National Academies Press: OpenBook
« Previous: 7 Findings and Recommendations
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 191
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 192
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 193
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 194
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 195
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 196
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 197
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 198
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 199
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 200
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 201
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 202
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 203
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 204
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 205
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 206
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 207
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 208
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 209
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 210
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 211
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 212
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 213
Suggested Citation:"References." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23472.
×
Page 214

Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

References AACC (American Association of Community Colleges). 2015. Completion pathways. http://www.aacc.nche.edu/Publications/datapoints/Documents/ DP_CompletPathways.pdf (accessed March 19, 2017). AACC. 2016. 2016 fact sheet. http://www.aacc.nche.edu/AboutCC/Documents/ AACCFactSheetsR2.pdf (accessed March 5, 2017). Accenture, Burning Glass, and Harvard Business School. 2014. Bridge the gap: Rebuilding America’s middle skills. http://www.hbs.edu/competitiveness/ Documents/bridge-the-gap.pdf (accessed February 8, 2016). Acemoglu, D., and D. Autor. 2010. Skills, tasks, and technologies: Implications for employment and earnings. Working paper 16082. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. http://www.nber.org/papers/ w16082 (accessed February 28, 2017). AFL-CIO (American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations). 2016. Joint labor-management training and career ladder programs: Winning solutions for employers, workers and communities (in progress). http://partners.aflcio.org/working-america-institute/workforce- intermediary-partnerships (accessed March 22, 2017). AFL-CIO. n.d. Labor-management partnerships. http://www.aflcio.org/Learn- About-Unions/Training-and-Apprenticeships/Labor-Management-Partner ships (accessed March 19, 2017). Akerlof, G. A. 1970. The market for lemons: Quality uncertainty and the market mechanism. Quarterly Journal of Economics 84(3):488-500. Alssid, J., D. Gruber, D. Jenkins, C. Mazzeo, B. Roberts, and R. Stanback- Stroud. 2002. Building a career pathways system: Promising practices in community college-centered workforce development. Brooklyn, NY: Workforce Strategy Center. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED470457 (accessed March 22, 2017). Altstadt, D. (Ed.). 2012. Tying funding to community college outcomes: Models, tools, and recommendations for states. Boston, MA: Jobs for the Future. http://www.jff.org/sites/default/files/publications/TyingFunding2CommCo lleges-042312.pdf (accessed February 28, 2017). 191

192 BUILDING AMERICA’S SKILLED TECHNICAL WORKFORCE AMTEC (Automotive Manufacturing Technical Education Collaborative). n.d. About AMTEC. http://autoworkforce.org/about-amtec (accessed March 21, 2017). Arizona Commerce Authority. n.d. Skilled available workforce: Sector partnerships. http://www.azcommerce.com/business-first/skilled-available -workforce/sector-partnerships (accessed March 21, 2017). Arntz, M., T. Gregory, and U. Zierhan. 2016. The risk for automation for jobs in the OECD countries: A comparative analysis. http://www.oecd- ilibrary.org/social-issues-migration-health/the-risk-of-automation-for-jobs- in-oecd-countries_5jlz9h56dvq7-en (accessed February 28, 2017). Association for Talent Development. 2015. State of the industry report. https://www.td.org/Publications/Magazines/TD/TD-Archive/2014-State-of -the-Industry-Report-Spending-on-Employee-Training-Training-Remains- a-Priority (accessed March 5, 2017). Autor, D. 2010. The polarization of job opportunities in the U.S. labor market: Implications for employment and earnings. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress and The Hamilton Project. http://economics.mit.edu/ files/5554 (accessed February 9, 2016). Autor, D. 2014. Skills, education, and the rise of earnings inequality among the other “99 percent.” Science 344(6186):843-851. Autor, D., and D. Dorn. 2013. The growth of low-skill service jobs and the polarization of the U.S. labor market. American Economic Review 103(5):1553-1597. Autor, D., and B. Price. 2013. The changing task composition of the U.S. labor market: An update of Autor, Levey and Murnane (2003). http://economics.mit.edu/files/9758 (accessed February 28, 2017). Autor, D., F. Levy, and R. Murnane. 2003. The skill content of recent technological change: An empirical exploration. Journal of Quarterly Economics 118(4):1279-1333. Autor, D., L. Katz, and M. Kearney. 2006. Measuring and interpreting trends in economic inequality: The polarization of the U.S. labor market. American Economic Review Papers and Proceedings 96(2):189-194. http://economics.mit.edu/files/584 (accessed February 28, 2017). Ayres, S., and E. Gurwitz. 2014. The underuse of apprenticeships in America. Washington, DC: The Center for American Progress, https://www.americanprogress.org/issues/economy/news/2014/07/22/9393 2/the-underuse-of-apprenticeships-in-america (accessed March 22, 2017). Backes, B., H. Holzer, and E. Dunlop Velez. 2014. Is it worth it? Postsecondary education and labor market outcomes for the disadvantaged. CALDER Working Paper 117. http://www.caldercenter.org/sites/default/files/ WP117.pdf (accessed March 5, 2017). Backes-Gellner, U. 2014. Benefits of apprenticeship training and future challenges: Empirical results and lessons from Switzerland and Germany.

REFERENCES 193 Working Paper 97. http://repec.business.uzh.ch/RePEc/iso/leadinghouse/ 0097_lhwpaper.pdf (accessed March 19, 2017). Bailey, T. 1993. Can youth apprenticeship thrive in the United States? Educational Researcher 22(3):4-10. Bailey, T., and C. Belfield. 2013. Community college occupational degrees: Are they worth it? In Preparing today’s students for tomorrow’s jobs in metropolitan America, edited by L. W. Perna. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Pp. 121-148. Bailey, M., and S. Dynarski. 2011. Inequality in postsecondary education. In Whither opportunity? Rising inequality and the uncertain life of low- income children, edited by G. Duncan and R. Murnane. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Pp. 117-132. Bailey, T., and S. Jaggars. 2016. When college students start behind. New York: The Century Foundation. https://tcf.org/content/report/college-students- start-behind (accessed March 22, 2017). Bailey, T., D. Jeong, and S. Cho. 2010. Referral, enrollment, and completion in developmental education sequences in community colleges. Economics of Education Review 29(2):255-270. Bailey, T., S. Jaggers, and D. Jenkins. 2015. Redesigning America’s community colleges: A clearer path to student success. Cambridge, MA: The President and Fellows of Harvard College. Barnett, E., E. Maclutsky, and C. Wagonlander. 2015. Emerging early college models for traditionally underserved students. New Directions for Community Colleges 2015(169):39-49. Baum, S., and J. Ma. 2013. Trends in college pricing 2013. Trends in Higher Education Series. College Board. http://trends.collegeboard.org/ sites/default/files/college-pricing-2013-full-report.pdf (accessed March 5, 2017). Baum, S., C. Kurose, and M. McPherson. 2013. An overview of American higher education. The Future of Children 23(1):17-40. BEA (Bureau of Economic Analysis). 2015. Broad growth across states in 2014. https://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/regional/gdp_state/gsp_news release.htm (accessed February 28, 2017). Becker, G. S. 1964. Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis, with special reference to education (1st ed.). New York: National Bureau of Economic Research. Becker, G. S. 1993. Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis, with special reference to education (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Belfield, C., and T. Bailey. 2011. The benefits of attending community college: A review of the evidence. Community College Review 39(1):46-68. Bettinger, E., A. Boatman, and B. Long. 2013. Student supports: Developmental education and other academic programs. The Future of Children 23(1):93- 115.

194 BUILDING AMERICA’S SKILLED TECHNICAL WORKFORCE Bielick, S., S. Cronen, C. Stone, J. Montaquila, and S. Roth. 2013. The Adult Training and Education Survey (ATES) pilot study: Technical report. NCES 2013-190. Washington, DC: NCES. Blosveren, K. 2015. CTE and middle skills. Prepared for the 3rd Committee Meeting on the Supply Chain for Middle-Skill Jobs, NASEM, September 10. http://nas.edu/SkilledTechnicalWorkforce (accessed March 2, 2017). BLS (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics). 2005. Contingent and alternative employment arrangements. https://www.bls.gov/cps/lfcharacteristics.htm# contingent (accessed March 5, 2017). BLS. 2013. Employment projections—2012-2022. News release. https://www.bls.gov/news.release/archives/ecopro_12192013.pdf (accessed February 28, 2017). BLS. 2015. Employment projections—2014-2024. News release. https://www.bls.gov/news.release/pdf/ecopro.pdf (accessed February 28, 2017). BLS. 2016a. College enrollment and work activity of 2015 high school graduates. Economic news release. https://www.bls.gov/news.release/ hsgec.nr0.htm (accessed March 5, 2017). BLS. 2016b. Labor force statistics from the current population survey: Data on certifications and licenses. http://www.bls.gov/cps/certifications-and- licenses.htm (accessed March 19, 2017). Bolli, T., and S. Hof. 2014. The impact of apprenticeship training on personality traits: An instrumental variable approach. KOF Working Paper 350. Zürich, Switzerland: KOF Centre de Recherches Conjoncturelles. https://wwz.unibas.ch/fileadmin/wwz/redaktion/dekanat/Economicslunch/ KOF_wp_350-2_01.pdf (accessed March 19, 2017). Bolli, T., and U. Renold. 2015. Comparative advantages of school and workplace environment in competence acquisition, empirical evidence from a survey among professional tertiary education and training students in Switzerland. KOF Working Paper 389. Zürich, Switzerland: KOF Centre de Recherches Conjoncturelles. https://e-collection.library.ethz.ch/ view/eth:47900 (accessed March 21, 2017). Bound, J., M. Lovenheim, and S. Turner. 2010. Why have college completion rates declined? An analysis of changing student preparation and collegiate resources. American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 2(3):129-157. Bronson, E. 2007. Helping CTE students l(earn) to their potential. Techniques 82(7):30-31. Brynjolfsson, E., and A McAfee. 2011. Race against the machine: How the digital revolution is accelerating innovation, driving productivity, and irreversibly transforming employment and the economy. Lexington, MA: Digital Frontier Press. Brynjolfsson, E., and A. McAfee. 2014. The second machine age: Work, progress, and prosperity in a time of brilliant technologies. New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

REFERENCES 195 Bunker Hill Community College. 2017. The Mary L. Fifield Endowed Student Emergency Assistance Fund. http://www.bhcc.mass.edu/emergency assistancefund (accessed March 22, 2017). Burning Glass. 2014. Moving the goal posts: How demand for a bachelor’s degree is reshaping the workforce. http://burning-glass.com/research/ credentials-gap (accessed February 28, 2017). Burning Glass. 2017. Labor insight. http://burning-glass.com/labor-insight (accessed March 22, 2017). Capelli, P. 2004. Why do employers pay for college? Journal of Econometrics 121(1-2):213-241. Capelli, P. 2012. Why good people can’t get jobs: The skills gap and what companies can do about it. Philadelphia, PA: Wharton Digital Press. Capelli, P. 2015. Skill gaps, skill shortages and skill mismatches: Evidence and arguments for the United States. ILR Review 68(2):251-290. Carnevale, A., and A. Hanson. 2015. Learn and earn: Connecting education to careers in the 21st century. In Transforming U.S. workforce development policies for the 21st century, edited by C. Van Horn, T. Edwards, and T. Greene. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. Pp. 77-104. Carnevale, A., S. Rose, and A. Hanson. 2012. Certificates: Gateway to gainful employment and college degrees. Washington, DC: Georgetown Center on Education and the Workforce. Carnevale, A., T. Jayasundera, and D. Repnikov. 2014. Understanding online job ads data. Washington, DC: Center on Education and the Workforce, McCourt School of Public Policy, Georgetown University. Carnevale, A., T. Jayasundera, D. Repnikov, and A. Gulish, A. 2015. State online college job market: Ranking the states. Washington, DC: Center on Education and the Workforce, McCourt School of Public Policy, Georgetown University. Carter, S. P., and B. J. Miller. 2015. Analysis of Army veteran unemployment benefits and transition assistance. Prepared for the Committee on the Supply Chain for Middle-Skill Jobs, NASEM. http://nas.edu/Skilled TechnicalWorkforce (accessed March 2, 2017). Castellano, M., K. Sundell, L. Overman, and O. Aliaga. 2012. Do career and technical education programs of study improve student achievement? Preliminary analyses from a rigorous longitudinal study. International Journal of Educational Reform 21(2):98-118. Cellini, S. R. 2012. For-profit higher education: An assessment of costs and benefits. National Tax Journal 65(1):153-180. Choitz, V., T. Norman, W. Smith, N. Speiser, and B. Paulson. 2015. A new way of doing business: The career pathway approach in Minnesota and beyond. In Transforming U.S. workforce development policies for the 21st century, edited by C. Van Horn, T. Edwards, and T. Greene. Kalamazoo, MI: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. Pp. 265-283.

196 BUILDING AMERICA’S SKILLED TECHNICAL WORKFORCE Clark, P., C. Dayton, D. Stern, S. Tidyman, and A. Weisberg. 2007. Can combining academic and career-technical education improve high school outcomes in California? Santa Barbara, CA: California Dropout Research Project. CLASP. 2014. Shared vision, strong systems: The Alliance for Quality Career Pathways framework version 1.0 summary. http://www.clasp.org/ resources-and-publications/publication-1/Alliance-WIOA-CP-Summary. pdf (accessed March 22, 2017). Coalition for Evidence-Based Policy. n.d. Career academies—top tier. http://evidencebasedprograms.org/1366-2/career-academies (accessed March 22, 2017). Colborn, J., and N. Jenkins. 2016. Bison Gear. In Models of success: An archive of case studies done under Skills for America’s Future highlighting effective partnerships that benefit community colleges, businesses, and students. Washington, DC: The Aspen Institute. https://assets.aspen institute.org/content/uploads/2016/07/Models-of-Success-Archive2.pdf (accessed March 22, 2017). Commonwealth Corporation. 2014. Annual Report for Fiscal Year 2014. http://commcorp.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/resources_2015-annual- report-fy-2014.pdf (accessed March 21, 2017). Competency Model Clearing House. 2015. User guide for developing competency models. https://www.careeronestop.org/CompetencyModel/ cmuserguide.aspx (accessed February 28, 2017). Complete College America. 2017. Resources and reports. http://completecollege.org/resources_and_reports (accessed March 5, 2017). Cornes, R., and T. Sandler. 1996. The theory of externalities, public goods, and club goods. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Courty, P., and G. Marschke. 2011. Measuring government performance: An overview of dysfunctional responses. In The performance of performance standards, edited by J. Heckman, C. Heinrich, P. Courty, G. Marschke, and J. Smith. Kalamazoo, MI: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. Pp. 203-230. Crawford, S., and R. Sheets. 2015. Creating and communicating critical information about workforce credentials. In Transforming U.S. workforce development policies for the 21st century, edited by C. Van Horn, T. Edwards, and T. Greene. Kalamazoo, MI: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. Pp. 169-194. Dadgar, M., and M.J. Weiss. 2012. Labor market returns to sub-baccalaureate credentials: How much does a community college degree or certificate pay? CCRC Working Paper 45. New York: Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University.

REFERENCES 197 Davis, G., and E. Ostrom. 1991. A public economy approach to education: Choice and co-production. International Political Science Review 12(4):313-345. Davis, S., L. Jacobson, and S. Wandner. 2014. Using Workforce Data Quality Intiative databases to develop and improve consumer report card systems. Columbia, MD: IMPAQ International. Decker, P., and J. Berk. 2011. Ten years of the Workforce Investment Act (WIA): Interpreting the research on WIA and related programs. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management 30(4):906-926. Deloitte and NMI (National Manufacturing Institute). 2015. The skills gap in U.S. manufacturing 2015 and beyond. http://www.themanufacturing institute.org/~/media/827DBC76533942679A15EF7067A704CD.ashx (accessed March 5, 2017). Deming, D., C. Goldin, and L. Katz. 2013. For-profit colleges. The Future of Children 23(1):137-163. DoD (U.S. Department of Defense). 2015. 2014 demographics profile of the military community. http://download.militaryonesource.mil/12038/MOS/ Reports/2014-Demographics-Report.pdf (accessed March 5, 2017). DoD. 2016. Current strength. https://www.dmdc.osd.mil/appj/dwp/dwp_ reports.jsp (accessed March 5, 2017). Dokko, J., M. Mumford, and D. Schanzenbach. 2015. Workers and the online gig economy. Washington, DC: The Hamilton Project. http://www.hamiltonproject.org/assets/files/workers_and_the_online_gig_ economy.pdf (accessed March 2, 2017). DOL (U.S. Department of Labor). 2012. United Services Military Apprenticeship Program (USMAP). https://doleta.gov/OA/usmap.cfm (accessed March 5, 2017). DOL. n.d. Apprenticeship. http://www.dol.gov/apprenticeship (accessed March 19, 2017). DOL, U.S. Department of Commerce, DOE (U.S. Department of Education), and HHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). 2014. What works in job training: A synthesis of the evidence. https://www.dol.gov/asp/evaluation/jdt/jdt.pdf (accessed March 5, 2017). Dortch, C. 2012. Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006: Implementation issues. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Dortch, C. 2014a. Career and Technical Education (CTE): A primer. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Dortch, C. 2014b. The Post-9/11 Veterans Educational Assistance Act of 2008 (Post-9/11 GI Bill): Primer and issues. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Dynarski, S. 2015 How to improve graduation rates at community colleges. The New York Times, March 11. https://www.nytimes.com/2015/03/12/up shot/how-to-improve-graduation-rates-at-community-colleges.html (accessed April 6, 2017).

198 BUILDING AMERICA’S SKILLED TECHNICAL WORKFORCE Education News. 2013. American public education: An origin story. Education News, April 16. http://www.educationnews.org/education-policy-and- politics/american-public-education-an-origin-story (accessed March 19, 2017). Eggenberger, C., M. Rinawi, and U. Backes-Gellner. 2015. Measuring the specificity of occupational training curricula and labor market flexibility: An economic perspective on the curriculum development of VET occupations. Working Paper 106. http://repec.business.uzh.ch/RePEc/iso/ leadinghouse/0106_lhwpaper.pdf (accessed March 19, 2017). Elliott, M., and A. Roder. Forthcoming. New York: Economic Mobility Corporation, Inc. Eversole, E. 2016. Hiring our heroes: The private sector role. Prepared for the Committee on the Supply Chain for Middle-Skill Jobs, NASEM. http://nas.edu/SkilledTechnicalWorkforce (accessed March 5, 2017). Ewert, S., and R. Kominski. 2014. Measuring alternative educational credentials: 2012. https://www.census.gov/prod/2014pubs/p70-138.pdf (accessed March 19, 2017). Faberman, R., and B. Mazumder. 2012. Is there a skills mismatch in the labor market? Chicago, IL: The Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. Ferm, A. 2008. Framtidsvägen—en reformerad gymnasieskola [Road to the future—A reformed upper decondary school]. http://www.regeringen.se/ 49b71c/contentassets/4fbcae10413d46db91309e95d8a57a66/framtidsvage n---en-reformerad-gymnasieskola-hela-dokumentet-sou-200827 (accessed March 19, 2017). Fichen, A., and M. Pellizzari. 2014. A new measure of skills mismatch: Theory and evidence from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIACC). Discussion Paper DP10280. Washington, DC: Centre for Economic Policy Research. http://cepr.org/active/publications/discussion_papers/dp.php?dpno=10280 (accessed February 28, 2017). Frey, B. 1997. Not just for the money: An economic theory of personal motivation. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing. Frey, B., and M. Osborne. 2013. The future of employment: How susceptible are jobs to computerization? Working Paper. Oxford, UK: Oxford Martin School, University of Oxford. http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/ publications/view/1314 (accessed February 28, 2017). Friedman, M., and S. Kuznets. 1954. Income from independent professional practice. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research. Frogner, B. K., and S. K. Skillman. 2015. Pathways to middle-skill allied health care occupations. Prepared for the Committee on the Supply Chain for Middle-Skill Jobs, NASEM. http://nas.edu/SkilledTechnicalWorkforce (accessed February 28, 2017). Frogner, B. K., and S. K. Skillman. 2016. Pathways to middle-skill allied health care occupations. Issues in Science and Technology XXXIII(1).

REFERENCES 199 http://issues.org/33-1/pathways-to-middle-skill-allied-health-care- occupations (accessed April 5, 2017). Frogner, B. K., J. Spetz, S. Oberlin, and S. Parente. 2015. The demand for healthcare workers post-ACA. International Journal of Health Economics and Management 15(1):139-151. GAO (Government Accountability Office). 2011a. Employment and training programs: Opportunities exist for improving efficiency. GAO 11-506T. Testimony of Andrew Sherrill, director of education, workforce and income security issues before the Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education and Related Agencies, Committee on Appropriations, House of Representatives. Washington, DC, April 7. GAO. 2011b. Multiple employment and training programs: Providing information on co-locating services and consolidating administrative structures could promote efficiencies. GAO-11-92. Washington, DC: GAO. GAO. 2011c. Opportunities to reduce potential duplication in government programs, save tax dollars, and enhance revenue. GAO-11-318SP. Washington, DC: GAO. GAO. 2012. Workforce Investment Act: Innovative collaborations between workforce boards and employers helped meet local needs. GAO-12-97. Washington, DC: GAO. GAO. 2013. Workforce Investment Act: Local areas face challenges helping employers fill some types of skilled jobs. GAO-14-19. Washington, DC: GAO. Giffi, C., J. McNelly, B. Dollar, G. Carrick, M. Drew, and B. Gangula. 2015. The skills gap in U.S. manufacturing: 2015 and beyond. Washington, DC: The Manufacturing Institute. Good, L., and E. Strong. 2015. Reimagining workforce policy in the United States. In Transforming workforce development policies for the 21st century, edited by C. Van Horn, T. Edwards, and T. Greene. Kalamazoo, MI: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. Pp. 13-43. Great Schools Partnership. 2014. Hidden curriculum. In The glossary of education reform, edited by S. Abbott. http://edglossary.org/hidden- curriculum (accessed March 22, 2017). Greenhouse, S. 2013. The great aid gap. The New York Times, March 19, p. F1. Hegji, A. 2014. The Higher Education Act (HEA): A primer. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service. Heidkamp, M., and T. Hilliard. 2014. A review of community college-employer partnerships and initiatives: Expanding opportunities for job seekers with disabilities. http://askearn.org/docs/AskEARN-CollegeEmployerPartner ships.pdf (accessed February 10, 2016). Heinrich, C. J. 2015. Federally-funded workforce development. Prepared for the Committee on the Supply Chain for Middle-Skill Jobs, NASEM. http://nas.edu/SkilledTechnicalWorkforce (accessed March 2, 2017).

200 BUILDING AMERICA’S SKILLED TECHNICAL WORKFORCE Hendra, R., D. Greenberg, G. Hamilton, A. Oppenheim, A. Pennington, K. Schaberg, and B. Tessler. 2016. Encouraging evidence on a sector- focused advancement strategy: Two-year impacts from the WorkAdvance demonstration. New York: MDRC. http://www.mdrc.org/sites/default/ files/2016_Workadvance_Final_Web.pdf (accessed March 22, 2017). Herian, M. 2010. Examining public perceptions of career and technical education in Nebraska. Paper 35. Publications of the University of Nebraska Public Policy Center. http://digitalcommons.unl.edu/public policypublications/35 (accessed March 22, 2017). Hoffman, L., and T. Reindl. 2011. Complete to compete: Improving postsecondary attainment among adults. Washington, DC: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices. https://www.nga.org/ files/live/sites/NGA/files/pdf/1102postsecondaryattainment.pdf (accessed March 5, 2017). Hollenbeck, K. 1997. School-to-work: Promise and effectiveness. Employment Research 4(2):5-7. Holzer, H. J. 2012. Going, going...gone? The evolution of workforce development programs for the poor since the War on Poverty. Washington, DC: Georgetown University and American Institutes for Research. http://npc.umich.edu/news/events/war-on-poverty-june-confer ence/holzer.pdf (accessed March 2, 2017). Holzer, H. J. 2015a. Higher education and workforce policy: Creating more skilled workers (and jobs for them to fill). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/higher _ed_jobs_policy_holzer.pdf (accessed March 22, 2017). Holzer, H. J. 2015b. Sector-based training strategies: The challenges of matching workers and their skills to well-paying jobs. https://www.dol.gov/asp/evaluation/completed-studies/Future_of_work_ sector_based_training_strategies.pdf (accessed March 22, 2017). Holzer, H. J., and R. I. Lerman. 2007. America’s forgotten middle-skill jobs: Education and training requirements in the next decade and beyond. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. http://www.urban.org/research/ publication/americas-forgotten-middle-skill-jobs (accessed February 28, 2017). Holzer, H. J., and R. I. Lerman. 2009. The future of middle-skill jobs. CCF Brief 41. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. https://www.brookings.edu/ research/the-future-of-middle-skill-jobs (accessed February 28, 2017). Holzer, H. J., and D. Nightingale. 2009. Strong students, strong workers: Models for student success through workforce development and community college partnerships. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. Horowitz, S., and F. Rosati. 2014. Freelancing in America: A national survey of the new workforce. Freelancers Union and Elance-oDesk.

REFERENCES 201 https://www.upwork.com/press/2014/09/03/53-million-americans-now- freelance-new-study-finds-2 (accessed March 5, 2017). Howington, H., T. Hartfield, and C. Hillyard, C. 2015. Faculty viewpoints on teaching Quantway®. Numeracy 8(1). Independent Advisory Panel of the National Assessment of Career and Technical Education. 2014. Putting “career” in “college and career ready”: The report of the Independent Advisory Panel of the National Assessment of Career and Technical Education. https://www2.ed.gov/ rschstat/eval/sectech/nacte/career-technical-education/independent-adviso ry-panel-report.pdf (accessed March 5, 2017). IOM (Institute of Medicine). 1989. Allied health services: Avoiding crisis. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. IOM. 2011. Allied health workforce and services-workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Jaimovich, N., and H. Siu. 2012. The trend is the cycle: Job polarization and jobless recoveries. Working paper 18334. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. http://www.nber.org/papers/w18334.pdf (accessed February 28, 2017). Jenkins, D., and J. Fink. 2015. What we know about transfer. New York: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center. http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/what-we-know- about-transfer.pdf (accessed March 19, 2017). Jenkins, D., and C. Spence. 2006. The career pathways how-to guide. Brooklyn, NY: Workforce Strategy Center. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED496995. pdf (accessed March 22, 2017). Jepsen, C., K. Troske, and P. Coomes. 2012. The labor-market returns to community college degrees, diplomas, and certificates. IZA Discussion Paper 6902. http://ftp.iza.org/dp6902.pdf (accessed March 5, 2017). Jobs for the Future. 2014. The Pathways to Prosperity Network: A state progress report, 2012-2014. http://www.jff.org/publications/pathways-prosperity- network-state-progress-report-2012-2014 (accessed March 22, 2017). Joyce Foundation. 2011. Business leaders united for workforce partnerships. http://www.joycefdn.org/news/business-leaders-united-for-workforce- partnerships (accessed March 22, 2017). Kaine, T. 2015. Kaine introduces JOBS Act to expand Pell grants for workforce training programs. http://www.kaine.senate.gov/press-releases/kaine- introduces-jobs-act-to-expand-pell-grants-for-workforce-training-programs (accessed March 2, 2017). Kaiser Permanente. n.d. Labor management partnership. http://www.kaiser permanentejobs.org/labor-management-partnership.aspx (accessed March 19, 2017). Kane, T., and C. Rouse. 1995. Labor-market returns to two- and four-year college. The American Economic Review 85(3):600-614.

202 BUILDING AMERICA’S SKILLED TECHNICAL WORKFORCE Karp, M. 2011. Toward a new understanding of non-academic student support: Four mechanisms encouraging positive student outcomes in the community college. CCRC Working Paper 28. New York: Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University. http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/attachments/new-understanding-non- academic-support.pdf (accessed March 5, 2017). Karp, M. 2015a. Community college pathways. Prepared for the Committee on the Supply Chain for Middle-Skill Jobs, NASEM. http://nas.edu/SkilledTechnicalWorkforce (accessed March 5, 2017). Karp, M. 2015b. Dual enrollment, structural reform, and the completion agenda. New Directions for Community Colleges 2015(169):103-111. Karp, M., L. O’Gara, and K. Hughes. 2008. Do support services at community colleges encourage success or reproduce disadvantage? CCRC Working Paper 10. New York: Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University. http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/media/k2/ attachments/support-services-reproduce-disadvantage.pdf (accessed March 5, 2017). Kearney, A.T. 2015. U.S. reshoring index. https://www.atkearney.com/ operations/ideas-insights/manufacturing-reshoring (accessed February 28, 2017). Kelchen, R., and L. Stedrak. 2016. Does performance-based funding affect colleges’ financial priorities? Journal of Education Finance 41(3):302- 321. Kemple, J. 2008. Career academies: Long-term impacts on labor market outcomes, educational attainment, and transitions to adulthood. New York: MDRC. Kimmel, J., and S. Martin. 2015. Sorting out the skills gap: Analyzing the evidence for a shortage of middle-skill workers in the manufacturing and healthcare industries in the Portland region. Paper 123. Portland, OR: Institute of Portland Metropolitan Studies Publications. King, C., and H. Prince. 2015. Moving sectoral and career pathway programs from promise to scale. In Transforming U.S. workforce development polices for the 21st century, edited by C. Van Horn, T. Edwards, and T. Greene. Kalamazoo, MI: W. E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. Pp. 195-230. Klein, S., and K. Green. 2011. College for all: The American model for career and technical education. In Work and Education in America, edited by A. Barabasch and F. Rauner. Technical and Vocational Education and Training: Issues, Concerns and Prospects 15:123-140. Kleiner, M. M. 2000. Occupational licensing. Journal of Economic Perspectives 14(4):189-202. Kleiner, M. M. 2006. Licensing occupations: Ensuring quality or restriction competition? In W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research. Kalamazoo, MI: Upjohn Institute Press. Pp. 1-15.

REFERENCES 203 Kleiner, M. M., and A. Krueger. 2010. The prevalence and effects of occupational licensing. British Journal of Industrial Relations 48(4):676- 687. Krueger, C. 2006. Dual enrollment: Policy issues confronting state policymakers. Policy Brief. Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States. Law, M., and S. Kim. 2005. Specialization and regulation: The rise of professionals and the emergence of occupational licensing regulation. Journal of Economic History 65(3):723-756. Lemieux, T. 2006. Increasing residual wage inequality: Composition effects, noisy data, or rising demand for skill? The American Economic Review 96(3):461-498. Lerman, R. 2010. Expanding apprenticeship: A way to enhance skills and careers. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. http://www.urban.org/research/ publication/expanding-apprenticeship-way-enhance-skills-and-careers (accessed March 22, 2017). Lerman, R. 2015. Are employers providing enough training? Theory, evidence, and policy implications. Prepared for the Committee on the Supply Chain for Middle-Skill Jobs, NASEM. http://nas.edu/SkilledTechnicalWorkforce (accessed February 28, 2017). Lerman, R., and V. Rein. 2015. Building a robust U.S. work-based education and apprenticeship system at scale: Can lessons from Europe help? http://www.aicgs.org/publication/building-a-robust-u-s-work-based- education-and-apprenticeship-system-at-scale (accessed March 19, 2017). Lerman, R., D. Hanson, C. Dobson, M. Tanamor, and L. Blatt. 2015. The United Services Military Apprenticeship Program (USMAP): Implementation study and feasibility of an impact study. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Levy, F., and R. J. Murnane. 2013. Dancing with robots: Human skills for computerized work. Washington, DC: Third Way. https://dusp.mit.edu/ uis/publication/dancing-robots-human-skills-computerized-work (accessed February 28, 2017). Long, M., D. Goldhaber, and N. Huntington-Klein. 2014. Do students’ college major choices respond to changes in wages? Working Paper 2014-6. Seattle, WA: Center for Educational Data and Research. http://www.cedr.us/papers/working/CEDR%20WP%202014-6.pdf (accessed February 8, 2016). Lovenheim, M. 2011. The effect of liquid housing wealth on college enrollment. Journal of Labor Economics 29(4):741-771. Lumina Foundation. 2015. Connecting credentials: A beta credentials framework: Building a system for communicating about and connecting diverse credentials. Indianapolis, IN: Lumina Foundation. https://www.luminafoundation.org/resources/connecting-credentials (accessed March 5, 2017).

204 BUILDING AMERICA’S SKILLED TECHNICAL WORKFORCE Maguire, S., J. Freely, C. Clymer, M. Conway, and D. Schwartz. 2010. Tuning in to local labor markets: Findings from the sectoral employment impact study. Philadelphia, PA: Public/Private Ventures. http://www.aspenwsi. org/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/TuningIntoLocalLaborMarkets.pdf (accessed March 22, 2017). Marcus, J. 2013. Community college grads out-earn bachelor’s degree holders. CNN Money, February 26. http://money.cnn.com/2013/02/26/pf/college/ community-college-earnings (accessed February 28, 2017). Martin, V., and J. Broadus. 2013. Enhancing GED instruction to prepare students for college and careers: Early success in LaGuardia Community College’s Bridge to Health and Business program. New York: MDRC. http://www.mdrc.org/publication/enhancing-ged-instruction-prepare- students-college-and-careers (accessed March 22, 2017). McCarthy, M. A. 2014. Beyond the skills gap: Making education work for students, employers, and communities. Washington, DC: New America Foundation. https://www.newamerica.org/education-policy/policy-papers/ beyond-the-skills-gap (accessed February 28, 2017). McKinsey & Company. 2017. A future that works: automation, employment, and productivity. http://www.mckinsey.com/global-themes/digital- disruption/harnessing-automation-for-a-future-that-works (accessed March 29, 2017). Mellow, G. O., and C. M. Heelan. 2015. Minding the dream: The process and practice of the American community college. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. Messing-Mathie, A. 2015. Building apprenticeship systems for middle-skill employment: Comparative lessons in innovation and sector-based strategies for apprenticeships. Prepared for the Committee on the Supply Chain for Middle-Skill Jobs, NASEM. http://nas.edu/SkilledTechnical Workforce (accessed March 19, 2017). Miao, K. 2012. Performance-based funding of higher education: A detailed look at best practices in 6 states. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress. Miller, L. 2014. 2014 state of the industry report: Spending on employee training remains a priority. https://www.td.org/Publications/Magazines/ TD/TD-Archive/2014/11/2014-State-of-the-Industry-Report-Spending-on- Employee-Training-Remains-a-Priority (accessed March 19, 2017). Modestino, A. S. 2010. Mismatch in the labor market: Measuring the supply of and demand for skilled labor in New England. New England Public Policy Center Research Report 10-2. Boston, MA: Federal Reserve Bank of Boston. Modestino, A. S. 2015. Middle skill workers in today’s job market. Prepared for the Committee on the Supply Chain for Middle-Skill Jobs, NASEM. http://nas.edu/SkilledTechnicalWorkforce (accessed February 28, 2017).

REFERENCES 205 Modestino, A. S. 2016. The importance of middle-skill jobs. Issues in Science and Technology XXXIII(1). Mokher, C., L. Jacobson, C. Ahearn, J. Atkin, M. Flory, J. Lansing, J. Rosenbaum, and C. Sun. 2014. Assessment of the Florida College and Career Readiness Initiative: Year 2 report. Arlington, VA: CNA Corporation. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED555558.pdf (accessed March 21, 2017). Muehlemann, S., and S. C. Wolter. 2014. Return on investment of apprenticeship systems for enterprises: Evidence from cost-benefit analyses. IZA Journal of Labor Policy 3:25. NAE (National Academy of Engineering). 2015. Making value for America: Embracing the future of manufacturing, technology, and work. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. NAE and NRC (National Research Council). 2012. Community colleges in the evolving STEM education landscape: Summary of a summit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. NAEP (National Assessment of Educational Progress). n.d. The Nation’s Report Card. http://www.nationsreportcard.gov (accessed March 5, 2017). NAF (National Academy Foundation). 2015. Annual report 2014-2015. https://mis.naf.org/annualreport/2015 (accessed March 22, 2017). NASDCTEc (National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Educational Consortium), ACTE (Association for Career and Technical Education), and CTE (Career and Technical Education). 2015. State policies impacting CTE: 2014 year in review. https://www.acteonline.org/uploadedFiles/Resources/Publications/2014_St ate_Policy_Review_FINAL.pdf (accessed February 28, 2017). NASEM (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine). 2015. The supply chain for middle-skill jobs: Education, training, and certification pathways. Public symposium. http://nas.edu/SkilledTechnical Workforce (accessed March 29, 2017). NASEM. 2016a. Barriers and opportunities for 2-year and 4-year STEM degrees: Systemic change to support students’ diverse pathways. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. NASEM. 2016b. Developing a national STEM workforce strategy: A workshop summary. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. NASEM. 2016c. Promising practices for strengthening the regional STEM workforce development ecosystem. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. NCEE (National Center on Education and the Economy). 2017. NCSL Education Benchmarking Study Group. http://ncee.org/what-we-do/center- on-international-education-benchmarking/cieb-supported-research/ncsl- education-benchmarking-study-group (accessed March 22, 2017).

206 BUILDING AMERICA’S SKILLED TECHNICAL WORKFORCE NCES (National Center for Education Statistics). 2007. The condition of education 2007. NCES 2007-064. https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2007/ 2007064.pdf (accessed March 29, 2017). NCES. 2013a. Characteristics of private schools in the United States: Results from the 2011-12 Private School Universe Survey. NCES 2013-316. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. https://nces.ed.gov/ pubs2013/2013316.pdf (accessed April 5, 2017). NCES. 2013b. DATA POINT: Trends in CTE coursetaking. NCES 2014-901. http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=43 (accessed March 19, 2017). NCES. 2013c. Table 106.50. Direct general expenditures per capita of state and local governments for all functions and for education, by level of education and state: 2009-10 and 2010-11. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d13/ tables/dt13_106.50.asp (accessed March 19, 2017). NCES. 2014a. Table 303.40. Total fall enrollment in degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by attendance status, sex, and age: Selected years, 1970 through 2024. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d14/tables/ dt14_303.40.asp?current=yes (accessed March 19, 2017). NCES. 2014b. Table 507.30. Participation of employed persons, 17 years old and over, in career-related adult education during the previous 12 months, by selected characteristics of participants: 1995, 1999, and 2005. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d14/tables/dt14_507.30.asp (accessed March 19, 2017). NCES. 2015a. Selected statistics from the public elementary and secondary education universe: School year 2013-14. NCES 2015-151. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. NCES. 2015b. Table 333.10. Revenues of public degree-granting postsecondary institutions, by source of revenue and level of institution: 2007-08 through 2013-14. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d15/tables/dt15_333.10.asp? current=yes (accessed April 5, 2017). NCES. 2015c. The condition of education 2015. NCES 2015-144. https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2015/2015144.pdf (accessed March 5, 2017). NCES. 2016a. Remedial coursetaking at U.S. public 2- and 4-year institutions: Scope, experiences, and outcomes. NCES 2016-405. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. NCES. 2016b. The condition of education: Postsecondary institution revenues. https://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cud.asp (accessed March 5, 2017). NCES. 2016c. The condition of education 2016. NCES 2016-144. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education. http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ ED565888.pdf (accessed March 5, 2017). NCES. n.d. About GEMEnA. https://nces.ed.gov/surveys/gemena (accessed March 19, 2017).

REFERENCES 207 NCSL (National Conference of State Legislatures). 2015. Performance-based funding for higher education. http://www.ncsl.org/research/education/ performance-funding.aspx (accessed March 21, 2017). NCSL. n.d. Hot topics in higher education: Reforming remedial education. http://www.ncsl.org/research/education/improving-college-completion- reforming-remedial.aspx (accessed March 31, 2017). Neumark, D. 2004. The effects of school-to-career programs on postsecondary enrollment and employment. San Francisco, CA: Public Policy Institute of California. Neumark, D., and D. Rothstein. 2005. Do school-to-work programs help the “forgotten half”? Working Paper 11636. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. http://www.nber.org/papers/w11636.pdf (accessed on February 9, 2016). New Jersey Department of Education. 2014. Online consumer report card. http://www.nj.gov/education/cte/ppcs/students/OnliConRC.shtml (accessed March 21, 2017). NGA (National Governors Association). 2013. State sector strategies: Coming of age: Implications for state workforce policymakers. https://www.nga.org/files/live/sites/NGA/files/pdf/2013/1301NGASSSRep ort.pdf (accessed March 21, 2017). NGA. 2015a. 2013-14 NGA chair Gov. Mary Fallin’s initiative. https://www.nga.org/cms/home/about/initiatives-of-nga-chairs/col2- content/main-content-list/2013-14-nga-chair-gov-mary-falli.html (accessed March 2, 2017). NGA. 2015b. Postsecondary credential attainment by adult workers. http://www.nga.org/cms/home/nga-center-for-best-practices/center-divis ions/center-issues/page-ehsw-issues/col2-content/main-content-list/post secondary-credential-attainm.html (accessed March 2, 2017). NGA. 2017. Initiatives of NGA chairs: List of NGA chairs. www.nga.org/cms/chairs (accessed March 2, 2017). North, D. C. 1990. Institutions, institutional change, and economic performance. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. NRC (National Research Council). 2012. Education for life and work: Developing transferable knowledge and skills in the 21st century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2014a. STEM integration in K-12 education: Status, prospects, and an agenda for research. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. NRC. 2014b. The flexible electronics opportunity. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. NSB (National Science Board). 2015. Revisiting the STEM workforce: A companion to Science and Engineering Indicators 2014. NSB-2015-10. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.

208 BUILDING AMERICA’S SKILLED TECHNICAL WORKFORCE NSB. 2016. Science and Engineering Indicators 2016. NSB-2016-1. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. NSF (National Science Foundation). n.d. Advanced Technological Education (ATE). http://www.nsf.gov/funding/pgm_summ.jsp?pims_id=5464 (accessed March 21, 2017). OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). 2012a. Better skills, better jobs, better lives: A strategic approach to skills policies. Paris: OECD Publishing. https://skills.oecd.org/documents/ OECDSkillsStrategyFINALENG.pdf (accessed February 9, 2016). OECD. 2012b. PISA 2012 results: Excellence through equity. Giving every student the chance to succeed (Volume II). https://www.oecd.org/ pisa/keyfindings/pisa-2012-results-volume-II.pdf (accessed February 28, 2017). OECD. 2013. OECD Skills Outlook 2013: First results from the Survey of Adult Skills. Paris: OECD Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264204256- en (accessed February 28, 2017). OECD and Eurostat. 2005. The Oslo manual: Guidelines for collecting and interpreting innovation data (3rd ed.). Paris, France: OECD Publishing. Orr, M., T. Bailey, K. Hughes, M. Karp, and G. Kienzl. 2004. The National Academy Foundation’s career academies: Shaping postsecondary transitions. IEE Working Paper 17. http://www.tc.columbia.edu/centers/ iee/PAPERS/NAF_postsecondary.pdf (accessed March 21, 2017). Orvis, K. 2016. The Transition Assistance Program and reinventing the military life cycle. Prepared for the Committee on the Supply-Chain for Middle- Skill Jobs, NASEM. http://nas.edu/SkilledTechnicalWorkforce (accessed March 5, 2017). Osterman, P., and A. Weaver. 2014a. Skills and skill gaps in manufacturing. In Production in the Innovation Economy, edited by R. Locke and R. Wellhausen. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Pp. 17-50. Osterman, P., and A. Weaver. 2014b. Why claims of skills shortages in manufacturing are overblown. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute. Ostrom, E. 2005. Understanding institutional diversity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Ostrom, V. 1994. The meaning of federalism: Constituting a self-governing society. San Francisco, CA: Institute for Contemporary Studies Press. Ostrom, V. 2008. A political theory of a compound republic: Designing the American experiment (3rd ed.). Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. Panchak, P. 2016. A tale of (at least) two manufacturing worlds. IndustryWeek, July 6. http://www.industryweek.com/leadership/tale-least-two-manufactur ing-worlds (accessed March 5, 2017). Payne Carter, S., and B. J. Miller. 2015. Analysis of Army veteran unemployment benefits and transition assistance. http://sites.national

REFERENCES 209 academies.org/cs/groups/pgasite/documents/webpage/pga_167648.pdf (accessed February 28, 2017). PCAST (President’s Council of Advisors on Science and Technology). 2010. Prepare and inspire: K-12 education in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) for America’s future. http://www.afterschool alliance.org/documents/pcast-stemed-report.pdf (accessed February 28, 2017). Pew Research Center. 2011. Chapter 6: A profile of the modern military. In War and sacrifice in the post-9/11 era. http://www.pewsocialtrends.org/2011/ 10/05/chapter-6-a-profile-of-the-modern-military (accessed March 5, 2017). Purnell, R., and S. Blank, S. 2004. Support success: Services that may help low- income students succeed in community college. New York: MDRC. http://www.mdrc.org/sites/default/files/full_524.pdf (accessed March 5, 2017). Reamer, A. 2015. Information resources to facilitate middle skills workforce development. Prepared for the Committee on the Supply-Chain for Middle- Skill Jobs, NASEM. http://nas.edu/SkilledTechnicalWorkforce (accessed March 22, 2017). Reed, D., A. Liu, R. Kleinman, A. Mastri, D. Reed, S. Sattar, and J. Ziegler. 2012. An effectiveness assessment and cost-benefit analysis of registered apprenticeship in 10 states. Oakland, CA: Mathematica Policy Research. https://wdr.doleta.gov/research/FullText_Documents/ETAOP_2012_10.- pdf (accessed March 21, 2017). Roder, A., and M. Elliott. 2014. Sustained gains: Year Up’s continued impacts on young adults’ earnings. New York: Economic Mobility Corporation. Romer, P. 1994. The origins of endogenous growth. Journal of Economic Perspectives 8(1):3-22. Rorabaugh, W. 1986. The craft apprentice: From Franklin to the machine age in America. New York: Oxford University Press. Rosenfeld, S., H. Shapiro, and K. Bird. 2014. Workplace learning in Europe and the United States. Copenhagen, Denmark: Trans-Atlantic Technology and Training Alliance. Ross, M., N. Svajlenka, and J. Williams. 2014. Part of the solution: Pre- baccalaureate health care workers in a time of health system change. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution. http://www.brookings.edu/ ~media/research/files/reports/2014/07/healthworkforce/healthcare-work ers-report.pdf (accessed February 28, 2017). Rothwell, J. 2015. Defining skilled technical work. Prepared for the Committee on the Supply-Chain for Middle-Skill Jobs, NASEM. http://nas.edu/SkilledTechnicalWorkforce (accessed February 28, 2017). Rupietta, C., and U. Backes-Gellner. 2015. High quality workplace training and innovation in highly developed countries. Working Paper 74.

210 BUILDING AMERICA’S SKILLED TECHNICAL WORKFORCE http://repec.business.uzh.ch/RePEc/iso/leadinghouse/0074_lhwpaper.pdf (accessed March 19, 2017). Ryan, C. L., and Bauman, K. 2016. Educational attainment in the United States: 2015. U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Reports, P20-578. https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2016/de mo/p20-578.pdf (accessed March 19, 2017). Scheffel, K. 2016. Three views on concurrent enrollment. http://www.nacep.org/three-views-on-concurrent-enrollment (accessed March 22, 2017). Schneider, M. 2013. Does education pay? Issues in Science and Technology 30(1). Scott-Clayton, J., P. M. Crosta, and C. R. Belfield. 2012. Improving the targeting of treatment: Evidence from college remediation. NBER Working Paper 18457. http://www.nber.org/papers/w18457.pdf (accessed February 9, 2016). Scrivener, S., and E. Coghlan. 2011. Opening doors to student success: A synthesis of findings from an evaluation at six community colleges. New York: MDRC. Scrivener, S., M. Weiss, A. Ratledge, T. Rudd, C. Sommo, and H. Fresques. 2015. Doubling graduation rates: Three-year effects of CUNY’s Accelerated Study in Associate Programs (ASAP) for developmental education students. New York: MDRC. Shankel, G. 2010. America’s most wanted: Skilled workers: A highly-skilled workforce is necessary to meet 21st century manufacturing needs. Rockford, IL: Fabricators & Manufacturers Association, International. http://www.nutsandboltsfoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/skilled-labor- shortage2010.pdf (accessed March 29, 2017). Shapiro, C. 1986. Investment, moral hazard, and occupational licensing. Review of Economic Studies 53(5):843-862. Shedd, S. 2013. Moving forward. Presentation for the 2013 WIA Technical Assistance Conference. https://des.az.gov/sites/default/files/des_sector_ strategy_presentation.pdf (accessed March 30, 2017). Sheets, R., and J. Tyszko. 2015. Competing on innovation: Implications for building the middle-skill talent pipeline. Prepared for the Committee on the Supply-Chain for Middle-Skill Jobs, NASEM. http://nas.edu/Skilled TechnicalWorkforce (accessed March 2, 2017). SHRM (Society for Human Resource Management). 2015. Employee benefits: An overview of employee benefits offerings in the U.S. research report. https://www.shrm.org/hr-today/trends-and-forecasting/research-and- surveys/Documents/2015-Employee-Benefits.pdf (accessed March 19, 2017). Simchi-Levi, D. 2012. U.S. re-shoring: A turning point. Cambridge, MA: MIT Forum for Supply Chain Innovation and Supply Chain Digest.

REFERENCES 211 http://supplychain.mit.edu/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/mit_forum_2012_ annual_u_s_reshoring_report.pdf (accessed February 28, 2017). Simon, M. 2015. State models of integration and coordination of education and workforce programs and policies. Presentation for the 3rd Committee Meeting on the Supply Chain for Middle-Skill Jobs, NASEM, September 10. http://nas.edu/SkilledTechnicalWorkforce (accessed March 2, 2017). Slivinski, S. 2015. Bootstraps tangled in red tape: How state occupational licensing hinders low-income entrepreneurship. Phoenix, AZ: Goldwater Institute. https://goldwater-media.s3.amazonaws.com/cms_page_media/ 2015/4/15/OccLicensingKauffman.pdf (accessed March 2, 2017). Smith, A. 1776. An inquiry into the nature and causes of the wealth of nations, edited by E. Cannan, 1976. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Smith, T. C., and C. T. King. 2011. Exploratory return-on-investment analysis of local workforce investments. Austin, TX: Ray Marshall Center for the Study of Human Resources, Lyndon B. Johnson School of Public Affairs, The University of Texas. http://raymarshallcenter.org/files/2006/01/ Capital_IDEA_ROI_Final_Aug_23_2011.pdf (accessed March 31, 2017). Solow, R. 1956. A contribution to the theory of economic growth. Quarterly Journal of Economics 70(1):65-94. Spence, M. 1973. Job market signaling. Quarterly Journal of Economics 87(3):355-374. Spence, M. 2002. Signaling in retrospect and the informational structure of markets. The American Economic Review 92(3):434-459. Stacey, N., and I. Charner. 1982. Unions and post-secondary education. Education and Urban Society 14(3)331-343. Steedman, H. 2012. Overview of apprenticeship systems and issues: ILO contribution to the G20 Task Force on Employment. Geneva: International Labour Office (ILO). http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/--- ed_emp/---ifp_skills/documents/genericdocument/wcms_190188.pdf (accessed March 22, 2017). Stern, D. 2015. Pathways or pipelines: Keeping high school students’ future options open while developing technical skills and knowledge. Prepared for the Committee on the Supply-Chain for Middle-Skill Jobs, NASEM. http://nas.edu/SkilledTechnicalWorkforce (accessed March 5, 2017). Stern, D., C. Dayton, and M. Raby. 2010. Career academies: A proven strategy to prepare high school students for college and careers. Berkeley, CA: Graduate School of Education, University of California, Berkeley. http://casn.berkeley.edu/resources.php?r=158 (accessed March 22, 2017). Stevens, A., M. Kurlaender, and M. Grosz. 2015. Career technical education and labor market outcomes: Evidence from California community colleges. Working Paper No. 21137. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. http://www.nber.org/papers/w21137.pdf (accessed March 5, 2017).

212 BUILDING AMERICA’S SKILLED TECHNICAL WORKFORCE Strawn, J. 2010. Shifting gears: State innovation to advance workers and the economy in the Midwest. Chicago, IL: Joyce Foundation. Symonds, W., R. Schwartz, and R. Ferguson. 2011. Pathways to prosperity: Meeting the challenge of preparing young Americans for the 21st century. Cambridge, MA: Pathways to Prosperity Project, Harvard University Graduate School of Education. Taylor, J., V. Borden, and E. Park. 2015. State dual credit policy: A national perspective. New Directions for Community Colleges 2015(169):9-19. The Economist. 2015. Business high school: Companies struggling to find talent are looking to teenagers. The Economist, July 18. http://www.economist.com/news/united-states/21657842-companies-strug gling-find-talent-are-looking-teenagers-business-high-school (accessed March 29, 2017). The Manufacturing Institute. 2015. Inspiring youth with Dream It. Do It. http://www.themanufacturinginstitute.org/Image/Dream-It-Do-It/Dream-It- Do-It.aspx (accessed February 28, 2017). The White House. 2014. Fact sheet: Ready to work at a glance: Job-driven training and American opportunity. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/ the-press-office/2014/07/22/fact-sheet-ready-work-glance-job-driven-train ing-and-american-opportunit (accessed February 28, 2017). The White House. 2015. Occupational licensing: A framework for policymakers. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/default/files/docs/licensing_re port_final_nonembargo.pdf (accessed February 28, 2017). The White House. 2016. Investing in higher education: Benefits, challenges, and the state of student debt. https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/sites/ default/files/page/files/20160718_cea_student_debt.pdf (accessed March 5, 2017). Thomas, R., and T. Kochan. 1992. Technology, industrial relations, and the problem of organizational transformation. In Technology and the future of work, edited by P. Adler. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Pp. 210- 231. U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation. 2014. Managing the talent pipeline: A new approach to closing the skills gap. Washington, DC: U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation. U.S. Congress Joint Economic Committee Democratic Staff. 2014. Veterans Day 2014: An update on employment prospects for returning veterans. http://www.jec.senate.gov/public/index.cfm/democrats/2014/11/veterans- day-2014-an-update-on-employment-prospects-for-returning-veterans (accessed March 5, 2017). U.S. Department of Education. 2017. Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). https://www.ed.gov/essa?src=rn (accessed March 29, 2017). VA (U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs). 2015. 2015 veteran economic opportunity report. http://www.benefits.va.gov/benefits/docs/Veteran EconomicOpportunityReport2015.pdf (accessed March 5, 2017).

REFERENCES 213 Wachen, J., D. Jenkins, C. Belfield, and M. Van Noy. 2012. Contextualized college transition strategies for adult basic skills students: Learning from Washington State’s I-BEST program model.. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University. http://ccrc.tc.columbia.edu/publications/i-best- program-final-phase-report.html (accessed March 22, 2017). Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges. 2017. Centers of Excellence. http://www.sbctc.edu/for-employers/centers-of-excellence. aspx (accessed March 22, 2017). Washington State Centers of Excellence. 2017. About us. https://www.coewa.com/about-our-centers (accessed March 22, 2017). Webb, M., and C. Gerwin. 2014. Early college expansion: Propelling students to postsecondary success, at a school near you. Washington, DC: Jobs for the Future. http://www.jff.org/sites/default/files/publications/materials/ Early-College-Expansion_031714.pdf (accessed March 22, 2017). Whoriskey, P. 2012. U.S. manufacturing sees shortage of skilled factory workers. The Washington Post, February 19. Willcox, K., S. Sarma, and P. Lippel. 2016. Online education: A catalyst for higher education reforms. Cambridge, MA: Online Education Policy Initiative, MIT. Wolter, S. C., and S. Muehlemann. 2015. Apprenticeship training in Spain: A cost-effective model for firms? https://www.fundacionbertelsmann.org/file admin/files/Fundacion/Publicaciones/ROI_web_EN.pdf (accessed March 19, 2017). Wolter, S., and P. Ryan. 2011. Apprenticeship. In Handbook of the economics of education, Vol. 3, edited by E. Hanushek, S. Machin, and L. Woessmann. Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier Science. Pp. 521-576. Wood, C. 2011. Employment in health care: A crutch for the ailing economy during the 2007-09 recession. Monthly Labor Review 134(4):13-18.

Next: Appendix A: Agendas of Committee Meetings »
Building America's Skilled Technical Workforce Get This Book
×
Buy Paperback | $65.00 Buy Ebook | $54.99
MyNAP members save 10% online.
Login or Register to save!
Download Free PDF

Skilled technical occupations—defined as occupations that require a high level of knowledge in a technical domain but do not require a bachelor’s degree for entry—are a key component of the U.S. economy. In response to globalization and advances in science and technology, American firms are demanding workers with greater proficiency in literacy and numeracy, as well as strong interpersonal, technical, and problem-solving skills. However, employer surveys and industry and government reports have raised concerns that the nation may not have an adequate supply of skilled technical workers to achieve its competitiveness and economic growth objectives.

In response to the broader need for policy information and advice, Building America’s Skilled Technical Workforce examines the coverage, effectiveness, flexibility, and coordination of the policies and various programs that prepare Americans for skilled technical jobs. This report provides action-oriented recommendations for improving the American system of technical education, training, and certification.

  1. ×

    Welcome to OpenBook!

    You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

    Do you want to take a quick tour of the OpenBook's features?

    No Thanks Take a Tour »
  2. ×

    Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name.

    « Back Next »
  3. ×

    ...or use these buttons to go back to the previous chapter or skip to the next one.

    « Back Next »
  4. ×

    Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book.

    « Back Next »
  5. ×

    To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter.

    « Back Next »
  6. ×

    Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email.

    « Back Next »
  7. ×

    View our suggested citation for this chapter.

    « Back Next »
  8. ×

    Ready to take your reading offline? Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available.

    « Back Next »
Stay Connected!