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State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences (2016)

Chapter: Appendix C: Histograms (or parameter distributions) of Recent Liquefaction Triggering Databases

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Histograms (or parameter distributions) of Recent Liquefaction Triggering Databases." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Page 265
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Histograms (or parameter distributions) of Recent Liquefaction Triggering Databases." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
×
Page 266
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Histograms (or parameter distributions) of Recent Liquefaction Triggering Databases." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
×
Page 267
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Histograms (or parameter distributions) of Recent Liquefaction Triggering Databases." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
×
Page 268
Suggested Citation:"Appendix C: Histograms (or parameter distributions) of Recent Liquefaction Triggering Databases." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23474.
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Page 269

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Appendix C Histograms (or parameter distributions) of Recent Liquefaction Triggering Databases The following series of histograms are presented for various parameters in recently compiled SPT, CPT, and Vs liquefaction triggering databases for level ground conditions (Cetin et al., 2004; Moss et al., 2006; Kayen et al., 2013; Boulanger and Idriss, 2014). The ranges of the various parameters tabulated are also listed in Table 3.2. However, the histograms give a better indication of conditions/scenarios where case histories are well represented and not so well represented. This is important in assessing the validity of empirical and semi-empirical liquefaction evaluation procedures for a given scenario. PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW 265

266 STATE OF THE ART AND PRACTICE IN THE ASSESSMENT OF EARTHQUAKE- INDUCED SOIL LIQUEFACTION AND ITS CONSEQUENCES PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW

APPENDIX C 267 FIGURE C.1 Histograms of variables in the recently compiled SPT liquefaction databases compiled by Cetin et al. (2004) and Boulanger and Idriss (2014). PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW

268 STATE OF THE ART AND PRACTICE IN THE ASSESSMENT OF EARTHQUAKE- INDUCED SOIL LIQUEFACTION AND ITS CONSEQUENCES PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW

APPENDIX C 269 FIGURE C.2. Histograms of variables in the recently compiled CPT liquefaction databases compiled by Moss et al. (2006) and Boulanger and Idriss (2014). PREPUBLICATION VERSION – SUBJECT TO FURTHER EDITORIAL REVIEW

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Earthquake-induced soil liquefaction (liquefaction) is a leading cause of earthquake damage worldwide. Liquefaction is often described in the literature as the phenomena of seismic generation of excess porewater pressures and consequent softening of granular soils. Many regions in the United States have been witness to liquefaction and its consequences, not just those in the west that people associate with earthquake hazards.

Past damage and destruction caused by liquefaction underline the importance of accurate assessments of where liquefaction is likely and of what the consequences of liquefaction may be. Such assessments are needed to protect life and safety and to mitigate economic, environmental, and societal impacts of liquefaction in a cost-effective manner. Assessment methods exist, but methods to assess the potential for liquefaction triggering are more mature than are those to predict liquefaction consequences, and the earthquake engineering community wrestles with the differences among the various assessment methods for both liquefaction triggering and consequences.

State of the Art and Practice in the Assessment of Earthquake-Induced Soil Liquefaction and Its Consequences evaluates these various methods, focusing on those developed within the past 20 years, and recommends strategies to minimize uncertainties in the short term and to develop improved methods to assess liquefaction and its consequences in the long term. This report represents a first attempt within the geotechnical earthquake engineering community to consider, in such a manner, the various methods to assess liquefaction consequences.

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