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TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2012 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Research and Innovative Technology Administration N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E F R E I G H T R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP REPORT 739 NCFRP REPORT 19 Freight Trip Generation and Land Use JosÃ© HolguÃn-Veras Miguel Jaller Ivan Sanchez-Diaz Jeffrey Wojtowicz Shama Campbell Herbert Levinson RensselaeR Polytechnic institute Troy, NY Catherine Lawson Erica Levine Powers univeRsity at albany Albany, NY Lorant Tavasszy tno Delft Delft, Netherlands Subscriber Categories Motor Carriers â¢ Freight Transportation â¢ Planning and Forecasting
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research provides the most effective approach to the solution of many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation develops increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. In recognition of these needs, the highway administrators of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials initiated in 1962 an objective national highway research program employing modern scientific techniques. This program is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of the Association and it receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies was requested by the Association to administer the research program because of the Boardâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. The Board is uniquely suited for this purpose as it maintains an extensive committee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; it possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; its relationship to the National Research Council is an insurance of objectivity; it maintains a full-time research correlation staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those who are in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators of the highway and transportation departments and by committees of AASHTO. Each year, specific areas of research needs to be included in the program are proposed to the National Research Council and the Board by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Research projects to fulfill these needs are defined by the Board, and qualified research agencies are selected from those that have submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the National Research Council and the Transportation Research Board. The needs for highway research are many, and the National Cooperative Highway Research Program can make significant contributions to the solution of highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement rather than to substitute for or duplicate other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America NCHRP REPORT 739 Project 08-80 ISSN 0077-5614 ISBN 978-0-309-25878-4 Library of Congress Control Number 2012954681 Â© 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, or Transit Development Corporation endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM Americaâs freight transportation system makes critical contributions to the nationâs economy, security, and quality of life. The freight transportation system in the United States is a complex, decentralized, and dynamic network of private and public entities, involving all modes of transportationâtrucking, rail, waterways, air, and pipelines. In recent years, the demand for freight transportation service has been increasing fueled by growth in international trade; however, bottlenecks or congestion points in the system are exposing the inadequacies of current infrastructure and operations to meet the growing demand for freight. Strategic operational and investment decisions by governments at all levels will be necessary to maintain freight system performance, and will in turn require sound technical guidance based on research. The National Cooperative Freight Research Program (NCFRP) is a cooperative research program sponsored by the Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) under Grant No. DTOS59-06-G-00039 and administered by the Transportation Research Board (TRB). The program was authorized in 2005 with the passage of the Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (SAFETEA-LU). On September 6, 2006, a contract to begin work was executed between RITA and The National Academies. The NCFRP will carry out applied research on problems facing the freight industry that are not being adequately addressed by existing research programs. Program guidance is provided by an Oversight Committee comprised of a representative cross section of freight stakeholders appointed by the National Research Council of The National Academies. The NCFRP Oversight Committee meets annually to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Research problem statements recommending research needs for consideration by the Oversight Committee are solicited annually, but may be submitted to TRB at any time. Each selected project is assigned to a panel, appointed by TRB, which provides technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. Heavy emphasis is placed on including members representing the intended users of the research products. The NCFRP will produce a series of research reports and other products such as guidebooks for practitioners. Primary emphasis will be placed on disseminating NCFRP results to the intended end-users of the research: freight shippers and carriers, service providers, suppliers, and public officials. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE FREIGHT RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from: Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet at: http://www.national-academies.org/trb/bookstore Printed in the United States of America NCFRP REPORT 19 Project NCFRP-25 ISSN 1947-5659 ISBN 978-0-309-25878-4 Library of Congress Control Number 2012954681 Â© 2012 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FTA, RITA, or PHMSA endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not- for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The project that is the subject of this report was a part of the National Cooperative Freight Research Program, conducted by the Transportation Research Board with the approval of the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The members of the technical panel selected to monitor this project and to review this report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the National Research Council, or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, the National Research Council, and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Freight Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. On the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Charles M. Vest is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, on its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Harvey V. Fineberg is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academyâs purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone and Dr. Charles M. Vest are chair and vice chair, respectively, of the National Research Council. The Transportation Research Board is one of six major divisions of the National Research Council. The mission of the Transporta- tion Research Board is to provide leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied activities annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individu- als interested in the development of transportation. www.TRB.org www.national-academies.org
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 739/NCFRP REPORT 19 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Crawford F. Jencks, Deputy Director, Cooperative Research Programs William C. Rogers, Senior Program Officer Charlotte Thomas, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Maria Sabin Crawford, Assistant Editor NCHRP PROJECT 08-80 PANEL/NCFRP PROJECT 25 PANEL Field of Transportation PlanningâArea of Forecasting A.N. âTassosâ Perakis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (Chair) Thomas W. Brahms, Institute of Transportation Engineers, Washington, DC Carolyn Clevenger, Metropolitan Transportation Commission - Oakland, Oakland, CA Qiang âWesleyâ Hong, Center for Automotive Research (CAR), Ann Arbor, MI Bruce Lambert, Institute for Trade and Transportation Studies, New Orleans, LA Douglas MacIvor, California DOT, Sacramento, CA Bruce Xiubin Wang, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX Ronald J. Duych, RITA Liaison Spencer Stevens, FHWA Liaison Jienki Synn, FHWA Liaison Thomas Palmerlee, TRB Liaison AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under NCHRP Project 08-80/NCFRP Project 25 by the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, the University at Albany, and TNO Delft. The Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute was the lead contractor. Dr. JosÃ© HolguÃn-Veras, William H. Hart Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute was the Project Director and Principal Investigator. Dr. Catherine Lawson (University at Albany), Dr. Jeff Ban (Rensselaer), and Dr. Lorant Tavasszy (TNO Delft) are the Co-Principal Investigators. Mr. Herbert S. Levinson and Erica Levine Powers, Esq. (J.D., LL.M. Taxation) are project consultants.
F O R E W O R D By William C. Rogers Staff Officer Transportation Research Board NCHRP Report 739/NCFRP Report 19: Freight Trip Generation and Land Use provides a comprehensive discussion of how the freight system, and specifically freight trip generation and land use, relate. The report consolidates available freight trip generation models in an electronic database to assist practitioners interested in using these models; identifies the most appropriate approaches to develop and apply freight trip generation models; and estimates establishment-level freight trip generation models in a number of case studies. The case studies confirm the superiority of economic classification systems over standard land use classification systems as the foundation for estimating freight trip generation. While travel-demand modeling has a robust process for estimating passenger travel needs based on the traditional four-step travel-demand modeling process, the same cannot be said for freight-demand modeling. Land use-freight relationships represent a central issue for adequately planning infrastructure investments and land use policy and planning; however, the current transportation planning process does not effectively estimate freight activity nec- essary to assist decisionmakers when making infrastructure investment choices. Increased truck volumes, coupled with increased multimodal operations and changing logistics, have made it more difficult for standard modeling techniques to fully account for the dynamic nature of freight transportation. Often, evaluating the potential freight trip generation from a proposed project depends on assumptions such as traffic generation based on square foot- age or other gross characteristics such as establishment type or the number of loading docks. Under NCHRP Project 08-80/NCFRP Project 25, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute was asked to (1) define categories of commercial and non-commercial land use and their related characteristics and contexts; (2) define the purposes of freight activities and the segments of freight transportation, and discuss how they relate to the land use definitions; (3) discuss changing practices in supply chain management and distribution facilities and describe their impacts on land use patterns; (4) compare freight and passenger trip generation meth- ods and identify their inherent differences and enumerate the reasons why freight should be approached differently; (5) describe available data sets and models currently used or under development to analyze freight and land use relationships, including establishment level estimates, for considering changing freight transportation needs; and (6) describe what is needed to advance the models and the information that the next generation of models needs to take into account, identify new data collection approaches that should be considered, and identify appropriate uses and limitations of forecasting tools and approaches.
C O N T E N T S S-1 Summary 1 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 Chapter 2 Land Use Characteristics, Classes, and Contexts 4 Tax Assessorâs Classification Codes for Real Property 4 Land Use Planning Classification Systems 5 Local Land Use Inventories, Zoning Inventories, and Zoning Maps 6 The Standard Land Use Coding Manual (SLUCM) 7 Land-Based Classification Standards (LBCS) 9 Employment Categories 10 Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) Codes 11 North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) 11 Remote Sensing for Diagnostic Land Use Applications 15 Multi-Dimensional Spatially Flexible Land Use Classification Strategy 15 Emerging Land Use Practice of Interest to Freight Transportation Planning 15 Boston, Massachusetts 15 Chicago, Illinois 16 Portland, Oregon 16 Seattle, Washington 16 San Francisco, California 17 Sacramento, California 18 Contexts for Land Use Designations 19 Structure Type or Site Descriptor 19 Employment Codes 19 Land Use Zoning Designations and Freight 19 Remote Sensing Land Use Designations 20 Cross-Walks 20 Summary 21 Chapter 3 The Freight System, Its Purposes, and Relations to Land Use 22 The Freight System 22 Multiplicity of Economic Agents Involved 23 Links Between Participants 24 Partial Views of the Freight System 25 Multiplicity of Metrics to Define and Measure Freight 25 Modes and Vehicles Used 26 Level of Geography Involved and Functions Performed 30 Differences Between Passenger, Freight Generation, and Freight Trip Generation 31 Attributes That Influence Freight Trip Generation 31 The Role of Shipment Size 34 Number of Inputs Required in Business Operations, Indivisibility of Truck Trips 35 Summary
37 Chapter 4 Freight Trip Generation and Land Use 42 Summary 43 Chapter 5 Freight Trip Generation Models and Data Collection 43 Freight Trip Generation (FTG) Modeling 43 Review of TRB Synthesis Reports 45 Summary 45 FG and FTG Modeling Practice, Evaluation Criteria, and Evaluation Process 45 Data 46 Surveys 48 Chapter 6 Case Studies 48 Description of the Datasets 48 Midwestern States Furniture Chain Dataset 49 New York City (NYC) Carriers and Receivers Dataset 53 NYC Whole Foods Market Dataset 54 Seattle Region Grocery Stores Dataset 55 Methodology 56 Case Study Illustrations 56 Midwestern States Furniture Chain: A Comparison of Different Location Structures (In-Mall and Off-Mall) 58 NYC Receivers and Carriers Case: A Comparison Between Production and Attraction Activities Using Industrial Classification Systems (SIC and NAICS) 58 Freight Trip Attraction 60 Freight Trip Production 62 Comparison Between Industrial Classifications Coding Systems 63 NYC Receivers Case: A Comparison of Freight Attraction Between Local Land Use Codes and Universal Standard Land Use Codes 63 The City of New York Zoning Resolution (NYCZR) 65 Land-Based Classification Standards (LBCS) 65 Comparison Between LBCS and NYCZR 66 Comparison Between Institute of Transportation Engineers and Land Use Models 67 Area-Based Models 68 Application of Synthetic Correction 69 Seattle Region and Manhattan Grocery Stores: A Comparison of FTG Patterns Across Regions 69 Implications and Directions 71 External Validity of FTG Models 72 Transferability of FTG Models 73 Use of SIC System and NAICS for FTG Modeling 73 Chief Findings for Land Use Based FTG Modeling 74 Comparison Between LBCS, NYCZR, SIC, and NAICS 74 Synthetic Correction Validation 74 Summary 76 Chapter 7 Innovation Plan 76 Enhance Freight Trip Generation (FTG) Models Database 76 Conduct Research on Service Trips
76 Use Standardized Instruments for FTG Data Collection 77 Use Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) Micro-Data for Freight Generation (FG) Analysis 77 Use Economic Models Based on Industrial Classification Systems 77 Ensure a Better Connection Between Land Use Definitions and FG/FTG 78 Use of Appropriate Aggregation Procedures 79 Use of Synthetic Correction Methodology to Improve Accuracy of Existing Models 80 Chapter 8 Conclusions 82 References 86 Appendix A ITE Trip Generation Manual 87 Appendix B Number of Vendors vs. Business Size 90 Appendix C Number of Deliveries vs. Business Size 91 Appendix D Review of The Literature on Freight Trip Generation Modeling 103 Appendix E Description of Practice, Evaluation Criteria, and Evaluation Process 118 Appendix F Review of the Literature on Data and Surveys 125 Appendix G FG/FTG Models Relational Database Manual 144 Appendix H Prototype Freight and Service Trip Generation Survey 147 Appendix I Case Studies Note: Many of the photographs, figures, and tables in this report have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the Web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.