THE PUBLIC HEALTH PROBLEM
OF HEPATITIS B AND C
IN THE UNITED STATES
PHASE ONE REPORT
Gillian J. Buckley and Brian L. Strom, Editors
Committee on a National Strategy for the Elimination of
Hepatitis B and C
Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice
Health and Medicine Division
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001
This activity was supported by Contract No. 10002774 with the US Department of Health and Human Services [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention]. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.
International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-43799-8
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-43799-7
Digital Object Identifier: 10.17226/23407
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Copyright 2016 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America
Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Eliminating the public health problem of hepatitis B and C in the United States: Phase one report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23407.
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COMMITTEE ON A NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR THE ELIMINATION OF HEPATITIS B AND C
BRIAN L. STROM (Chair), Chancellor, Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey
JON KIM ANDRUS, Executive Vice President and Director, Vaccine Advocacy and Education, Sabin Vaccine Institute
ANDREW ARONSOHN, Assistant Professor of Medicine, University of Chicago
DANIEL CHURCH, Epidemiologist and Viral Hepatitis Prevention Coordinator, Massachusetts Department of Public Health
SEYMOUR COHEN, Instructor Emeritus, Marine Biological Laboratory
ALISON EVANS, Associate Professor, Dornsife School of Public Health, Drexel University
PAUL KUEHNERT, Assistant Vice President, Program, Robert Wood Johnson Foundation
VINCENT LO RE III, Assistant Professor of Medicine and Epidemiology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania
KATHLEEN MAURER, Director, Health and Addiction Services, Connecticut Department of Correction
RANDALL MAYER, Interim Director, Division of Behavioral Health, Iowa Department of Public Health
SHRUTI MEHTA, Professor of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University
STUART C. RAY, Professor of Medicine, Center for Viral Hepatitis Research, Division of Infectious Diseases, Johns Hopkins University
ARTHUR REINGOLD, Edward Penhoet Distinguished Professor of Global Health and Infectious Diseases, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley
SAMUEL SO, Lui Hac Minh Professor, School of Medicine, Stanford University
NEERAJ SOOD, Associate Professor and Vice Dean for Research, Schaeffer Center and Sol Price School of Public Policy, University of Southern California
GRACE WANG, Family Physician, International Community Health Services
LUCY WILSON, Chief, Center for Surveillance, Infection Prevention, and Outbreak Response, Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene
GILLIAN BUCKLEY, Study Director
ANNALYN WELP, Research Assistant
MARJORIE PICHON, Senior Program Assistant
DORIS ROMERO, Financial Associate
ROSE MARIE MARTINEZ, Director, Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice
This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:
CHRIS BEYRER, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
JULES L. DIENSTAG, Harvard Medical School
NANCY DUNLAP, University of Virginia Medical School
JEREMY GOLDHABER-FIEBERT, Stanford University
AMY JESSOP, HepTREC University of the Sciences
ANNA S. LOK, University of Michigan Health System
CHARLES RICE, The Rockefeller University
CARLOS DEL RIO, Emory University
JOSHUA M. SHARFSTEIN, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
SU H. WANG, Saint Barnabas Medical Center
Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations nor did they see the final draft of the report before
its release. The review of this report was overseen by Robert B. Wallace, University of Iowa, and Don Eugene Detmer, University of Virginia School of Medicine. They were responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.
The Committee on a National Strategy for the Elimination of Hepatitis B and C wishes to acknowledge the many people whose contributions and support made this report possible. The committee benefited from presentations made by a number of experts. The following individuals shared their research, experience, and perspectives with the committee: Adrian Di Bisceglie, Kyong-Mi Chang, Chari Cohen, Jules L. Dienstag, Brian R. Edlin, Marc Ghany, Robert G. Gish, J. Nadine Gracia, Camilla Graham, Jay Hoofnagle, Mandana Khalili, Arthur Kim, T. Jake Liang, Anna Suk-Fong Lok, Rohit Loomba, Brian McMahon, Dan O’Connell, Lara Strick, David L. Thomas, and John Ward.
The following individuals were important sources of information, generously giving their time and knowledge to further the committee’s efforts: Amy Geller, Scott Holmberg, Abbe Mitchell, Stephanie Scappini, Patti Simon, Norah Terrault, and Chia Wang.
The committee acknowledges the support of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine staff, especially Daniel Bearrs, Chelsea Frakes, Greta Gorman, Hope Hare, Jim Jensen, Nicole Joy, Sarah Kelley, Ellen Kimmel, Fariha Mahmud, Anna Martin, Rebecca Morgan, Tina Ritter, Lauren Shern, Elizabeth Tyson, and Jennifer Walsh. The committee thanks Rebekah Hutton for designing the cover art.
The committee also benefited from the work of committees of the Institute of Medicine that conducted studies relevant to this report, particularly the Committee on a National Strategy for Prevention and Control of Viral Hepatitis Infections in the United States.
Finally, funding for this project was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Viral Hepatitis, and the US Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Minority Health. The committee extends special thanks for that support.
|AASLD||American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases|
|ACIP||Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices|
|AIDS||acquired immune deficiency syndrome|
|anti-HBe||antibody to HBeAg|
|anti-HBc||antibody to HBcAg|
|anti-HBs||hepatitis B surface antibody|
|cccDNA||covalently closed circular DNA|
|CDC||Centers for Disease Control and Prevention|
|FDA||Food and Drug Administration|
|HBcAg||hepatitis B core antigen|
|HBeAg||hepatitis B e antigen|
|HBsAg||hepatitis B surface antigen|
|HBV||hepatitis B virus|
|HCV||hepatitis C virus|
|HHS||Department of Health and Human Services|
|HIV||human immunodeficiency virus|
|IDSA||Infectious Diseases Society of America|
|IOM||Institute of Medicine|
|MELD||Model for End-Stage Liver Disease|
|mRNA||messenger ribonucleic acid|
|NHANES||National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey|
|R0||basic reproduction number|
|TORCH||toxoplasmosis, other, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex|
|USPSTF||United States Preventive Services Task Force|
|WHO||World Health Organization|