Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Research Results Digest 294 February 2005 C O N T E N T S Summary, 1 Introduction, 2 Background on Indicators of TOD Success, 3 Review of TOD Benefits and Indicators, 11 Survey of TOD Indicators, 14 Conclusions and Suggestions for Evaluating TOD, 22 Appendices, 25 SUMMARY This digest offers a strategy to sys- tematically evaluate the potential success of transit-oriented development. The di- gest identifies and evaluates various indi- cators of the impacts of transit-oriented development, provides the results of a survey of transit-oriented development indicators, and identifies ten indicators that can be used to systematically moni- tor and measure impacts. Over the past decade, transit-oriented development (TOD) has gained in popu- larity as a planning tool to promote smart growth. Many articles, books, reports, and plans have discussed the potential benefits of TOD, which vary broadly. But except for studies focusing on transit ridership and land value near stations, little empirical re- search has been conducted to holistically measure the outcomes of TOD. This study builds on a number of recent projectsâ namely, work at Rutgers University dealing with the New Jersey Transit Village Ini- tiative and the recently published TCRP Report 102: Transit Oriented Development in the United States: Experiences, Chal- lenges, and Prospects (Cervero et al., 2004). This digest summarizes research con- ducted to determine the wide range of out- comes and benefits of TOD. The digest also look at who is evaluating TOD across the United States, what are the most useful indicators, how difficult it is to collect data, and how often progress should be moni- tored. It concludes with suggestions for de- veloping a strategy to monitor the success of TOD. In looking across the United States to determine what indicators exist, 56 bene- fits/indicators were identified and catego- rized into five groups: travel behavior, eco- nomic, environmental, built environment, and social diversity/quality. A survey was then conducted of transportation profession- als from state departments of transportation, metropolitan planning organizations, county and local governments, and transit agencies concerning the usefulness of each indicator, the difficulty in obtaining the data for each indicator, and the frequency with which each indicator should be monitored. Based on this research, the most use- ful indicators are transit ridership, density, quality of streetscape, quantity of mixed-use structures, pedestrian activity and safety, in- crease in property value and tax revenue, public perception, number of mode con- nections at the transit station, and parking. While data collection is relatively easy for TRANSIT-ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT: DEVELOPING A STRATEGY TO MEASURE SUCCESS This digest summarizes key findings from NCHRP Project 20-65(5), âTransit-Oriented Development: Developing a Strategy to Measure Success,â conducted by John L. Renne and Jan S. Wells of the Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center, Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers University. Subject Areas: I Planning, Administration, and Environment; VI Public Transit Responsible Senior Program Officer: Christopher W. Jenks NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM
some of these indicators, it is more difficult for some of the others; a strategy suggested in the last section of this digest is setting aside government funds to monitor TOD progress. For virtually every indicator, with a few exceptions, data collection needs to occur only yearly or less frequently. In the future, unless objective measures can be established to examine both the positive and nega- tive outcomes of TOD, the excitement about TOD may be overshadowed by unintended effects. Gov- ernment policy must continually be reexamined to produce sustainable outcomes; and, without indica- tors for TOD, we cannot truly measure success. This digestâs suggestions are meant to begin a new dia- logue that rates TOD not just on transit ridership and land value changes but also on an integrated set of measures. The digest is not a last word but rather a starting point for governments, transit agencies, re- searchers, and communities to begin to understand how to make TOD work for the good of the public. INTRODUCTION Across the United States, sprawling develop- ments are consuming land, congesting roads and high- ways, and leading to a host of other economic, envi- ronmental, and social problems. In policy efforts to mitigate these problems, smart growth has emerged. In Making Smart Growth Work, Porter states, Smart growth calls for building communities that are more hospitable, productive, and fis- cally and environmentally responsible than most of the communities that have been devel- oped in the last century. . . . [It] seeks to identify a common ground where developers, environ- mentalists, public officials, citizens, and others can all find acceptable ways to accommodate growth. (Porter, 2002, 1) Porter describes six key principles of smart growth: 1. Compact, multiuse development; 2. Open-space conservation; 3. Expanded mobility; 4. Enhanced livability; 5. Efficient management and expansion of in- frastructure; and 6. Infill, redevelopment, and adaptive reuse in built-up areas (p. 1). TOD has recently become a popular tool to promote smart growth. As shown in the recently published TCRP Report 102: Transit-Oriented Development in the United States: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects (Cervero et al., 2004), there are many and somewhat varying definitions of TOD. One definition, which has been adopted by the State of California, does a good job of capturing the essence of TOD: Moderate to higher density development, located within an easy walk [approximately 1/2 mile] of a major transit stop, generally with a mix of resi- dential, employment and shopping opportunities designed for pedestrians without excluding the auto. TOD can be new construction or redevel- opment of one or more buildings whose design and orientation facilitate transit use. (California Department of Transportation, 2002, 3) TODs have been hailed as a model for inte- grating land use with transportation in the interest of smart growth (Calthorpe, 1993; Cervero, 1998; Newman and Kenworthy, 1999; Renne and Newman, 2002; Renne and Wells, 2004). According to Cervero et al., âTOD has gained currency in the United States as a means of promoting smart growth, injecting vi- tality into declining inner-city settings, and expand- ing lifestyle choicesâ (2004, 3). The New Transit Town: Best Practices in Transit-Oriented Develop- ment (Dittmar and Ohland, 2004) states that TOD is an essential part of the healthy growth and develop- ment of regional economies. 2 FIGURE 1 Oakland, California: the compact, mixed- use, community-based Fruitvale Villageâwhich includes a health clinic, child care center, senior center, library, bicycle storage facility, parking deck, and affordable housingâis an exemplary model of TOD.
While there have been many claims for the vari- ous benefits of TOD, few studies have looked holisti- cally at the outcomes of TOD to measure its success. As Cervero et al. state, âRelatively little empirical re- search has been conducted documenting the eco- nomic benefits of TOD beyond studies showing de- velopments near rail stations boost ridership and increase land valuesâ (2004, 453). Across the United States, various people and organizations are encour- aging TOD, not only because it may lead to higher levels of transit ridership but also because it is be- lieved to encourage economic development, envi- ronmental conservation, and increased social diver- sity not only in the community but also across the region. These holistic goals are summarized in the Ahwahnee Principles, which were introduced in 1991 as the guidelines for new urbanism development (Newman and Kenworthy, 1999). Since the early 1990s, the movement for new urbanism and the push for TOD across the United States have been some- what intertwined. While not all new urbanist proj- ects are TODs, most TODs seek to promote the basic concepts of new urbanism. This digest describes an effort to develop a sys- tematic approach to measuring the various outcomes of TOD. First, it explains the expectations of plan- ners and policymakers involved with TOD. Then it discusses the best indicators for measuring success. Finally, it presents the conclusions from the study and suggests a strategy for evaluating the success of TODs. Research Objective The objective of this research project is to de- velop a strategy to measure the success and out- comes of TODs. This work builds upon other recent projects related to TOD, and it suggests an approach to monitor and analyze TOD impacts and benefits systematically. The next section provides background on indica- tors of TOD success; it reviews previous work and identifies who is currently evaluating TOD across the United States. The section after that presents a review of TOD benefits and indicators based on the percep- tions and measurements of success expressed by rep- resentatives of various state agencies, municipalities, metropolitan planning organizations (MPOs), local redevelopment agencies, and transit agencies. These indicators were gleaned from an extensive review of websites, printed material, and follow-up phone calls. In essence, indicators were identified and then cate- gorized according to five groups: economic, environ- mental, social diversity/quality, built environment, and travel behavior. The next section presents the results of a web- based survey of transportation professionals that sought to assess three factors concerning TOD indicators: 1. the perceived usefulness of each indicator; 2. the feasibility of collecting each indicator; and 3. the preferred frequency of collection. Finally, the last section describes a core mea- surement tool or checklist of 10 indicators and sug- gests strategies for implementation. BACKGROUND ON INDICATORS OF TOD SUCCESS A survey of scholarly and professional sources is presented here to begin developing a list of indi- cators to measure the success of TOD. This work builds upon TCRP Report 102: Transit-Oriented Development in the United States: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects (Cervero et al., 2004). Although the research presented here looks gener- ally across the United States, information has been gathered from those places with a record of promot- 3 FIGURE 2 South Orange, New Jersey: infill housing, streetscape improvements, and commercial upgrading are common characteristics of TODs across the United States. This photograph shows a revitalized train station, which includes a number of service retail establishments built below the train platform. South Orange is one of the 14 designated Transit Villages in New Jersey.
ing TOD. The TCRP project provided a good start- ing point because it includes responses to a stake- holder survey on TOD from 90 transit agencies from across the country as well as 23 municipalities, 8 re- development agencies, 24 MPOs, and 10 state de- partments of transportation (DOTs). These govern- ments and agencies were used to identify any and all possible indicators that could be used to mea- sure the success of TOD. This study also benefited from recent projects in California and New Jersey to better understand TOD. In 2002, the California Department of Transpor- tation (Caltrans) published a TOD report called the Statewide Transit-Oriented Development Study: Fac- tors for Success in California (California Department of Transportation, 2002). In New Jersey, the Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center recently conducted an evaluation of the New Jersey Transit Village Ini- tiative for the New Jersey DOT (NJDOT). As a result of this evaluation, a number of reports that look at various aspects of TOD in New Jersey have been published; they are available online at http://pol- icy.rutgers.edu/vtc/tod/tod_projects.htm. Both the New Jersey and California studies outline various strategies for promoting TOD within their states. TOD Indicators: Background TCRP Report 102: Transit-Oriented Development in the United States: Experiences, Challenges, and Prospects The topic of TOD impacts is dealt with in part three of TCRP Report 102 (chapters 7, 8, and 9), which finds that little has been done to measure impacts of TOD other than looking at transit ridership and effects on land value. âThe literature is replete with platitudes that have been heaped upon the TOD concept; how- ever, relatively few serious studies have been carried out that assign benefits to TOD in any quantitative or monetary senseâ (Cervero et al., 2004, 119). Chapter 7 of TCRP Report 102 makes an impor- tant distinction concerning whether benefits are re- distributive or generative. The study notes that re- distributive benefits relate mostly to financial and pecuniary transfers. An example of a redistributive benefit is when higher sales tax revenue in a TOD community is offset by lower tax revenue in a non- TOD community. Conversely, âgenerative impacts represent net efficiency gains that stem from im- proved resource allocations and accordingly are eco- nomic (versus financial) in natureâ (p. 121). TCRP Report 102 presents a table of âClasses and Recipients of TOD Benefitsâ (shown here as Table 1), which portrays benefits as primary or secondary/ collateral, as well as public sector or private sector. Some benefits, such as increased affordable housing, accrue to both public and private sectors, but each is categorized into only one area. The authors of the TCRP report caution that the benefits shown in Table 1 cannot be summed to determine the total benefits, âbecause there is a fair degree of overlap amongst them. To do so would be double-countingâ (p. 121). It should also be noted that some outcomes are not just related to TOD but would be applicable to any program that promotes smart growth. This is an im- portant point that reverberates throughout this study: TOD is a tool within the overall smart growth agenda and is not distinct from smart growth. We believe that, if done properly, TOD helps an area achieve each of the six key principles of smart growth set out by Porter (2002), as described in the introduction. The TCRP report also includes a survey of TOD stakeholders to determine the impact of TOD (the results are shown in Figure 3). Respondents were asked to rate the importance of TOD toward achiev- ing various benefits on a 1 (lowest) to 7 (highest) scale. As some may expect, respondents from tran- sit agencies rate increased transit ridership and in- creased political support for transit as the most im- portant benefit of TOD. Strikingly, respondents from MPOs gave TOD a lower rating for relieving traffic congestion and reducing sprawl than did other stakeholders, perhaps because regional planners at MPOs see minimal overall impact of a few TODs in a region of sprawl and increasing traffic conges- tion. Even if TODs do help to reduce traffic and sprawl, the pace of low-density, automobile-de- pendent development in many regions is most likely outpacing any gains made in TODs. Because virtually no MPO across the United States has reg- ulatory power, a lack of regional coordination of land use and transportation planning makes their perceived effectiveness of TOD limited. In contrast, redevelopment agencies, as local stakeholders, rated relief in traffic congestion and improvement of neighborhood quality the highest outcome of TOD. Chapter 8 of the TCRP report summarizes many studies in recent years that look at the effectiveness of TOD on transit ridership: If there is any single benefit of TOD that all sides agree is beneficial to society as a whole, it is in- creased ridership. . . . While the chief environ- mental benefit of TOD comes from coaxing mo- 4
torists over to mass transit, a secondary benefit is the inducement of more walk and bicycle access trips to and from transit. (p. 139) The authors go on to state that various studies re- port that certain conditions must exist for transit rid- ership to increase. The â3Dâs: Density, Diversity, and Designâ are significant, and in the San Francisco Bay Area, a study of 129 rail stations showed a strong positive link between residential density, num- bers of retail and service jobs (land use diversity), and city block patterns (urban design) with transit use (p. 154). Chapter 9 of the TCRP report looks at studies of TOD and real estate impacts, the majority of which show a positive relationship between transit stations and increased land value. According to Cervero et al. (2004), this relationship generally holds true for res- idential developments, including condominiums and rental units, as well as office, retail, and other com- mercial uses. However, the authors note that the payoffs are not automatic and are often contingent upon a healthy local real estate market with a strong demand for housing as well as citizen concern about worsening traffic conditions. Other important fac- tors in success are prodevelopment policies, such as density bonuses and mixed-use zoning, and the gen- eral perception of safety within the neighborhoods. In summary, TOD is not a panacea for failing neigh- borhoods; but to be successful, it must accompany the same real estate principles that make neighbor- hoods, transit-based or not, successfulâvitality, in- vestment, and a sense of place. Evaluating TOD in California and New Jersey Two states, California and New Jersey, have recently released reports on TOD. This section de- scribes how these reports address the topic of eval- uating TOD outcomes. California. In 2002, the report Statewide Transit- Oriented Development Study: Factors for Success in California was released by the Caltrans (California 5 TABLE 1 Classes and Recipients of TOD Benefits Primary recipient of benefit Class of benefit Public sector Private sector Primary 1. Increase ridership and farebox 5. Increase land values, rents, and real revenues estate performance 2. Provide joint development 6. Increase affordable housing opportunities opportunities 3. Revitalize neighborhoods 4. Economic development Secondary/Collateral A. Less traffic congestion and G. Increase retail sales (1, 2) VMT-related costs, like pollution and fuel consumption (1) B. Increase property and sales tax H. Increase access to labor pools revenues (5) (A, 6) C. Reduce sprawl/conserve open I. Reduced parking costs (C, 2) space (1, 3, 6) D. Reduce road expenditures and J. Increased physical activity (C, E, F) other infrastructure outlays (1) E. Reduce crime (3, 4) F. Increased social capital and public involvement (3, 4) NOTE: VMT = vehicle miles traveled. Values in parentheses represent the source of the secondary/collateral benefit. SOURCE: Cervero et al., 2004, 120, Table 7.1.
Department of Transportation, 2002); it is available online at http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/MassTrans/tod. htm. This report focuses primarily upon the ingre- dients of a good TOD. The objectives of the study were as follows: Define [TOD] and its successful components; describe the benefits of TOD; examine the status of implementation of TOD throughout the U.S. and in California; identify the major barriers and impediments to the wider implementation of TOD; identify what is working well, as well as the need for additional resources to overcome barriers; and, finally, develop a set of strategies and activities that the state of California may im- plement to help facilitate the broader implemen- tation of TOD. (California Department of Trans- portation, 2002, 2) The study claims that TOD can lead to social benefitsâsuch as affordable housing, economic de- velopment, enhanced safety, and environmental ben- efitsâas well as reduce infrastructure capital and op- erating costs for government âby up to 25% through compact and infill developmentâ (California Depart- ment of Transportation, 2002, 27). While the report uses recent research to support its claims, it does not prescribe a specific methodology for collecting indi- cators to assess the outcomes or successes of TOD. The Technical Appendix to the California report sets forth a methodology for estimating the energy conservation and climate change benefits of TOD, which are based on savings in gasoline use by TOD residents. The appendix also provides detailed pro- files of TODs in California, which include discus- sions of how the TOD has led to a better land use mix, more residential density, employment, transit rider- ship, transit service, and improved station aesthetic design, as well as whether or not the TOD has created a destination or attraction. The report does not specif- 6 Source: Cervero et al., 2004, 134, Figure 7.1. 2 3 4 5 6 Relieve Traffic Congestion Reduce Sprawl Increase Political Support for Transit Increase Housing Choices Improve Neighborhood Quality Increase Ridership State DOTs MPOs Redevelopment Agencies Local Governments Transit Agencies Mean Rating (1=minimal; 4=moderate; 7=significant) FIGURE 3 Rating of impact of TOD in achieving benefits based on experiences in stakeholderâs community.
ically recommend ways in which TODs could be sys- tematically evaluated. It states that one of the barriers to implementing TOD is the need for better data: The lack of evidence documenting a track record of TOD as a successful development product is an obstacle in convincing stakeholders and bankers about the benefits of projects. And, the lack of accurate or up-to-date information on the poten- tial benefits of TOD in shifting travel from the automobile to transit and nonmotorized modes in local analysis tools (such as traffic models) has become a serious impediment to the broader im- plementation of TOD, infill development, and affordable housing that meets market demand. New or revised transportation analytical tools and data are needed to enable local and regional agen- cies to more accurately project the transportation performance of proposed TOD projects, as is re- quired by [the California Environmental Quality Act] and local development planning and approval processes. (California Department of Transporta- tion, 2002, 143â44) New Jersey. The New Jersey Transit Village Initia- tive is a state-based program to promote TOD in New Jersey that is led by the NJDOT and made up of multiple state agencies.1 Individual places are se- lected as Transit Villages and receive special treat- ment from the state in the goal of promoting smart growth. These municipalities must apply to the Tran- sit Village Task Force (made up of representatives from each of the state agencies) and demonstrate through experience and planning that they support the principles of the Transit Village Initiative, in- cluding compact development, transit-supportive land uses, and a high-quality pedestrian environment; a complete list of Transit Village requirements is available online at http://www.state.nj.us/transpor- tation/community/village/criteria.shtm). Wells and Renne (2004) conclude in a recent article that the Ini- tiativeâs intra-agency cooperation at the state level and the intergovernmental cooperation between the state and local government is an effective model for government, especially for the purpose of promot- ing smart growth. They state that this resembles European-style planning, which yields more pedestrian-friendly and transit-focused cities, similar to what Ewing observes in a classic article about the debate over compact development: âMy answer to sprawl is active planning of the type practiced every- where except the United States (and beginning to ap- pear here out of necessity)â (Ewing, 1997, 118). In a recent evaluation of the New Jersey Transit Village Initiative, led by the Alan M. Voorhees Trans- portation Center (VTC) at Rutgers University, a report titled Transit Villages in New Jersey: Recommenda- tions for Assessment and Accountability (Wells and Renne, 2003) sets forth recommendations for evaluat- ing the progress of Transit Villages. The report rec- ommends an annual accounting and record keeping by both municipalities and state agencies (including NJ Transit) to monitor economic activity, environmental activity, transportation activity, and community per- ception, as well as institutional and legal actions (e.g., a change in zoning). It is recommended that data be collected within a half-mile of the transit station on a regular basis to monitor the impacts. Table 2 shows the indicators that were recommended for collection. Subsequently, VTC began implementing the pro- posed recommended tool. However, the disparity of resources among the Villages soon became a prob- lem. Many did not have the staff to gather and pro- vide the information needed or did not have infor- mation in an electronic form. In conjunction with NJDOT, the indicators were refined to those that could be gathered with reasonable effort (see Table 3). Using local tax maps, blocks within the Transit Vil- lage were listed. Using building permit data retrieved electronically from the New Jersey Department of Community Affairs, the amount of investment dollars for new and rehabilitation construction and additional housing units created in the Transit Village could be determined. These investment dollars could then be compared with public funds that the municipality had received.2 Other indicators, such as the total number of businesses or number of automobile-dependent establishments in the Transit Village, are proposed to 7 2 The descriptions of these efforts are contained in Imple- mentation of the Assessment Tool, New Jersey Transit Village Initiative, available online at (http://policy.rutgers.edu/vtc/tod/ documents/NJ%20Transit%Villages_economic%20activity.pdf) . 1 The New Jersey Transit Village Initiative comprises the NJDOT; NJ Transit; NJ Department of Environmental Protec- tion; NJ Redevelopment Authority; NJ Department of Commu- nity Affairs, including the Office of Smart Growth and Main Street New Jersey; NJ Economic Development Authority; NJ Housing and Mortgage and Finance Agency; NJ Commerce and Economic Growth Commission; and NJ Council on the Arts.
8TABLE 2 Recommended Indicators to Evaluate TOD as Part of the Evaluation of the New Jersey Transit Village Initiative Environmental and Institutional Economic activity transportation activity changes Community perception Public Investment â¢ Municipal funds â¢ State funds â¢ Grants â¢ Loans â¢ Federal funds â¢ Grants â¢ Loans â¢ Tax abatements â¢ Total public investment (calculated from indicators above) Private Investment, Commercial â¢ New or substantially rehabilitated retail/office spacea â¢ Estimated private investmentb â¢ Estimated new property taxes generatedc Private Investment, Residential â¢ New or substantially rehabilitated housing unitsa â¢ Estimated private investmentb â¢ Estimated new property taxes generatedc â¢ Number of new studios/ one bedroom â¢ Number of new two bedrooms â¢ Number of new three or more bedrooms â¢ Number of new units for sale â¢ Number of new units for rent â¢ Number of new subsidized units for rent and for sale (with income limits) a Based on Certificate of Occupancy issued by the municipal building department. b Based on building permit data. c Based on assessed value times tax rate less previous ratable. SOURCE: Wells and Renne, 2003, 7â12. Pedestrian â¢ Length of improved streetscape â¢ Number of improved intersections/street crossings for pedestrian safety â¢ Length of faÃ§ade improvement â¢ Pedestrian activity counts Parking â¢ Number of new spaces for shoppers only â¢ Number of new spaces for commuters only â¢ Number of spaces that are shared â¢ Number of new bicycle racks or lockers provided Traffic Flow â¢ Number of new shuttle or jitney services provided to and from the transit station â¢ Number of traffic control or flow improvements Land Use â¢ Amount of brownfield properties remediated under a [Department of Environmental Protection] approved plan â¢ Number/size of vacant buildings rehabilitated or replaced â¢ Number/amount of underutilized/vacant lots reclaimed for construction or green/recreation space â¢ Number of new or improved park areas â¢ New TOD ordinances â¢ New TOD or smart growth designations Residential Survey â¢ How would you rate your town/neighborhood as a place to live? â¢ Do you feel the downtown (or transit station area) is more or less attractive now compared to (number) years ago? â¢ Is it more or less pleasant to walk around the downtown (or transit station area) now compared to (number) years ago? â¢ Does the downtown (or transit station area) seem more or less safe now compared to (number) years ago? â¢ Does the downtown (or transit station area) offer better or worse shopping now compared to (number) years ago? â¢ Does the downtown (or transit station area) offer more or less restaurant options now compared to (number) years ago? â¢ Does the downtown (or transit station area) offer more or less entertainment options now compared to (number) years ago?
9TABLE 3 Final List of Indicators to Monitor the Progress of the New Jersey Transit Village Initiative How often the data will be Who will collect Indicator Data source collected the data Net Increase in Dwelling Units Building Permit Data Yearly NJ Department of Community Affairs (DCA) Total Construction Activity Building Permit Data Yearly DCA Residential Construction Activity Building Permit Data Yearly DCA Affordable Housing Units Created Building Permit Data Yearly DCA Nonresidential Construction Activity Building Permit Data Yearly DCA Total Businesses in Transit Village Town/Transit Village Yearly Municipality Annual Application Report Number of Automobile-Dependent Town/Transit Village Yearly Municipality Annual Establishments Application Report Number of Transit-Supportive Town/Transit Village Yearly Municipality Annual Shops Application Report Parking Spaces Town/Transit Village Yearly Municipality Annual Application Report Acres of Brownfields Reclaimed Town Yearly Municipality Annual Report Transit Ridership Counts NJ Transit Yearly or as NJ Transit available Pedestrian Activity Counts Town/DOT Every 1â2 years Town/DOT Public Perception Survey Results Every 2â4 years DOT Public Investment Town Yearly Municipality Annual Report Other Infrastructure or Town Yearly Municipality Annual Transportation Improvements Report SOURCE: Wells and Renne, 2004, 2. come from an annual report that the municipality would submit to the state as a requirement of being a Transit Village. This annual reporting process is not currently in place, although it is being considered by NJDOT. Other Literature in Evaluating TOD As Nelson, Niles, and Hibshoosh report in A New Planning Template for Transit-Oriented Development (2001), TOD exists mainly as a vision for the future, and it is unclear if the benefits will exceed the costs. They report that studies on TOD feasibility and ap- plicability do not solidify the argument that the re- structuring of an urban environment can actually be done. The problem with this analysis is its limited scope, focusing success solely on nonwork travel. Their goal was to âimprove the planning methodology for TOD by bringing into sharp focus the dynamics of the retail marketplace and nonwork travel demandâ (p. 1). In their analysis of nonwork travel, such as trips for shopping, entertainment, and recreational travel, they report âthe limited experience of TODâs effect on travel and land use patternsâ (p. 7). Due to the limited number of TODs, even in regions that have been em- bracing the concept, it is hardly reasonable to evaluate the success of TODs based solely on the retail marketplace and nonwork travel at this early stage. Boarnet and Crane, while also somewhat skeptical of TODâs impact on nonwork travel, come to a similar conclusion in their book, Travel by Design: The Influ- ence of Urban Form on Travel (2001). A main goal of TOD is to create more benefits than costs on both a regional and local scale. Indeed, as Dunphy (1995) suggests, in order for a TOD to make a meaningful difference in development pat-
terns, it must reflect upon the region and not exclu- sively the area within a quarter-mile of the local sta- tion. To achieve this, the response of developers, con- sumers, and taxpayers to the TOD concept is crucial. Nelson, Niles, and Hibshoosh (2001) compiled a table of 16 planning elements that will determine the suc- cess of TOD at a regional as well as a local scale (shown in Table 4). They assert that the regional level impact of TOD is only a vision in the minds of plan- ners and cannot be measured from any current experi- ence. Over the past few years (since Nelson, Niles, and Hibshooshâs work was published), numerous articles have appeared in major newspapers, such as the New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Chicago Tribune, and San Francisco Chronicle, on a growing market for compact, mixed-use, urban infill development, espe- cially near transit. Urban Land, a monthly publication of the Urban Land Institute, has featured a number of successful TODs across the United States in several of its recent issues. Reconnecting America, a nonprofit organization supporting smart growth, recently spun off a new Center for Transit-Oriented Development. This center has been working with a growing number of communities across the country that are becoming more serious about TOD. It also released a book called The New Transit Town: Best Practices in Transit- Oriented Development (Dittmar and Ohland, 2004) that serves as a guidebook for better understanding TOD. Conclusion Public investment in infrastructure is too often made without fully understanding the outcomes. This not only holds true for highways, which encourage automobile-dependent land uses, but also for poorly planned transit systems that do little to encourage sustainability. For example, sometimes new rail sys- tems are planned with little thought about the land uses at the stations. This lack of coordination be- tween land use and transportation planning can lead to disappointing results. Part of the reason that poor decisions are made over and over again is because few planners and policymakers evaluate the failures or successes of similar projects before embarking on new ones. A lack of empirical data about the out- comes of TODs may lead to similar problems. For example, though many new TODs across the United States appear to be economically successful, there are little data available to explain the full range of their im- pacts. If luxury apartments and town houses are the only type of residential product available, the TOD may not be helping poor and working-class families that most need transit. If, however, the only choice is between more expensive housing or living with vacant, derelict land, then the results need to be eval- uated within the context of the options. Without measuring the outcomes of TODs, mistakes in in- vestment strategies will continue to be repeated. However, success may be a matter of viewpoint. 10 TABLE 4 Factors Determining the Success of TOD Station area Regional Factor success success Number and siting of TODs (station area) X Transit quality X Transit technology X Street pattern X X Station-area parking X X Employment and housing density X X Commercial mix X X Retail siting criteria X Regional market structure X Consumer activity patterns X Travel behavior/trip chaining X Zoning flexibility/land assembly X X Resident reactions X X Housing type preference/lifestyle & life stage X Self-selection in residential choice X X Government policies X SOURCE: Nelson, Niles, and Hibshoosh, 2001, 18â19.
REVIEW OF TOD BENEFITS AND INDICATORS In pursuing the goal of developing a strategy to measure the success of TOD, this section presents the results of this study of what governments and agencies across the United States suggest are the benefits of TOD. The same DOTs, MPOs, transit agencies, municipalities, and redevelopment agen- cies studied in TCRP Report 102 (Cervero et al., 2004) were asked to identify the benefits they fore- see from TOD. Research Methods TCRP Report 102 presents the results of a sur- vey of governments and agencies from across the United States about various aspects of TOD, such as the definition of a TOD, the existence of a formal program to promote TOD, sources of funding, tools used to promote TOD, the location of existing TODs, level of involvement of the agency, and im- pediments to development. One element not covered in the report is how to measure the outcomes or ben- efits of TOD. The survey conducted for TCRP Re- port 102 included this question related to benefits: âBased on your agencyâs experience, how important is TOD toward: increasing transit ridership, increas- ing political support for transit, relieving traffic con- gestion, reducing sprawl, increasing housing choices, and improving neighborhood qualityâ (Cervero et al., 2004, A-18). While the responses to this question provide a better understanding of the relative im- portance of each aspect of success, the question it- self only begins to address the full range of benefits from TOD. As mentioned in the section that pro- vided background on indicators of TOD success, TCRP Report 102 identifies various classes and re- cipients of TOD benefits, but it does not identify who across the United States is collecting data that show whether these and other benefits are actually being realized. In order to determine if the individual govern- ments and agencies that responded to the TCRP survey identify important benefits or outcomes to TOD, a two-part strategy was implemented. First, Internet websites hosted by these agencies were searched to determine if they report benefits asso- ciated with TOD. Second, agencies without web- sites were contacted to determine if they had any written material describing outcomes. In total, 96 agencies were analyzed, including 25 transit agen- cies, 4 commuter rail agencies, 24 cities and coun- ties, 8 redevelopment agencies, 25 MPOs, and 10 state DOTs; they are listed in Appendix A. As a re- sult of this research, 56 indicators were identified. These indicators were then categorized into five groups: â¢ Travel behaviorâparking and traffic flow â¢ Economicâpublic and private investment â¢ Environmentalâair quality and energy use â¢ Built environmentâdesign quality, pedes- trian friendliness, and land use â¢ Socialâdiversity, safety, and affordability Tables 5 through 9 present information collected for each of these groups of indicators, specifically the category of the indicator, the nature of the indi- cator, the standard of measurement, and the names of agencies using the indicator. It is important to re- member that the agencies listed in tables may not ac- tually collect the data for these indicators to measure the progress of TOD; rather the agencies, in varying degrees, report that these indicators demonstrate benefits of TOD. Findings As shown in Figure 5, the most commonly noted benefits/indicators of TOD, in descending frequency, are as follows: 11 FIGURE 4 Orenco, near Portland, Oregon, is a model community in coordinating land use planning and promoting walking and bicycling as part of successful TODs with its new light rail system. (text continued on page 14)
12 TABLE 5 Travel Behavior Benefits/Indicators Category Benefit/Indicator Measure Sources Parking Traffic Flow a The New Jersey Transit Village Evaluation was conducted by VTC on behalf of NJDOT, and the other participating state agencies including NJ Transit (see âBackground on Indicators of TOD Successâ for a summary of the evaluation of the New Jersey Transit Village Initiative). Number of parking spaces for shoppers only Number of parking spaces for commuters only Number of parking spaces that are shared Number of parking garages Number of bicycle racks or lockers provided Transit ridership Number of shuttle or jitney services provided to and from the transit station Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) for residents/employees Number of single- occupancy-vehicle trips for residents/employees Bicycle activity counts Number of traffic control or flow improvements (including traffic calming devices) Amount of bicycle lanes Pedestrian activity counts Number Number Number Number Number Number Number Miles Number Number Number Miles/feet Number NJ Transit Village Evaluationa NJDOT; Salt Lake City; NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation; Northeast Illinois Commuter Railroad Corporation (METRA) Puget Sound Regional Council; METRA Puget Sound Regional Council; NJ Transit; Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission; METRA; NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit; Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority; Port Authority of Allegheny County; Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority; TRI-MET; BART; Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority; Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority; Seattle Dept. of Transportation; Office of Planning, Washington, D.C.; Portland, Ore., Office of Transportation; San Mateo, Calif.; Mountain View, Calif. Community Development; Contra Costa County, Calif., Redevelopment Agency; Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission (DVRPC); Atlanta Regional Planning Commission; Indianapolis MPO; Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission; Caltrans; NJDOT; Ore. DOT; Miami- Dade Transit Agency; Conn. Department of Transportation; Baltimore Department of City Planning; Salt Lake City; Capital District Transportation Committee, Albany, N.Y.; East-West Gateway Council of Governments; METRA; NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation; METRA Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Agency (WMATA); TRI-MET; North San Diego County Transit District; Seattle Dept. of Transportation; Sacramento; San Diego; San Mateo; Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission; Caltrans; Oregon DOT; Conn. Department of Transportation; Capital District Transportation Committee, Albany, N.Y.; East-West Gateway Council of Governments Seattle Dept. of Transportation; Indianapolis MPO; Greater BuffaloâNiagara Regional Transportation Council San Diego Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority; Northern Virginia Transportation Commission; Portland, Ore., Office of Transportation; Portland Metro; NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit; Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority; Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission; METRA Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority; Port Authority of Allegheny County
13 TABLE 6 Economic Benefits/Indicators Category Benefit/Indicator Measure Sources Public Investment Private Investment Municipal Funds State funds (detail by source): âGrants âLoans Federal funds (detail by source) âGrants âLoans Tax abatements given Total public investment Commercial New or substantially rehabilitated retail/office space Number of convenience retail establishments (e.g., dry cleaning, video rental) Estimated private investment Estimated new property taxes generated Housing New or substantially rehabilitated housing units Minor housing improvements Estimated private investment Estimated new property taxes generated Estimated increase in property value Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars Square footage Number Dollars Dollars Number of units Dollars Dollars Dollars Dollars NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation; METRA TRI-MET; BART; Office of Planning, Washington, D.C.; Boston Redevelopment Authority (BRA); DVRPC; Atlanta Regional Planning Commission; Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority; Miami- Dade Transit Agency; Colo. DOT; Baltimore Dept. of City Planning; Englewood, Colo.; Salt Lake City; Sacramento Economic Development Department; Capital District Transportation Committee, Albany, N.Y.; METRA; NJ Transit Village Evaluation METRA NJ Transit Village Evaluation; METRA Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority; NJ Transit Village Evaluation TRI-MET; BART; Office of Planning, Washington, D.C.; BRA; DVRPC; Atlanta Regional Planning Commission; Miami-Dade Transit Agency; Baltimore Department of City Planning; Englewood, Colo.; Salt Lake City; Capital District Transportation Committee, Albany, N.Y.; NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation; Englewood, Colo. TRI-MET; DART; Contra Costa County Redevelopment Authority; Seattle; Englewood, Colo.; Salt Lake City; NJ Transit Village Evaluation (continued on next page)
14 TABLE 6 (Continued) Category Benefit/Indicator Measure Sources Private Investment (continued) Configuration Studio/one bedroom Two bedrooms Three or more bedrooms Tenure For sale For rent Subsidized units (with income income limits) For sale For rent Number of units Number of units Number of units Number of units Number of units Number of units Number of units Number of units NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation TABLE 7 Environmental Benefits/Indicators Category Benefit/Indicator Measure Sources Air Quality Energy Use Amount of air pollution (NOx, CO2, PM) Consumer gasoline consumption Air Pollution Index (API) reports Gallons San Francisco Municipal Railway; North San Diego County Transit District; Sacramento; San Diego; Mountain View, Calif., Community Development; Portland Metro; Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission; Caltrans; Oregon DOT; Baltimore Department of City Planning; Englewood, Colo.; East-West Gateway Council of Governments Caltrans â¢ Mixed use, â¢ Transit ridership, â¢ Density, â¢ New or rehabilitated office/retail space, â¢ Pedestrian orientation/human scale, â¢ Vehicle miles traveled, â¢ Air quality, â¢ New or rehabilitated housing, â¢ Number of new or improved park areas, â¢ Increase in property value, â¢ Household diversity, â¢ Number of bicycle racks or lockers, â¢ Number of traffic control improvements (in- cluding traffic calming), â¢ Affordable housing, and â¢ Amount of bicycle lanes. The next stage of the research for this project was to conduct a national, web-based survey of trans- portation professionals, asking them to specify the indicatorsâ usefulness, the ease or difficulty in gath- ering the data, the frequency of data collection, and whether the agency actually collected such data. The results are described in the section on the survey of TOD indicators. SURVEY OF TOD INDICATORS The review of TOD benefits and indicators in the previous section provided a list of indicators/benefits that are considered by various agencies nationwide to
15 TABLE 8 Built Environment Benefits/Indicators Category Benefit/Indicator Measure Sources Design Quality Pedestrian Friendliness Land Use Presence of pedestrian- orientation/human scale Length of improved streetscape Number of improved intersections/street crossings for pedestrian safety Length of faÃ§ade improvement Amount of brownfield properties remediated under a DEP- approved plan Number/size of vacant buildings rehabilitated or replaced Number/amount of underutilized vacant lots reclaimed for construction or green/recreation space Number of new or improved park areas Number of mixed-use structures Subjective/width and height proportions Feet Number Feet Acreage Number/square feet Number/acreage Number Number/square footage NJ Transit; Columbus Planning Division; Seattle; Charlotte Planning Division; Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission; Mountain View, Calif., Community Development; Salt Lake City Redevelopment Agency; BRA; North Central Texas Council of Governments; Greater BuffaloâNiagara Regional Transportation Council; Salt Lake City; Redwood City, Calif., Redevelopment Agency; East-West Gateway Council of Governments; METRA NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation; METRA NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit Village Evaluation North San Diego County Transit District; NJ Transit Village Evaluation Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority; DART; Northern Virginia Transportation Commission; Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission; Caltrans; METRA; NJ Transit Village Evaluation NJ Transit; LA County Metropolitan Transportation Authority; Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority; WMATA; DART; Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority; Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority; Sacramento Regional Transit District; Peninsula Corridor Joint Powers Board; Seattle DOT; Office of Planning, Washington, D.C.; Sacramento; Columbus Planning Division; Seattle; Charlotte Planning Department; San Mateo, Calif.; Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission; (continued on next page)
16 represent TOD. It did not, however, uncover whether each agency actually collects and monitors the progress of TOD. Furthermore, it did not seek to ex- plain which indicators were considered most impor- tant (other than by finding which benefits are most frequently reported, as shown in Figure 5). These and other questions were the subject of a national web- based survey that was conducted in June 2004 as part of this research project. Research Methods This survey sought to learn about TOD indica- tors from professionals who work directly with TOD. It targeted individuals working at state, county, and municipal governments; metropolitan planning or- ganizations; and transit agencies. Geographically, the research concentrated on a few regions in the United States that have had significant experience with TOD: TABLE 8 (Continued) Category Benefit/Indicator Measure Sources Land Use (continued) Mountain View, Calif., Community Development; La Mesa, Calif., Community Redevelopment Agency; BRA; DVRPC; Atlanta Regional Planning Commission; San Diegoâs Regional Planning Agency; Portland Metro; Southeast Michigan Council of Governments; Puget Sound Regional Council; North Central Texas Council of Governments; Indianapolis MPO; Greater BuffaloâNiagara Regional Transportation Council; NJDOT; Ore. DOT; Englewood, Colo.; Redwood City, Calif., Redevelopment Agency; East-West Gateway Council of Governments; METRA TABLE 9 Social Diversity/Quality Benefits/Indicators Category Benefit/Indicator Measure Sources Social Amount of crime New cultural/artistic institutions or establishments Number of neighborhood associations Public perception (administered survey) Household diversity Increase in household disposable income Number of affordable housing units Crime rate Number Number Percentage in favor Age/household income Dollars Units per acre WMATA; BART; Caltrans Sacramento Regional Transit District; DART; NJDOT Northern Virginia Transportation Commission Mountain View, Calif., Community Development Dept. Sacramento; San Diego; Columbus Planning Division; Mountain View, Calif., Community Development Dept.; Ore. DOT; METRA Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission; Caltrans; Ore. DOT Portland Development Commission; Salt Lake City Redevelopment Agency; BRA; Miami-Dade Transit Agency
Chicago; Northern California; Southern California; New Jersey; Portland, Oregon; and Washington, D.C. Approximately 60 professionals who have been working directly with TOD in these regions at vari- ous agencies were contacted by telephone and email numerous times and asked to complete an anonymous online questionnaire.3 (Appendix B includes a copy of the questionnaire and complete results from the survey). The response rate was 50%, with the re- spondents representing 30 governments and agencies from across the United States. Figure 7 shows the distribution of responses by region of the country and employer. Considering that not many places are involved with TOD across the country and that very few have thought about monitoring its progress, the 17 3 The questionnaire was hosted by the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development (a sister institute to the Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center at the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey). FIGURE 6 Englewood, Colorado: Growing regions are turning to TOD as a way to promote smart growth, curb sprawl, and provide alternatives to the automobile. This example in Englewood, a Denver suburb, is particularly important because a compact, mixed-use TODâ including the city hall and a public spaceâwas built along a new light rail line on the site of a vacant suburban mall. 34 29 23 16 14 13 12 12 7 7 6 5 5 4 4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Mi xe d U se Tra ns it r ide rsh ip De ns ity Ne w o r re ha bili tat ed of fice /re tail sp ace Pe de str ian or ien tat ion /hu ma n s cal e Ve hic le mi les tra ve led Air qu alit y Ne w o r re ha bili tat ed ho us ing Nu mb er of ne w o r im pro ve d p ark ar ea s Inc rea se in pr op ert y v alu e Ho us eh old di ve rsi ty Nu mb er of bic ycl e r ac ks or loc ke rs Nu mb er of tra ffic co ntr ol im pro ve m en ts Aff ord ab le ho us ing Am ou nt of bic ycl e l an es Benefit/Indicator N um be r o f G ov er nm en ts /A ge nc ie s Source: Review of Internet sites and printed material of government transportation entities, Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center, Rutgers University, 2004. FIGURE 5 Most frequently cited benefits/indicators of TOD.
responses to this survey provide good insights from across the country and across levels of government, although a random sample design was not used. Findings In the survey, professionals were given a ran- domized list of TOD success indicators (as de- scribed in the previous section) and asked to rate their usefulness and the difficulty of obtaining data. Respondents were also asked for additional informa- tion, such as the frequency with which data should be gathered and whether important indicators were not listed on the survey. More specifically, the survey collected information on the following factors: 1. The usefulness of each indicator: very useful, somewhat useful, not very useful, or not use- ful at all.4 2. The difficulty of obtaining data for each in- dicator: very easy, somewhat easy, somewhat difficult, or very difficult. 3. The frequency with which data should be col- lected for each indicator: 4 times per year, 3 times per year, 2 times per year, once a year, or less than once a year. 4. The number of indicators for which data are actually collected and the percentage avail- able in electronic format or online. 18 27% 7% 3% 43% 20% State Government Metropolitan Planning Organization County Government Municipal Government Other n = 30 respondents 37% 10% 40% 3% 10% Northern California Southern California New Jersey Portland, Oregon Washington D.C. n = 30 respondents FIGURE 7 Distribution of survey respondents by region and employer. 4 The same indicators were rated for factors 1, 2, and 3.
5. Whether there were any important indicators not listed on the survey and what they were. 6. The three to five most and least important in- dicators for measuring the success of TOD. 7. Contact information for respondents willing to discuss these issues further by phone. Most Useful Indicators Table 10 lists the indicators that were considered most useful for monitoring the progress of TOD. As shown, the most important indicators are the quali- tative rating of streetscape and pedestrian activity counts, followed by the number of transit boardings. While much of the literature in TOD focuses on transit ridership, these findings suggest that equally important is the quality of the built environment and the number of people walking along the streets. Therefore, a transit station with a poor urban fabric and few pedestrians, but lots of commuter parking and high levels of transit ridership, would not rate highly as a successful TOD. Another interesting finding is that in the list of most useful indicators in Table 10, all the categories of TOD benefits (travel behavior, economic, built environment, and social diversity/quality) except en- vironmental are represented. Gasoline consumption of TOD residents was the highest ranking environ- mental indicator, with only 30% of respondents rat- ing it as âvery useful.â The low ratings for environ- mental indicators are most likely due to the research design of the study. Because this survey generally targeted transportation planners working with TOD on a regular basis and not EPA professionals, it prob- ably underrepresents those concerned with the envi- ronmental effects of TOD. The suggestions given in the last section of this digest speak to this shortfall in environmental perspective. However, it should be pointed out that the FHWA/FTA encourages TOD as a way to promote clean air with funding through the Congestion Mitigation Air Quality pro- gram (CMAQ). In Portland, Oregon, CMAQ funds have been used for TOD dating back to 1994. 19 TABLE 10 Indicators rated very useful for TOD by at least 50% of the respondents Percentage of respondents who rated the indicator as Indicator âVery Usefulâ Category Qualitative rating of streetscape (i.e., pedestrian 77 Built environment orientation/human scale) Pedestrian activity counts 77 Travel behavior Number of transit boardingsa 70 Travel behavior Population/housing density 67 Built environment Estimated increase in property value 63 Economic Public perception (administered survey) 63 Social diversity/quality Number of bus, ferry, shuttle, or jitney services 63 Travel behavior connecting to transit station Number/square feet of mixed-use structures 60 Built environment Number of improved intersections/street 60 Built environment crossings for pedestrian safety Estimated amount of private investment 57 Economic Number of parking spaces for residents 53 Travel behavior Number of shared parking spaces 53 Travel behavior Number of convenience/service retail 53 Economic establishments (i.e., dry cleaners, video rental) Employment density (i.e., number of jobs per 53 Economic/built environment acre/square mile) Estimated amount of private investment by type of 52 Economic land use a Indicators in bold were also identified as being very easy to collect (see Table 11).
Ease of Collection While it is important to know what the most use- ful indicators are, it is also important to know how easy or difficult it is to collect data for each indica- tor. Table 11 depicts the perceived easiest indicators to compile. Indicators listed in both Table 10 (very useful) and Table 11 (very easy to collect) are shown in bold. Note that only 5 out of the 13 very useful in- dicators are considered among the 22 that are very easy to collect: 1. Number of transit boardings; 2. Number of bus, ferry, shuttle, or jitney ser- vices connecting to the transit station; 3. Number/square feet of mixed-use structures; 4. Number of improved intersections/street cross- ings for pedestrian safety; and 5. The number of convenience/service retail establishments. It should be observed that environmental indi- cators were also not found on the easiest list, again most likely because transportation professionals do not directly address environmental outcomes. The conclusion that we draw from comparing Table 10 and Table 11, which is supported by ex- perience related to the Transit Village Initiative in New Jersey, is that the data for the most useful in- 20 TABLE 11 Indicators of TOD rated very easy to collect by at least 50% of the respondents Percentage of respondents rating indicator as âVery Easyâ Indicator to Collect Category Number of bus, ferry, shuttle or jitney services 79 Travel behavior connecting to transit stationa Number of bicycle racks or lockers 72 Travel behavior New or improved cultural/artistic institutions or 71 Social diversity/quality establishments Mileage of bicycle lanes 71 Travel behavior Amount of improved public park area/public space 68 Built environment Number of subsidized housing units 64 Economic Number of neighborhood institutions (i.e., local clubs 64 Social diversity/quality or organizations) Number/amount of underutilized lots reclaimed for 63 Built environment construction or green/recreation space Number of parking spaces for commuters 62 Travel behavior Number of traffic flow improvements 61 Travel behavior (i.e., traffic-calming devices) Number/acreage of brownfield properties remediated 61 Built environment Number of affordable housings units 61 Social diversity/quality Number of transit boardings 61 Travel behavior Number of improved intersections/street crossings 59 Built environment for pedestrian safety Number/size of vacant buildings rehabilitated or 57 Built environment replaced Estimated amount of new property taxes generated 57 Economic Amount of crime 57 Social diversity/quality Number of convenience/service retail 57 Economic establishments (i.e., dry cleaning, video rental) Length of facade improvement 57 Built environment Number/square feet of mixed-use structures 54 Built environment Length of improved streetscape 54 Built environment Number of substantially rehabilitated housing units 50 Economic a Those indicators in bold are also shown on Table 10 as being very useful.
dicators of TOD success are going to require special efforts to compile. This challenge is addressed in the suggestions given in the last section of this digest. Frequency The next series of questions in the survey asked about the frequency of data collection. The vast ma- jority of indicators, with a few exceptions, needed to be collected only once a year or less often according to 95% of the respondents. Because data collection can be costly, this is good news. The only exception was transit ridership, which more than 50% of the respondents said should be collected more than once a year. Because transit agencies usually track rider- ship closely and on a regular basis, the collection of these data should not be difficult. Collection Efforts Figure 8 shows the results of the next question in the survey: how many indicators are being monitored. The results indicate that almost three-quarters of the responding agencies track 10 or fewer indicators; and, nearly half (49%) collect five or fewer indicators listed in the survey. This suggests that the majority of agencies are not monitoring TOD progress with any depth and deliberation. Electronic/Online Sources of Information The survey asked whether indicator data were available either in electronic format or online. The re- sults were not informative, and in retrospect the ques- tion probably should have been worded to pinpoint exactly what measures were available in this format rather than what percentage were. Of the 22 respon- dents who indicated that they collected data, 15 in- dicated that 50% or less of the information was in electronic form and 12 said that no data were avail- able online. More investigation is needed on best practices for specific measures, given local gov- ernmental and agency capacities. Other Indicators Concerning important indicators that were not listed in the survey, suggestions included land use mix, rate of automobile ownership, presence of car sharing programs, and the existence of transit fare in- centive programs. Although these indicators might be added to future surveys, listed indicators could substitute for the proposed indicator in many casesâ for example, VMT or resident parking capacity could substitute for car ownership and car sharing and tran- sit ridership could be used in place of fare incentive programs. Data on car ownership and mode split 21 49% 23% 23% 5% 1 to 5 6 to 10 11 to 15 16 to 20 FIGURE 8 Number of indicators collected by agencies.
would be especially useful, because planners could then begin to quantify not only localized outcomes but also regional impacts on traffic congestion and air quality as well. Rankings Respondents were asked to list the three to five most important and least important indicators. Transit ridership was the most important cited indicator, fol- lowed by density, various parking indicators, various design quality indicators, and tax revenue. One re- spondent noted that there were no least important in- dicators, but overall, air pollution, gasoline consump- tion, and vehicle miles traveled were most commonly cited as the least important indicators. Other less fa- vored indicators mentioned a few times were house- hold diversity, tax abatements, and disposable income. Because of the small number of respondents and the variability within the answers, it was not possi- ble using these data to determine whether there was any variation by type of government/agency. It is theorized that certain indicators may be more appro- priate for certain types of governments; that is, mu- nicipalities may be more interested in tax revenue, while transit agencies may be more interested in transit ridership. But these data do not lend them- selves to this kind of analysis. As noted above (and as shown in Figure 8), most agencies state that they do not collect much data associated with TOD out- comes. Therefore, collecting data on a minimum number of important indicators that universally in- dicate success may be the best approach. This could change over time as more attention and possibly pub- lic funding are dedicated to TOD. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR EVALUATING TOD On the basis of this research, the following con- clusions are offered to aid in more effectively mon- itoring TOD outcomes. Conclusion and Suggestion 1 The results of this study clearly point to a num- ber of TOD success indicators that enjoy consensus. From the website/print review and from the survey of transit professionals, the following top 10 mea- surements were identified as the foundation for an evaluation program: 22 â¢ Transit ridership; â¢ Densityâpopulation/housing; â¢ Quality of streetscape design; â¢ Quantity of mixed-use structures; â¢ Pedestrian activity/pedestrian safety; â¢ Increase in property value/tax revenue; â¢ Public perceptionâresident and merchant surveys; â¢ Mode connections at the transit station; and â¢ Parking configurationâfor commuters, for residents, and shared. Conclusion and Suggestion 2 The results of the survey also indicate that the collection of data for many of these indicators is not straightforward. Specifically, pedestrian activity counts, public perception surveys, determination of economic outcomes, and quality of design call for more involved effort, expertise, and expense than may be available. It is suggested that transit agencies/ state DOTs/MPOs set aside special funds for TODs to support pedestrian activity surveys, resident and merchant surveys, analyses of property values and taxes, design assessment, and density tracking. FIGURE 9 Alexandria, Virginia: TOD has been a popular development strategy in suburban Washington. The Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Agency (WMATA) is a role model for publicâprivate partnerships. Not only has TOD in Washington helped to generate high levels of transit usage, but more than 52 joint development projects (worth more than $4 bil- lion in market value) generate about $6 million in annual revenues for WMATA (Cervero et al., 2004).
Conclusion and Suggestion 3 Surprisingly, the value of environmental factors was downplayed by the respondents to the opinion survey of transportation professionals. And though transportation professionals may not see reduction in fuel consumption as a useful indicator, it is widely considered to be an important public benefit. It is sug- gested that government agencies and MPOs con- cerned with the environment take on this measurement task and develop specialized programs to monitor changes in air quality. Either this can be accom- plished by measuring levels of ozone, nitrogen ox- ides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, and particu- lates or indirect measures could be used that look at the link between variables, such as vehicle miles traveled, single-occupancy trips, and fuel/energy con- sumption. By using individual household data, such as vehicle ownership and mode split, to model im- pacts at the local and regional levels, a comparison of households living inside and outside TODs could be made. Conclusion and Suggestion 4 It is suggested that a regular schedule be set up for collecting data. The respondents overwhelmingly agree that data on the indicators need be collected only annually or even less often. Those indicators considered easy to collect data for could be reported annually; and those that are more difficult or expen- sive to collect data on, like pedestrian counts or res- ident surveys, could be reported on less frequently. It should be noted that the authorsâ experience in New Jersey suggests that, once the initial setup for surveys is done (i.e., creating the survey instrument), subse- quent efforts to collect data should be less costly, al- though not necessarily inexpensive. Conclusion and Suggestion 5 While the above core indicators have a fairly universal application, not all TODs are the same. Certain benefits accrue to certain types of environ- ments. For example, gentrification may be an issue for some urban TODs but not necessarily for sub- urban TODs. Likewise, creation of specific uses, such as office space or housing, is not a mandate. Benefits need to be understood from the local per- spective. It is suggested that further research be done to develop a typology and assign certain ben- efits to certain types of TODs. Conclusion and Suggestion 6 Knowing which indicators to use is not the same as knowing how and where to find the data. Munic- ipalities vary in their level of electronic sophistica- tionâfrom parcel maps to building permits to even having a list of businesses within the TOD area. Furthermore, many have limited staffing capacity with little time to compile information for TOD monitoring. It is suggested that more research be done to develop a guidebook on how to gather indicator information, particularly in the face of limited local resources. Conclusion and Suggestion 7 Finally, it is suggested that databases be created at the state level that will establish baselines and keep track of measurement outcomes for TODs on an an- nual basis. Not only could transportation profession- als monitor progress across the state or along specific corridors, but outcomes could also be compared between states. However, setting minimum perfor- mance standards, per se, is not suggested. It would be unfair to rate a TOD on housing production if, in fact, the communityâs priority is better pedestrian access to the train station; likewise, there is no need to count brownfield clean-ups when contaminated properties do not exist in the TOD area. The process of assessing the performance of TODs should not pit them against each other as if in a contest. Rather, each site should be judged against stated goals set forth for it through an inclusive planning process. Conclusion The benefits of TOD are widely acknowledged, as the website/print review found. Through a survey, those indicators that are considered most useful among transportation professionals have been iso- lated. However, the survey results also indicate that data for many of these indicators are not easy to ac- quire. This fact most likely explains why nearly half of the survey respondents reported using only five or fewer indicators in evaluating TOD success. Monitoring the benefits and outcomes of TODs is essential to better understanding the return on public investment. Transportation professionals and planners should be encouraged to use at least the top 10 indicators described above to more fully ascertain the impact of TOD. However, more investigation, 23
more financial support, more expertise, and more formal reporting are needed to help them do this successfully. REFERENCES Boarnet, Marlon G., and Randall Crane. 2001. Travel by Design: The Influence of Urban Form on Travel. Oxford: Oxford University Press. California Department of Transportation. 2002. State- wide Transit-Oriented Development Study: Factors for Success in California. Sacramento: Business, Transportation, and Housing Agency (Consultants: Parsons Brinckerhoff). Calthorpe, Peter. 1993. The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community, and the American Dream. New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Cervero, Robert. 1998. The Transit Metropolis. Wash- ington: Island Press. Cervero, Robert et al. 2004. TCRP Report 102: Transit- Oriented Development in the United States: Ex- periences, Challenges, and Prospects. Washington: TRB. Dittmar, Hank, and Gloria Ohland, eds. 2004. The New Transit Town: Best Practices in Transit-Oriented Development. Washington: Island Press. Dunphy, Robert. 1995. Transportation-oriented develop- ment: making a difference? Urban Land, July, 32â48. Ewing, Reid. 1997. Is Los Angeles style sprawl desir- able? Journal of the American Planning Association 63, no. 1: 107â26. Nelson, Dick, John Niles, and Aharon Hibshoosh. 2001. A New Planning Template for Transit-Oriented De- velopment. MTI Report 01-12. San Jose: Mineta Transportation Institute, College of Business, San Jose State University. Newman, Peter, and Jeffrey Kenworthy. 1999. Sustain- ability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Depen- dence. Washington: Island Press. Porter, Douglas. 2002. Making Smart Growth Work. Washington: Urban Land Institute. Renne, John, and Peter Newman. 2002. Facilitating the financing and development of âsmart growth.â Trans- portation Quarterly 56, no. 2: 23â32. Renne, John, and Jan Wells. 2004. Emerging European- style planning in the USA: transit-oriented devel- opment. World Transport Policy & Practice 10, no. 2: 12â24. Wells, Jan, and John Renne. 2004. Transit Villages in New Jersey: Implementation of the Assessment Tool: Measuring Economic Activity. New Brunswick, N.J.: Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center, Rutgers University. âââ. 2003. Transit Villages in New Jersey: Recom- mendations for Assessment and Accountability. New Brunswick, N.J.: Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center, Rutgers University. 24 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The principal authors of this digest are John L. Renne and Jan S. Wells of the Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center, Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers University, NJ. The authors wish to thank the Transportation Re- search Board, especially Chris Jenks, and the Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center, Rutgers University, along with its director, Martin E. Robins, for sup- porting this research effort. In addition, we would like to acknowledge Chris Riale, a masterâs student in the Planning Program at the Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, for his estimable help in researching the websites, gathering print informa- tion, and summarizing the results as well as assisting in the execution of the survey. We are also grateful to the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Develop- ment at the Bloustein School for letting us use its sur- vey website, which greatly facilitated the distribution of the questionnaire, response gathering, and com- pilation of results. We are indebted as well to Rich Weaver and Art Guzzetti of the American Public Transportation Association for their continued sup- port of our TOD work. Finally, we want to recognize and commend all of those involved with the New Jer- sey Transit Village Initiative, including profession- als from many of New Jerseyâs state agencies and NJ Transit. We particularly want to applaud Mon- ica Etz and James Lewis of NJDOT for initiating and supporting the implementation of a TOD mon- itoring program. Our work with them has given us a unique insight into the issues involved in measur- ing the success of TODs. Likewise, Ken Snapp, Jack Kanarek, and Vivian Baker of NJ Transit have provided enormous help and encouragement in our TOD research projects.
A PPEN D IX A A g en cies Stud ied Agency Name TOD-Related Material on General Website TOD Specific Website TOD Report Telephone Interview Contacted with no reply Agency Name TOD-Related Material on General Website TOD Specific Website TOD Report Telephone Interview Contacted with no reply Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) X New Jersey Transit X X X San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District (BART) X X LA County Metropolitan Transportation Authority X Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA) X X Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) X Puerto Rico Department of Transportation and Public Works; Metropolitan Bus Authority X Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority (WMATA) X Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (NY) X Maryland Transit Administration * X Sacramento Regional Transit District X Port Authority of Allegheny County (PA) X X Northern Virginia Transportation Commission (NVTC) X San Francisco Municipal Railway (MUNI) X North San Diego County Transit District X Regional Transportation District (RTD) (Denver, CO) X Port Authority Transit Corporation (PATCO) (NJ) * X Utah Transit Authority (UTA) X Kenosha Transit * X Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) X Connecticut Department of Transportation X MTA Metro Railroad (NY) X Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter Railroad Corporation (METRA) X Tri-County Metropolitan Transportation District of Oregon (TRI-MET) X MTA Long Island Rail Road X Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority (RTA) X Peninsula Corridor Joint Powers Board (Caltrain) X Miami-Dade Transit Agency (FL) X TRANSIT AGENCY
26 Agency Name TOD-Related Material on General Website TOD Specific Website TOD Report Telephone Interview Contacted with no reply Agency Name TOD-Related Material on General Website TOD Specific Website TOD Report Telephone Interview Contacted with no reply Capitol Corridor Joint Powers Authority (CA) X X Charlotte, NC: Planning Dep Seattle, WA artment X Los Angeles, CA: Dept. of City Planning X Buffalo, NY * X Seattle, WA: Department of Transportation X Fremont, CA X Dallas, TX: Dept. of Planning and Development X Salt Lake City, UT X Baltimore, MD: City Dept. of Planning X Washington D.C.: Office of Planning X New Haven, CT X Portland, OR: Office of Transportation X South Bend,IN: Division of Community Development X Portland Development Commission X San Mateo, CA X Sacramento, CA X Sandy City, UT X Englewood, CO X X Beaverton, OR X San Diego, CA X Columbus, OH: Planning Divison X X Houston, TX: Midtown Redevelopment Authority * X Mountain View, CA: Community Development X Redwood City, CA: Redevelopment Agency X Davis, CA X Contra Costa County, CA: Redevelopment Agency X CITY/COUNTY AGENCY REDEVELOPMENT AGENCY Maui, HA
27 Agency Name TOD-Related Material on General Website TOD Specific Website TOD Report Telephone Interview Contacted with no reply Agency Name TOD-Related Material on General Website TOD Specific Website TOD Report Telephone Interview Contacted with no reply San Diego, CA: Centre City Development Corporation * X Southeast Michigan COG X Salt Lake City, UT: Redevelopment Agency X East-West Gateway Coordinating Council X Sacramento, CA: Economic Development Dept. X Baltimore Metropolitan Council X La Mesa, CA: Community Redevelopment Agency X Puget Sound Regional Council X X Boston, MA: Redevelopment Authority X Hillsborough County Metropolitan Planning Organization (FL) X Northeast Ohio Areawide Coordinating Agency X Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission X North Central Texas Council of Governments X Metropolitan Washington Council of Govts National Capital Region Trans. Pln Board X Indianapolis MPO X Atlanta Regional Planning Commission X Mid-Ohio Regional Planning Commission X San Diego's Regional Planning Agency X Mountain Lan AOG (UT) X Portland Metro X Greensboro DOT-Greensboro Urban Area MPO (NC) X Capital District Transportation Committee: Albany, NY X Greater Buffalo-Niagara Regional Transportation Council (NY) X MPO
28 Agency Name TOD-Related Material on General Website TOD Specific Website TOD Report Telephone Interview Contacted with no reply Agency Name TOD-Related Material on General Website TOD Specific Website TOD Report Telephone Interview Contacted with no reply First Coast MPO (Jacksonville, FL) X Oregon X North Jersey Transportation Planning Authority X Georgia X Sarasota Manateo MPO (FL) X Rhode Island X Metroplan/Little Rock * X O Indiana hio X Battle Creek MPO (MI) X Missouri X Kyova Interstate Planning Commission (WV-KY-OH MSA) X Utah X Northeastern Illinois Planning Commission X X Massachusetts X California X X X New Jersey X X STATE DOT Note: A total of 96 agencies were surveyed * Agency holds no general opinion on Transit-Oriented Development (TOD)
APPENDIX B Survey Design and Results 29 Cover Letter You have been selected to provide input on a national study on Transit-Oriented Development (TOD). The Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center at Rutgers University is working on a grant sponsored by the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies (Transit Cooperative Research Program and the National Highway Cooperative Research Program). The goal of this study is to develop a strategy to mea- sure the success of transit-oriented development and we would appreciate if you could complete a web sur- vey which should only take approximately 8â10 minutes of your time: There are a few items to point out before you take the survey: 1) We are using the web survey technology of our sister institution at Rutgers, the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development. Hence, you will see their masthead at the top of the survey. 2) We have gathered a number of indicators from places across the United States to gauge the success of TOD. We are asking you to first rate the usefulness of each indicator, then the difficulty in obtaining the data, and finally how often the data should be collected. You may want to interpret an indicator as change over a period of time. For example, ânumber of existing housing unitsâ could also mean âchange in the number of housing unitsâ. 3) Lastly, unless otherwise indicated, please assume that all indicators are measuring activity within the general TOD area around a transit station. A good definition of transit-oriented development, from the Cali- fornia Department of Transportation (2002) is: Moderate to higher density development, located within an easy walk [approximately 1/2 mile] of a major transit stop, generally with a mix of residential, employment, and shopping opportuni- ties designed for pedestrians without excluding the auto. (http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/MassTrans/tod.htm) Here is the website location for the survey: http://www.heldrich.rutgers.edu/Slice/StartSurvey. asp?SurveyID=132 Thank you for your time and if you have any questions, please feel free to email or call us. Sincerely, John Renne, Jan Wells, and Chris Riale John Renne Project Manager firstname.lastname@example.org 732-932-6812 ext. 877 Jan Wells, PhD Assistant Research Professor email@example.com 732-932-6812 ext. 752 Chris Riale Research Assistant firstname.lastname@example.org
P.S. For a link to research on transit-oriented development at the Voorhees Transportation Center, includ- ing a full evaluation of the New Jersey Transit Village Initiative, please visit: http://www.policy.rutgers.edu/vtc/tod Questionnaire What region are you from? Chicago Region Northern California Southern California New Jersey Portland, Oregon Washington, D.C. Other Who do you represent? State Government Metropolitan Planning Organization County Government Municipal Government Other [Note for appendix: The next three questions all had the same list of indicators as subquestions. In order to save space, each question will be listed, followed by the indicators. The choices for each question will be listed in parentheses after each question.] For the indicators below . . . In determining the success of Transit-Oriented Development, please rate the usefulness of each indi- cator: (Options included: Very useful, Somewhat useful, Not very useful, and Not useful at all. ) Please rate the difficulty level of obtaining data on the following indicators: (Options included: Very easy to collect, Somewhat easy to collect, Somewhat difficult to collect, and Very difficult to collect. ) Please indicate how often data pertaining to each of the following indicators should be collected: (Options included: 4 times a year or more, 3 times a year, 2 times a year, Once a year, and Less than once a year. ) The indicators for each of the above three questions were: Number of parking spaces for commuters Number of transit boardings Number of bus, ferry, shuttle or jitney services connecting to transit station Number of bicycle racks or lockers Number of single-occupant trips for TOD residents Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) for TOD residents Bicycle activity counts Number of shared parking spaces Amount of air pollution (i.e., NOx, CO2, PM) Consumer gasoline consumption of residents Number of traffic flow or traffic improvements (i.e., traffic-calming devices) Amount of crime New or improved cultural/artistic institutions or establishments Number of neighborhood institutions (i.e., local clubs and organizations) Public perception (administered survey) Amount of household type diversity Number of parking spaces for residents 30
Increase in disposable household income Number of affordable housing units Number of parking spaces for shoppers Qualitative rating of streetscape (i.e., pedestrian orientation/human scale) Length of improved streetscape Number of improved intersections/street crossings for pedestrian safety Length of facade improvement Mileage of bicycle lanes Pedestrian activity counts Number of parking spaces for employees Number/acreage of brownfield properties remediated Number/size of vacant buildings rehabilitated or replaced Number/amount of underutilized vacant lots reclaimed for construction or green/recreation space Amount of improved public park area/public space Number/square feet of mixed-use structures Population/housing density Amount of municipal funds spent or dedicated to TOD Amount of state grants or loans spent or dedicated to TOD Amount of federal grants or loans spent or dedicated to TOD Total public investment Amount of tax abatements given Amount/number of new or substantially rehabilitated retail/office space Estimated amount of private investment Estimated amount of property taxes generated Number of substantially rehabilitated housing units Estimated amount of private investment by type of land use Estimated amount of new property taxes generated Estimated increase in property value Number of subsidized housing units Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) for workers in the TOD Number of single-occupant trips for workers in the TOD Consumer gasoline consumption of workers in the TOD Number of bedrooms for each (new) housing unit Rating of quality of lighting for each street Number of convenience retail establishments (i.e., dry cleaning, video rental) Tenure (rental vs. ownership) of new housing units Employment density (i.e., number of jobs per acre/square mile) How many indicators listed above does your agency keep track of? None 1â5 6â10 11â15 16â20 20+ What percentage of these are available in electronic format? What percentage are available online? Are there any indicators that you believe are important that were not listed above? If so, please list them. In your opinion, what are the 3â5 most important indicators for measuring the success of TOD? In your opinion, what are the 3â5 least important indicators for measuring the success of TOD? If you are willing to discuss these issues further in a phone interview with the researchers from the Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center, please indicate your first name, phone number, and best time to call. All information collected is confidential. 31
These digests are issued in order to increase awareness of research results emanating from projects in the Cooperative Research Programs (CRP). Persons wanting to pursue the project subject matter in greater depth should contact the CRP Staff, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20001. Transportation Research Board 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001