RODNEY BROOKS is a robotics entrepreneur and founder, chairman, and CTO of ReThink Robotics (formerly Heartland Robotics). He is also a founder, former board member (1990-2011), and former CTO (1990-2008) of iRobot Corp. Dr. Brooks is the former director (1997-2007) of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and then the MIT Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. He received degrees in pure mathematics from the Flinders University of South Australia and a Ph.D. in computer science from Stanford University in 1981. He held research positions at Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) and MIT and a faculty position at Stanford University before joining the faculty of MIT in 1984. He has published many papers in computer vision, artificial intelligence, robotics, and artificial life. Dr. Brooks served for many years as a member of the International Scientific Advisory Group of National Information and Communication Technology Australia and on the Global Innovation and Technology Advisory Council of John Deere & Co. He is currently an Xconomist at Xconomy and a regular contributor to Edge. Since June 2014, he has been a member of the Visiting Committee on Advanced Technology at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Dr. Brooks is a member of the National Academy of Engineering (NAE), a founding fellow of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI), a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), a fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), a fellow of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), a corresponding member of the Australian Academy of Science, and a foreign fellow of the Australian Academy of Technological Sciences and Engineering. Among his awards are the following: the Computers and Thought Award at the 1991 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence,
the IEEE Inaba Technical Award for Innovation Leading to Production (2008), the Robotics Industry Association’s Engelberger Robotics Award for Leadership (2014), and the 2015 IEEE Robotics and Automation Award. He has been the Cray lecturer at the University of Minnesota, the Mellon lecturer at Dartmouth College, and the Forsythe lecturer at Stanford University. He was cofounding editor of the International Journal of Computer Vision and is a member of the editorial boards of various journals, including Adaptive Behavior, Artificial Life, Applied Artificial Intelligence, Autonomous Robots, and New Generation Computing. He starred as himself in the 1997 Errol Morris movie “Fast, Cheap and Out of Control,” named for one of his scientific papers.
JAIME CARBONELL is a university professor and the Allan Newell Professor of Computer Science at CMU. Dr. Carbonell joined the CMU community as an assistant professor of computer science in 1979 and went on to become a widely recognized authority in machine translation, natural language processing, and machine learning. He has invented a number of well-known algorithms and methods during his career, including proactive machine learning and maximal marginal relevance for information retrieval. His research has resulted in or contributed to a number of commercial enterprises, including Carnegie Speech, Carnegie Group, and Dynamix Technologies. In addition to his work on machine learning and translation, Dr. Carbonell also investigates computational proteomics and biolinguistics—fields that take the computational tools used for analyzing language and adapt them to understanding biological information encoded in protein structures. This process leads to increased knowledge of protein–protein interactions and molecular signaling processes. His career has had an enormous impact on both CMU and the School of Computer Science. He created the university’s Ph.D. program in language technologies and is co-creator of the Universal Library and its Million Book Project. He founded CMU’s Center for Machine Translation in 1986 and led its transformation in 1996 into the Language Technologies Institute, which he currently directs. He has advised more than 40 Ph.D. students and authored more than 300 research papers. Before joining the CMU faculty, Dr. Carbonell earned bachelor’s degrees in mathematics and physics at MIT and a master’s degree and a Ph.D. in computer science at Yale University.
VINTON G. CERF is vice president and Chief Internet Evangelist for Google, Inc.. He is responsible for identifying new enabling technologies and applications on the Internet and other platforms for the company. Widely known as a “Father of the Internet,” Dr. Cerf is the co-designer, with Robert Kahn, of TCP/IP protocols and basic architecture of the Internet. In 1997, President Clinton recognized their work with the U.S. National Medal of Technology. In 2005, Dr. Cerf and Dr. Kahn received the highest civilian honor bestowed in the United States, the Presidential Medal of Freedom. It recognizes the fact that their
work on the software code used to transmit data across the Internet has put them “at the forefront of a digital revolution that has transformed global commerce, communication, and entertainment.” From 1994-2005, Dr. Cerf served as senior vice president at MCI. Prior to that, he was vice president of the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI), and from 1982-86 he served as vice president of MCI. During his tenure with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) from 1976-1982, Dr. Cerf played a key role leading the development of Internet and Internet-related data packet and security technologies. Since 2000, he has served as chairman of the board of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), and he has been a visiting scientist at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory since 1998. He served as founding president of the Internet Society (ISOC) from 1992-1995 and was on the ISOC board until 2000. Dr. Cerf is a fellow of the IEEE, ACM, AAAS, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the International Engineering Consortium, the Computer History Museum, and the NAE. Dr. Cerf has received numerous awards and commendations in connection with his work on the Internet, including the Marconi Fellowship, Charles Stark Draper award of the NAE, the Prince of Asturias award for science and technology, the Alexander Graham Bell Award presented by the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, the A.M. Turing Award from the ACM, the Silver Medal of the International Telecommunications Union, and the IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal, among many others. He holds a Ph.D. in computer science from the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), and more than a dozen honorary degrees.
ROBERT P. “BOB” COLWELL is an electrical engineer who worked at Intel and was director of the Microsystems Technology Office (MTO) at DARPA. He was the chief IA-32 architect on the Pentium Pro, Pentium II, Pentium III, and Pentium 4 microprocessors. Dr. Colwell retired from Intel in 2000. He was an Intel fellow from 1995 to 2000. He attended the University of Pittsburgh and gained an undergraduate degree in electrical engineering. He later attended CMU to get a Ph.D., also in electrical engineering. Dr. Colwell worked at a company called Multiflow in the late 1980s as a design engineer. In 1990, he joined Intel as a senior architect and was involved in the development of the P6 “core.” The P6 core was used in the Pentium Pro, Pentium II, and Pentium III microprocessors, and designs derived from it are used in the Pentium M, Core Duo, and Core Solo, and Core 2 microprocessors sold by Intel. Dr. Colwell earned the ACM Eckert-Mauchly Award in 2005 and wrote the “At Random” column for Computer, a journal published by the IEEE Computer Society. He is as well the author of several papers in addition to The Pentium Chronicles: The People, Passion, and Politics Behind Intel’s Landmark Chips. Dr. Colwell has spoken at universities on the challenges in chip design and management principles needed to tackle them.
DAVID CULLER is a professor of electrical engineering and computer sciences (EECS) at the University of California, Berkeley. He received his B.A. from UC Berkeley in 1980 and his M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from MIT in 1985 and 1989, respectively. He joined the EECS faculty in 1989 and is the founding director of Intel Research, UC Berkeley, and was associate chair of the EECS department, 2010-2012, and chair from 2012 through June 30, 2014. He won the Okawa Prize in 2013. He is a member of the NAE, an ACM fellow, and an IEEE fellow. He has been named one of Scientific American’s Top 50 Researchers and the creator of one of MIT’s Technology Review’s 10 Technologies That Will Change the World. He was awarded the National Science Foundation (NSF) Presidential Young Investigator and the Presidential Faculty Fellowship. His research addresses networks of small, embedded wireless devices, planetary-scale Internet services, parallel computer architecture, parallel programming languages, and high-performance communication. It includes TinyOS, Berkeley Motes, PlanetLab, Networks of Workstations (NOW), Internet services, Active Messages, Split-C, and the Threaded Abstract Machine (TAM).
DEBORAH ESTRIN is a professor of computer science at Cornell Tech in New York City and a professor of public health at Weill Cornell Medical College. She is founder of the Healthier Lift Hub and directs the Small Data Lab at Cornell Tech. Dr. Estrin is also cofounder of the nonprofit startup Open mHealth. Her current focus is on mobile health and small data, leveraging the pervasiveness of mobile devices and digital interactions for health and life management. Previously, Dr. Estrin was on the UCLA faculty, where she was the founding director of the NSF Center for Embedded Networked Sensing (CENS), pioneering the development of mobile and wireless systems to collect and analyze real-time data about the physical world. Her honors include the ACM Athena Lecture (2006) and the Anita Borg Institute’s Women of Vision Award for Innovation (2007). She is a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences and the NAE.
ANDREA GOLDSMITH is the Stephen Harris Professor in the School of Engineering and a professor of electrical engineering at Stanford University. She was previously on the faculty of Electrical Engineering at Caltech. She co-founded and serves as chief scientist of Accelera, Inc., which develops software-defined wireless network technology, and previously co-founded and served as CTO of Quantenna Communications, Inc., which develops high-performance Wi-Fi chipsets. She previously held positions at Maxim Technologies, Memorylink Corporation, and AT&T Bell Laboratories. Dr. Goldsmith is a fellow of the IEEE and of Stanford University, and she has received several awards for her work, including the IEEE Communications Society and Information Theory Society joint paper award, the IEEE Communications Society Best Tutorial Paper Award, the NAE Gilbreth Lecture Award, the IEEE ComSoc Communications Theory Technical Achievement Award, the IEEE ComSoc
Wireless Communications Technical Achievement Award, the Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship, and the Silicon Valley/San Jose Business Journal’s Women of Influence Award. She is author of the book Wireless Communications and coauthor of the books MIMO Wireless Communications and Principles of Cognitive Radio, all published by Cambridge University Press. Her research includes work on wireless information and communication theory, cognitive radios, sensor networks, “green” wireless system design, control systems closed over wireless networks, smart grid sensing and control, and applications of communications and signal processing to biology and neuroscience. She received B.S., M.S., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering from UC Berkeley. Dr. Goldsmith is currently on the steering committee for the IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications and previously served as editor for the IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, the Journal on Foundations and Trends in Communications and Information Theory and in Networks, IEEE Transactions on Communications, and IEEE Wireless Communications. Dr. Goldsmith participates actively in committees and conference organization for the IEEE Information Theory and Communications Societies and has served on the board of governors for both societies. She has been a distinguished lecturer for both societies, served as the president of the IEEE Information Theory Society in 2009, founded and chaired the student committee of the IEEE Information Theory Society, and currently chairs the Emerging Technology Committee and is a member of the Strategic Planning Committee in the IEEE Communications Society. At Stanford, she received the inaugural University Postdoc Mentoring Award and has been active in committees to innovate and revise both graduate and undergraduate education university-wide. She served as chair of Stanford’s faculty senate in 2009 and currently serves on its faculty senate and on its budget group.
ERIC HORVITZ is a distinguished scientist at Microsoft Research. His interests span theoretical and practical challenges with developing systems that perceive, learn, and reason. His contributions include advances in principles and applications of machine learning and inference, search and retrieval, human–computer interaction, bioinformatics, and e-commerce. He has been elected a fellow of the AAAI and of the AAAS. He currently serves on the NSF Computer and Information Science and Engineering (CISE) advisory board and on the council of the Computing Community Consortium. He received his Ph.D. and M.D. degrees at Stanford University.
FARNAM JAHANIAN serves as vice president for research at CMU. He brings to CMU extensive leadership and administrative expertise, not only in supporting and nurturing research within and across disciplines, but also in translating research into innovative tools and technologies that succeed in the marketplace. The Office of the Vice President for Research at CMU is responsible for nurturing excellence in research, scholarship,
and creative activities across the entire campus. It has overall responsibility for research administration and policy, provides oversight for responsible conduct of research and compliance, and focuses on facilitating and accelerating the movement of research and technology from the university to the marketplace. The Office of Sponsored Programs, Office of Research Integrity and Compliance, Center for Technology Transfer, and Office of Government Relations, and the Software Engineering Institute, among others, report to the vice president for research. Before CMU, Dr. Jahanian led the NSF Directorate for CISE from 2011 to 2014. He was on the faculty at the University of Michigan from 1993 to 2014, where he held the Edward S. Davidson Collegiate Professorship in the College of Engineering and served as chair for computer science and engineering from 2007 to 2011 and as director of the Software Systems Laboratory from 1997 to 2000. Previously, he held research and management positions at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center. While at the University of Michigan, Dr. Jahanian led several large-scale research projects that studied the growth and scalability of the Internet infrastructure, which ultimately transformed how cyberthreats are addressed by Internet Service Providers. His research on Internet infrastructure security formed the basis for the successful Internet security services company Arbor Networks, which he co-founded in 2001. Dr. Jahanian served as chairman of Arbor Networks until its acquisition in 2010. He has been an active advocate for how basic research can be uniquely central to an innovation ecosystem that drives global competitiveness and addresses national priorities. He received numerous awards for his innovative research, commitment to education, and technology commercialization activities. He was named Distinguished University Innovator at the University of Michigan in 2009 and received the Governor’s University Award for Commercialization Excellence in 2005. Dr. Jahanian holds a master’s degree and a Ph.D. in computer science from the University of Texas, Austin. He is a fellow of the ACM, IEEE, and the AAAS.
MARGARET MARTONOSI is the Hugh Trumbull Adams ‘35 Professor of Computer Science at Princeton University, where she has been on the faculty since 1994. She also holds an affiliated faculty appointment in Princeton’s Department of Electrical Engineering. From 2005 to 2007, she served as associate dean for academic affairs for the Princeton University School of Engineering and Applied Science. In 2011, she served as acting director of Princeton’s Center for Information Technology Policy. Dr. Martonosi’s research interests are in computer architecture and mobile computing, with particular focus on power-efficient systems. Her work has included the development of the Wattch power modeling tool and the Princeton ZebraNet mobile sensor network project for the design and real-world deployment of zebra tracking collars in Kenya. Her current research focuses on hardware–software interface approaches to manage heterogeneous parallelism and power-performance trade-offs in systems ranging from smartphones to chip multiproces-
sors to large-scale data centers. Dr. Martonosi is a fellow of both the IEEE and the ACM. She was the 2013 recipient of the Anita Borg Institute Technical Leadership Award. She has also received the 2013 NCWIT Undergraduate Research Mentoring Award and the 2010 Princeton University Graduate Mentoring Award. In addition to having authored many archival publications, Dr. Martonosi is an inventor on six granted U.S. patents and has coauthored a technical reference book on power-aware computer architecture. She serves on the board of directors of the Computing Research Association. Dr. Martonosi completed her Ph.D. at Stanford University and also holds a master’s degree from Stanford and a bachelor’s degree from Cornell University, all in electrical engineering.
STEFAN SAVAGE is a professor at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at University of California, San Diego (UCSD). Dr. Savage’s research interests lie at the intersection of distributed systems, networking, and computer security, with a current focus on embedded security and the economics of cybercrime. He currently serves as director of UCSD’s Center for Network Systems and as co-director for the Cooperative Center for Internet Epidemiology and Defenses, a joint effort between UCSD and the International Computer Science Institute. Dr. Savage received his Ph.D. in computer science and engineering from the University of Washington and a bachelor’s in applied history from CMU.
THAD STARNER is a wearable computing pioneer. He is a professor in the School of Interactive Computing at the Georgia Institute of Technology and a technical lead on Google Glass. He has been wearing a computer with a head-up display as part of his daily life since 1993, perhaps the longest such experience known. Besides Glass, his projects include a wireless glove that teaches how to play piano melodies without active attention by the wearer; a game for deaf children using sign language recognition that helps them acquire language skills; creating wearable computers to enable two-way communication experiments with wild dolphins; making wearable computers for working dogs to better communicate with their handlers; recovering phrase-level sign language from brain signals; and recognizing speech without vocalizing. Dr. Starner is a founder of the annual ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Wearable Computers, now in its 18th year, and has produced more than 400 papers and presentations on his work. He is an inventor on more than 60 U.S. patents awarded or in process.
DUNCAN WATTS is a principal researcher at Microsoft Research and a founding member of the MSR New York City laboratory. He is also an A.D. White Professor at Large at Cornell University as well as a visiting fellow at Columbia University and at Nuffield College, Oxford. Before joining MSR in 2012, he was, from 2000 to 2007, a professor of sociology
at Columbia University and then a principal research scientist at Yahoo! Research, where he directed the Human Social Dynamics group. His research on social networks and collective dynamics has appeared in a wide range of journals, including Nature, Science, Physical Review Letters, the American Journal of Sociology, and Harvard Business Review. He has been recognized by the 2009 German Physical Society Young Scientist Award for Socio and Econophysics, the 2013 Lagrange-CRT Foundation Prize for Complexity Science, and the 2014 Everett Rogers Prize. He is the author of three books: Six Degrees: The Science of a Connected Age, Small Worlds: The Dynamics of Networks between Order and Randomness, and Everything Is Obvious: Once You Know the Answer. He holds a B.Sc. in physics from the Australian Defence Force Academy, from which he also received his officer’s commission in the Royal Australian Navy, and a Ph.D. in theoretical and applied mechanics from Cornell University.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, nongovernmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president.
The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president.
The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president.
The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine.
Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org.
Other Recent Reports of the Computer Science and Telecommunications Board
Telecommunications Research and Engineering at the Institute for Telecommunication Sciences of the Department of Commerce: Meeting the Nation’s Telecommunications Needs (2015)
Telecommunications Research and Engineering at the Communications Technology Laboratory of the Department of Commerce: Meeting the Nation’s Telecommunications Needs (2015)
A Review of the Next Generation Air Transportation System: Implications and Importance of System Architecture (2015)
Bulk Collection of Signals Intelligence: Technical Options (2015)
Future Directions for NSF Advanced Computing Infrastructure to Support U.S. Science and Engineering in 2017-2020: An Interim Report (2014)
At the Nexus of Cybersecurity and Public Policy: Some Basic Concepts and Issues (2014)
Geotargeted Alerts and Warnings: Report of a Workshop on Current Knowledge and Research Gaps (2013)
Professionalizing the Nation’s Cybersecurity Workforce? Criteria for Future Decision-Making (2013)
Public Response to Alerts and Warnings Using Social Media: Summary of a Workshop on Current Knowledge and Research Gaps (2013)
Continuing Innovation in Information Technology (2012)
Computing Research for Sustainability (2012)
The Future of Computing Performance: Game Over or Next Level? (2011)
Wireless Technology Prospects and Policy Options (2011)
Limited copies of CSTB reports are available free of charge from
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