sco. Thirty-four articles by experienced practitioners (scientists, teachers, funders, curriculum developers, education administrators, and museum staff) working on partnerships between scientists and teachers. Authors address how to design, fund, implement, and evaluate programs, drawing from their own experiences with specific programs. A preface by Bruce M. Alberts and several articles come together to describe a national picture of science- education reform and how partnerships can interact with systemic reform efforts.