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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Academy of Sciences. 1994. Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2345.
Page 231
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Academy of Sciences. 1994. Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2345.
Page 232
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Academy of Sciences. 1994. Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2345.
Page 233
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A." National Academy of Sciences. 1994. Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2345.
Page 234

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Appendix A List of Principal Briefings November 20-22, 1992: Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) Meeting, Irvine, California Department of Energy (DOE) Plutonium Disposition Studies and Activities; Plutonium Storage Plans; Reactor Options; Vitrification Options; Nunn-Lugar Cooperation Programs. Briefers: Sol Rosen (DOE, Office of Nuclear Energy); John Herczeg (DOE, Office of Nuclear Energy); Andrew Bieniawski (DOE, Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation); William Sprecher (DOE, Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management); others. January 11-13, 1993: CISAC and Reactor Panel Meeting, Washington D.C. Vitrification Options; Plutonium Storage Approaches; Plutonium Storage Forms; Nunn-Lugar Cooperation Programs; International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards; International Plutonium Storage Concepts; DOE Pluto- nium Disposition Studies; Advanced Light-Water Reactors; Accelerator-Based Conversion; Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors; Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactors. Briefers: George Wicks (Westinghouse Savannah River); Ed Moore (Westinghouse Savannah River); Paul Cunningham (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Victor Alessi (Director, DOE Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation); James Lovett, International Atomic Energy Agency (retired); Lawrence Scheinman (Cornell University); Sol Rosen (DOE, Office of Nuclear Energy); Melvin Buckner (Westinghouse Savannah River); Rulon Linford (Los Alamos National Laboratory); Edward Arthur (Los Alamos National Labora 231

232 APPENDIX A tory); Chris Hamilton (General Atomics); William Hannum (Argonne National Laboratory); Marion Thompson (General Electric); others. January 25, 1993: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL3 Utility of Reactor-Grade Plutonium in Nuclear Explosives; Separating Plu- tonium from Spent Fuel; Radiation Exposure from Plutonium Handling; De- tection of Nuclear Weapons; Reports of Illicit Sales of Fissile Material. Briefers: William Sutcliffe; Lou Eccles; Carl Walter; Harry Vantine; Leonard Gray; Melvin Coops; Guy Armantrout; Bill Nelson; Jack Robbins; Tom Smith; John Sherohman; others. All briefers LLNL. February 17, 1993: CISAC Meeting, Victor Mikhailov Current Russian Policy on Weapons Dismantlement, Plutonium Storage, and Plutonium Disposition. Discussant: Victor Mikhailov, Minister of Atomic Energy, Russian Federation. March 17, 1993: DOE Headquarters, Washington D.C. Plutonium Storage Forms; Potential Transparency Measures for Warhead Dismantlement, Fissile Material Production, and the HEU (Highly Enriched Uranium) Purchase; Intelligence Collection for Detecting Fissile Materials Production; Estimates of Russian Fissile Materials Production. Briefers: John Wacker (Pacific Northwest Laboratories); Andrew Bieniawski (DOE, Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation); Max Koontz (DOE, Office of Arms Control and Nonproliferation); James Dewar (DOE, Office of Foreign Intelligence); David Dye (LLNL); others. March 31-April 1, 1993: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Storage Forms; Pit Disassembly and Processing; Russian Fissile Material Storage Facility; Accelerator-Based Conversion; Tour of Plutonium Processing Facilities. Briefers: Paul Cunningham (LANL); Kirk Ellard (LANL); Rulon Linford (LANL); Steve Guidice (Manager for Operations and Weapons, DOE Albuquerque Operations Office); Delbert Harbur (LANL); others. April 1,1993: Savannah River Site Plutonium Processing and Storage; Vitrification Options; Tour of Pluto- nium Storage, Processing, and Reprocessing Facilities; Tour of Defense Waste Processing Facility. Briefers: James Angelos; Malvyn McKibben; Vern Fernandez; Hank Elder; others. All briefers Westinghouse Savannah River.

APPENDIX A 233 April 5, 1993: Pantex Plant Weapons Disassembly; Plutonium Storage; Future Plans; Tours of Disas- sembly and Storage Areas Briefers: Gerald W. Johnson (Acting Area Manager, DOE, Amarillo); Steve Guidice (DOE, Albuquerque Operations Officer; Richard Loghry (General Manager, Mason and Hanger-Silas Mason). April 22, 1993: CISAC Meeting, Washington, D.C. Criteria for Plutonium Disposition; Option of Substituting Weapons Plutonium in Planned Civilian Plutonium Programs. Briefers: Thomas Cochran; Christopher Paine. Both briefers Natural Resources Defense Council. May 17-21,1993: Moscow (Listed by organization, not topic; a variety of topics was discussed at each meeting.) Ministry of Atomic Energy: Deputy Minister Nikolai Yegorov; Mikhail Ryzhov (Chairman, Committee on External Relations); Boris Gorobets (Director, Chief Administration of Nuclear Warhead Production (includes as- sembly and disassembly; Georgi Tsyrkov (Director, Chief Administration of Nuclear Warhead Design and Testing); Victor M. Murogov (Director, Obninsk Institute of Physics and Power Engineering); Evgeniy G. Kudriavtsev (Research and Production Nuclear-Chemical Administration (enrichment and reprocess- ing)~; Fedor G. Reshetnikov (Bochvar Institute of Inorganic Materials); others. Ministry of Defense: General Sergei Zelentsov (retired, former commander, 12th Main Directorate (in charge of nuclear weapons)~; Colonel- General Vitali Yakovlev (Deputy Commander, 12th Main Directorate). Ministry of Foreign Afirairs: Deputy Minister Grigoriy Berdennikov; Victor Slipchenko (Deputy Director, Disarmament and Military Technologies Control); Sergei Kisliak; Victor Mizin. GOSATOMNADZOR: Chairman Yuri Vishnevsky; First Deputy Alexander Gutzalov; Deputy Chairman Yuri Zoubkov; Alexander Dmitriev (Director, Department of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Fuel Cycle Installations); Nikolai Bisovka (Director, Department of Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Defense Installations); Vadim Petrov (Director, Scientific Committee); Vladimir Formichev (Director, Nuclear Weapons Department); Yuri Rogozhin (Director, International Relations); others. Russian Academy of Sciences: President Yuri Osipov; Vice President Nikolay P. Laverov; Vice President Rem V. Petrov; Academician Yuri Ossipian; others.

234 APPENDIX A Supreme Soviet: Lieutenant-General (retired) Alexander I. Voronin (member, Committee on State Defense and Security); Anatoli D. Novikov (committee staff); Vadim G. Osinin (committee staff). Kurchatov Institute: Director Evgeniy P. Velikhov; Deputy Director Nikolai N. Ponomarev-Stepnoi; Vladimir N. Sukhoruchkin; Vladimir Shmelev; Alexander Kalugin; others. Nuclear Safety Institute: Director Leonid A. Bolshov; Deputy Director (International Relations) Vjatcheslav N. Lyssakov; others. Research and Development Institute of Power Engineering (NIKIET>: Deputy Director Victor V. Orlov; others. others. Institute of USA and Canada Studies: Deputy Director Sergei Rogov; Association for Nonproliferation: Director Andrei V. Zagorski; Deputy Director Vladimir Shmelev. U.S. Embassy: Science Counselor Robert Clarke; Karen Malzahn. International Science and Technology Center: Director Glenn Schweitzer; Vladimir Kryuchenkov (Department Leader, Experimental Physics, Chelyabinsk-70~; others. June 8, 1993: Meeting with Intelligence Community, Washington D.C. Russian Plutonium Production, Stockpiles, and Processing; Status of Accounting and Security for Weapons and Fissile Materials Briefers: Lawrence Gershwin (National Intelligence Officer for Strategic Programs); others. July 2, 1993: DOE Headquarters, Washington D.C. DOE Plutonium Storage Plans. Briefers: Howard Canter (DOE Deputy Assistant Secretary for Weapons Complex Reconfiguration); others. 'July 15,1993: DOE Headquarters, Washington D.C. DOE Plutonium Stockpile, Quantities and Forms. Briefer: Louis R. Willett (DOE, Deputy Director, Office of Weapons and Materials Planning). Committee and panel meetings that did not include briefings, briefings for the Panel on Reactor-Related Options, and additional briefings for individual CISAC members and staff are not included.

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Within the next decade, many thousands of U.S. and Russian nuclear weapons are slated to be retired as a result of nuclear arms reduction treaties and unilateral pledges. A hundred tons or more of plutonium and tons of highly enriched uranium will no longer be needed. The management and disposition of these fissile materials, the essential ingredients of nuclear weapons, pose urgent challenges for international security.

This book offers recommendations for all phases of the problem, from dismantlement of excess warheads, through intermediate storage of the fissle materials they contain, to ultimate disposition of the plutonium.

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