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T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP REPORT 181 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2015 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Public Transportation â¢ Administration and Management LaborâManagement Partnerships for Public Transportation Volume 2: Final Report Scott Baker Chuyuan (Viktor) Zhong AECOM Arlington, VA Douglas Taylor ThE LAbOr burEAu, InC. Alexandria, VA and William F. Scott Richard Plante DIvErsIfIED WOrkfOrCE sOLuTIOns, LLC College Park, MD
TCRP REPORT 181, VOLUME 2 Project F-20 ISSN 1073-4872 ISBN 978-0-309-37492-7 Â© 2015 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nationâs growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213âResearch for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administrationânow the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organi- zations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research was performed under TCRP Project F-20 by AECOM, The Labor Bureau, Inc., and Diversified Workforce Solutions, LLC. AECOM was the contractor for this study, with The Labor Bureau, Inc., and Diversified Workforce Solutions, LLC, serving as subcontractors to AECOM. Scott Baker of AECOM was the Project Manager and co-Principal Investigator. Douglas Taylor of the Labor Bureau, Inc., and William F. Scott of Diversified Workforce Solutions, LLC, were the other two co-Principal Investigators. The other authors of this report are Chuyuan (Viktor) Zhong of AECOM and Richard Plante of Diversified Workforce Solutions, LLC. Professor Thomas Kochan from the Massachu- setts Institute of Technology served as the Project Advisor. CRP STAFF FOR TCRP REPORT 181, VOLUME 2 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Dianne S. Schwager, Senior Program Officer Daniel J. Magnolia, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Sreyashi Roy, Editor TCRP PROJECT F-20 PANEL Field of Human Resources John P. Bartosiewicz, McDonald Transit Associates, Inc., Fort Worth, TX (Chair) Darold T. Barnum, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL Thomas W. Fink, Amalgamated Transit Union Local 265, San Jose, CA Bruce Hampton, Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Cleveland, OH Charles Harvey, San Mateo Transit District, San Carlos, CA Mary Ann Jackson, Salinas, CA Edward LaGuardia, Michael Baker International, Philadelphia, PA Cathy Lewis, Miami-Dade Transit, Miami, FL Hector A. Ramirez, New York City Transit, New York, NY Michael S. Townes, HNTB Corporation, Hampton, VA Ed Watt, Amalgamated Transit Union, Washington, DC Betty F. Jackson, FTA Liaison Pamela Boswell, APTA Liaison Sheryl Gross-Glaser, CTAA Liaison Stephen J. Andrle, TRB Liaison
F O R E W O R D By Dianne S. Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board TCRP Report 181: LaborâManagement Partnerships for Public Transportation is a two-volume report that provides resources for public transportation management and labor union leaders to establish, manage, and improve laborâmanagement partnerships. Volume 1: Toolkit encompasses three major components: (1) the development of a laborâ management partnership charter to start or improve a partnership; (2) laborâmanagement partnership guidance that provides specific recommended actions for both management and labor union leaders; and (3) a laborâmanagement partnership workshop framework that can be used to develop a cooperative workshop that prepares management and union representatives with essential skills for establishing and managing laborâmanagement partnerships. Volume 2: Final Report provides background material that was used to develop the Toolkit. Public transportation is a labor intensive service industry with a workforce consisting largely of employees who operate, maintain, supervise, and manage transit services. Most transit employees in large and mid-size urban areas are represented by labor unions, in particular vehicle operators and maintenance workers. As in many other industries, sometimes relations between labor and management at transit agencies are strained and adversarial, characterized by a lack of trust and respect, animosity, and poor commu- nication. Many argue that these negative relations create lose-lose situations for tran- sit managers, employees, and communities. Advocates for positive laborâmanagement relationships believe much can be gained by building effective partnerships, resulting in broader cooperation between labor and management. Over the past 30 years, many organizations in the United States have pursued initiatives to improve laborâmanagement relationships. These initiatives often occur in conjunction with efforts to address specific work place problems. While some research has been conducted, more information was needed about challenges organizations have faced in building and sustaining these initia- tives. For example, more information was needed regarding (1) the practical factors and circumstances that lead to success in creating and sustaining positive laborâmanagement partnerships both within and outside the transit industry and (2) the potential benefits to labor and management from successful laborâmanagement cooperation and partnerships. Under TCRP Project F-20, AECOM, The Labor Bureau, Inc., and Diversified Workforce Solutions, LLC, were tasked with developing a practical toolkit for creating, implementing, and sustaining positive laborâmanagement partnerships at transit agencies. The Toolkit was to address how successful partnerships can benefit both labor and management, iden- tify the factors and circumstances that lead to success in creating and sustaining positive
laborâmanagement relationships, and serve transit agencies interested in improved laborâ management cooperation. To meet the project objectives, the research team conducted a literature review; exten- sive surveys of transit managers and labor union leaders in the United States to gather facts and data on success factors and barriers of laborâmanagement partnerships; six in-depth case studies of selected transit systems with successful laborâmanagement partnerships; and a workshop of labor union representatives and managers with experience in laborâ management partnerships.
C O N T E N T S 1 Summary 6 Chapter 1 Background 6 1.1 Balanced Approach 6 1.2 Transit Industry Focused 6 1.3 Report Structure 7 Chapter 2 Research Approach 7 2.1 Literature Review and Definition of LaborâManagement Partnerships 8 2.2 Survey 8 2.3 Case Studies 10 2.4 Development of the LaborâManagement Partnership Toolkit 10 2.5 Evaluation Workshop and Finalization of the Toolkit 11 Chapter 3 Findings and Applications 11 3.1 Survey Results 16 3.2 Case Study Findings 18 3.3 Evaluation Workshop 20 3.4 LaborâManagement Partnership Toolkit 22 Chapter 4 Conclusions A-1 Appendix A Literature Review B-1 Appendix B Indicators of Successful LaborâManagement Partnerships C-1 Appendix C Survey Instrument D-1 Appendix D Additional Survey Results and Findings E-1 Appendix E Case Study Pre-Visit Checklist F-1 Appendix F Case Study Interview Guide G-1 Appendix G Case Study Summaries H-1 Appendix H Evaluation Workshop Feedback Form