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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions (1994)

Chapter: References and Bibliography

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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1994. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2348.
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References and Bibliography

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA). 1993. Supercritical water oxidation program in conjunction with General Atomics and the Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute. Champaign.


Baronian, C. 1994. Personal communication on the status of the stockpile. Office of the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. Aberdeen Proving Ground, Aberdeen, MD.


Castle, G. 1993. Hazardous waste facility siting in Manitoba—Case study of a success. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 43:963-968.

Cheng, T.C., S.P. Harvey, and A. McKenzie. 1993a. Cloning and expression of a bacterial nerve agent degrading enzyme from Alteromonas JD6.5. ERDEC Scientific Conference on Chemical Defense Research, November 16-19.

Cheng, T.C., S.P. Harvey, and A.N. Stroup. 1993b. Purification and properties of a highly active organophorus acid anhydrolase from Alteromonas undina. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 59:3138-3140.

Cooper, J.F., and R. McGuire. 1983. Catalyzed Direct Chemical Oxidation of Chemical Warfare Agents: Applications in Agent Destruction and Decontamination. Proposal from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA.

Copa, W.M., and R.W. Lehmann. 1992. Wet-air oxidation for the destruction of chemical agents. Presentation at the committee's workshop, Washington, D.C., June 3-5.

Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1994. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2348.
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Dave, K., J. Wild, B. Xu, C. Lauriano, and C. Kenerley. 1993a. Expression of the organophosphate hydrolase in the filamentous fungi Gliocladium virens. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. In press.

Dave, K., C.E. Miller, and J.R. Wild. 1993b. Characterization of the organophosphorus hydrolases and the genetic manipulation of the phosphotriesterase from Pseudomonas diminuta. Chemico-Biological Interactions 87:55-68.

Dempsey, C.R., and E.T. Oppelt. 1993. Incineration of hazardous waste: A critical review update. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association 43(1).

Department of Defense (DOD). 1993. Large Rocket Motor Demilitarization Technology Review and Research and Development Funding Requirement for Fiscal Year 1991-1992. Twenty-fourth DOD Explosives Safety Seminar, St. Louis, MO. August 28-30.

Driver, J.H., H.W. Rogers, and L.D. Claxion. 1990. Mutagenicity of combustion emissions from a biomedical waste incinerator. Waste Management 10:177-183.


Evans, M. 1993. Information supplied by the Office of Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. Aberdeen, MD.


Flamm, K.J., Q. Kwan, and W.B. McNulty, 1987. Chemical Agent and Munition Disposal: Summary of the U.S. Army' s Experience. Report SAPEO-CDE-IS-87005. Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.


GA Technologies. 1987. Program Manager for Chemical Munitions, Interim Report on the Risk Analysis of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System. GA-C18714. Santa Monica, CA.


Hance, B.J., C. Chess, and P.M. Sandman. 1988. Improving Dialogue with Communities: A Risk Communication Manual for Government. Environmental Communication Research Program, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ.

Harvey, S.P., and J.J. DeFrank. 1993. Biodegradation of chemical warfare agents: Demilitarization applications in Army Science: The New Frontiers. D. Kamely, K.A. Bannister and R.M. Sasmore, eds. Saratoga, WY. Borg Biomedical Books.

Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1994. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2348.
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Harvey, S.P., L.L. Szafraniec, W.T. Beaudry, K. Dave, and J.R. Wild, 1993a. OPH: Studies with DFP, G-agents and VX. Biotechnical aspects of synthesis and degradation. U.S. Army Research Office, Research Triangle Park, N.C.

Harvey, S.P., K. Dave, and J.R. Wild. 1993b. Enzymatic catalysis of molar concentrations of munitions-grade GB. Proceedings of the 1993 ERDEC scientific conference on chemical defense research. U.S. Army ERDEC Technical Report. In press.

Harvey, S.P., A.N. Stroup, W.T. Beaudry, L.L. Szafraniec, P.C. Bossle, J.E. Kolakowski, L.R. Procell, D.K. Rohrbaugh, D.C. Sorrick, Y-C. Yang, 1993c. Alternatives to incineration for chemical demilitarization: studies of HD hydrolysis. Proceedings of the 1993 ERDEC Scientific Conference on chemical defense research. U.S. Army ERDEC Technical Report. In press.

Institute of Medicine (IOM). 1993. Veterans at Risk: The Health Effects of Mustard Gas and Lewisite. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.


Kaplan, S., and B. J. Garrick. 1981. On the Quantitative Definition of Risk. Risk Analysis, 1 (1).

Kolakowski, J.E., J.J. DeFrank, and J.R. Wild. 1993. Hydrolysis of VX and its analogs by organophosphorous hydrolase. CRDEC Conference on Chemical Warfare, Aberdeen, MD. November 17-19.


MITRE. 1991. Evaluation of the GB Rocket Campaign: Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System: Operational Verification Testing . McLean, VA.: MITRE Corporation.

MITRE. 1992. Evaluation of the VX Rocket Test: Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System: Operational Verification Testing. McLean, VA.: MITRE Corporation.

MITRE. 1993a. Evaluation of the HD Ton Container Test: Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System: Operational Verification Testing (April). McLean, VA.: MITRE Corporation.

MITRE. 1993b. Evaluation of the HD Projectile Test: Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System: Operational Verification Testing (May). McLean, VA.: MITRE Corporation.

Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1994. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2348.
×

MITRE. 1993c. Summary Evaluation of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System: Operational Verification Testing (May). McLean, VA.: MITRE Corporation.

MITRE. 1993d. Physical and Chemical Integrity of the Chemical Weapons Stockpile—Assessment of the U.S. Chemical Weapons Stockpile: Integrity and Risk Analysis (July). McLean, VA.: MITRE Corporation.

Moynihan, P.I., L.E. Compton, J. Houseman, J.J. Kalvinskas, and J.B. Stephens. 1983. Safe Disposal Techniques for DOD Toxic Waste. Volume I, Final Technical Report for the Period 17 June 1982 to 17 August 1983. JPL D-918. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA.

National Academy of Sciences (NAS). 1969. Report of the Disposal Hazards of Certain Chemical Warfare Agents and Munitions. Ad Hoc Advisory Committee of the National Academy of Sciences . Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1993. 1992. S. 3114. Congressional Record, 138:(129), September 21.

National Research Council (NRC). 1984. Disposal of Chemical Munitions and Agents. Committee on Demilitarizing Chemical Munitions and Agents. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

National Research Council (NRC). 1989a. Improving Risk Communication. Committee on Risk Perception and Communication, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

National Research Council (NRC). 1989b. Demilitarization of Chemical Weapons: Cryofracture. Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Washington, D.C.: Board on Army Science and Technology.

National Research Council (NRC). 1991a. Letter report to Assistant Secretary of the Army on the siting of a cryofracture disposal facility. Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Washington, D.C.: Board on Army Science and Technology.

Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1994. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2348.
×

National Research Council (NRC). 1991b. Letter report, Comments on Proposed Cryofracture Program Testing. Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Washington, D.C.: Board on Army Science and Technology.

National Research Council (NRC). 1991c. Demilitarization of Chemical Weapons by Cryofracture, A Technical Assessment. Panel on the Current Status of the Cryofracture Process. Washington, D.C.: Board on Army Science and Technology.

National Research Council (NRC). 1993a. Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Committee on Alternative Chemical Demilitarization Technologies. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

National Research Council (NRC). 1993b. Letter report to the Assistant Secretary of the Army, Evaluation of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System Operational Verification Testing: Part I. Washington, D.C.: Board on Army Science and Technology.

National Research Council (NRC). 1993c. Letter report to Assistant Secretary of the Army to recommend specific actions to further enhance the CSDP risk management process. Washington, D.C.: Board on Army Science and Technology.

National Research Council (NRC). 1994a. Review of Monitoring Activities Within the Chemical Demilitarization Program. Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

National Research Council (NRC). 1994b. Evaluation of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System Operational Verification Testing: Part II. Washington, D.C.: Board on Army Science and Technology.

Office of Federal Facilities Enforcement (OFFE). 1993. Recommendations for Improving the Federal Facility Environmental Restoration Decision-Making Process and Setting Priorities in the Event of Funding Shortfalls. Interim Report of the Federal Facilities Environmental Restoration Dialogue Committee (February). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1994. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2348.
×

Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), U.S. Congress. 1992. Disposal of Chemical Weapons: An Analysis of Alternatives to Incineration. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Picardi, A., P. Johnston, and R. Stringer. 1991. Alternative Technologies for the Detoxification of Chemical Weapons: An Information Document. Prepared for Greenpeace International, Washington, D.C.

PLG, Inc. 1993. Briefing presented at the Alternative Technologies Forum, Washington, D.C., June 30.


Reichert, C. 1975. Study of Mustard Destruction by Hydrolysis. Report DRES-TN-329. Defense Research Establishment Suffield Ralston, Canada.


Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC). 1985. M55 Rocket Disposal Program Study, M55-CS-02, Probabilities of Selected Hazards in Disposition of M55 Rockets. (November). LaJolla, CA.

Sines, B.J., E.W. Teather, S.P. Harvey, and W. Weigand. 1993. Investigation of Biological Reactor Designs for Treatment of Methanol and Thiodiglycol Waste Streams. Applied Biochem. Technology.


Testor, J.W., H.R. Holgate, F.J. Armellini, P.A. Weblep, W.R. Killilea, G.T. Hong, and H.E. Barner. 1991. Supercritical Water Oxidation Technology: A Review of Process Development and Fundamental Research. Pp. 35-76 in the ACS Symposium Series No. 518. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society.


U.S. Army. 1987. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program, Risk Analysis of the Disposal of Chemical Munitions at Regional or National Sites. SAPEO-CDE-IS-87008. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

U.S. Army. 1988. Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS). Available from Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

U.S. Army. 1993a. M55 Rocket Surveillance Funding Risk Assessment. Edgewood Research Development and Engineering Center, Safety Office, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1994. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2348.
×

U.S. Army. 1993b. Trip report on pollution abatement systems in Germany by MAJ J. Ontiveros. Office of Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. Aberdeen, MD.

U.S. Army. 1993c. Chemical Event Report—Additional Information. Mustard (HD) leaking from one-ton container prepared by Mr. Harold Oliver, Tooele Army Depot EOC, DSN 790-3686, 1410 hours, 9 Sep 93. Office of Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization. Aberdeen, MD.

U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA). 1982. Long Range Chemical Demilitarization Concept Study—Revised. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency (USATHAMA). 1983. Final Demilitarization Plan for Operation of the Chemical Agent Munitions System (CAMDS) at Tooele Army Depot, Ut. Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

Watts, R.R., B. Fitzgerald, G. Heil, H. Garabedian, R. Williams, S. Warren, L. Fradkin, and J. Lewtas. 1989 (November). Use of Bioassay Methods to Evaluate Mutagenicity of Ambient Air Collected Near a Municipal Waste Combuster. JAPCA (Air and Waste Management Association).

Watts, R.R., P.M. Lemieux, R.A. Grote, R.W. Lowans, R.W. Williams, L.R. Brooks, S.H. Warren, D.M. DeMarini, D.A. Bell, and J. Lewtas. 1992. Development of source testing, analytica, and mutagenicity bioassay procedures for evaluation emissions from municipal and hospital waste combustors. Environmental Health Perspectives. 98:227-234.


Yang, Y-C., J.A. Baker, and J.A. Ward. 1992. Decontamination of chemical warfare agents. Chemical Reviews 92:1729-1743.

Yang, Y-C., L.L. Szafraniec, W.T. Beaudry, and C.A. Bunton. 1993. Perhydrolysis of nerve agent VX. J. Org. Chem., 58, 6964-6965. Evaluation of Standard and Alternative Methods for the Decontamination of VX and HD in Chemical Agent Disposal Facilities, Report ERDEC-TR-054. U.S. Army Chemical and Biological Defense Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD.

Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1994. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2348.
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Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1994. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2348.
×

INDEX

A

Aberdeen Proving Ground, 18, 24, 42, 77, 127, 164, 165

Accidental exposure/release

baseline system procedures for, 93

health risks in, 68-69

in neutralization processes, 171

operational release, 66

relative risk in alternative technologies, 80-81

relative risk in baseline system, 78-80

risk assessment, 63, 72-77

storage risk vs. disposal risk, 5-6, 11, 83

in transportation, 6

Acetylcholinesterase inhibition, 68

Acidic hydrolysis, 105

Administrative management

in baseline system, 95

as public concern, 30

Afterburner processing

in baseline system, 8, 89, 90

in high-temperature, low-pressure pyrolysis, 107, 108

role of, 53

Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 70

Alkaline hydrolysis, 105, 161

Alternative technologies

current status, 11, 102-104, 120-121

delay of implementation and, 6-7, 11, 130

developmental state of, as selection criterion, 98, 100

dunnage decontamination in, 115-116

energetics destruction in, 114-115

evaluation criteria, 4-7, 9, 134-136

evaluation of destruction processes of, 101, 105-109

experimental research facility for, 18, 128

gelled agents in, 113

implementation of, 18-19, 128

integrated systems, 109-113

metal parts decontamination in, 115

neutralization processes as, 9-10, 16-18, 126-128, 130

in Public Law, 102-484, 134-136

recommendations for research, 13, 16-18, 20, 109-113, 123, 126-128

relative risk assessment of, 80-81

requirements for further development, 118-119

research on, 1-2

risk assessment of, 13, 123

safety of, as selection criterion, 99-100

types of, 98

Alternative Technologies for the Destruction of Chemical Agents and Munitions, 17, 22-23, 98, 119, 127

Animal studies, 71

Army, Department of, 1, 2, 5, 14, 19-20, 22-23, 23-24, 27, 123-124 , 129

community relations, 26-27, 30, 31

exposure standards, 69

implementation schedule, 32

munition leakage reports, 43-45

risk assessment, 64, 83

storage surveillance regulations, 47

waste stream standards, 53

Automated Continuous Agent Monitoring Systems (ACAMS), 8, 93

B

Baseline system

agent destruction in, 88

current status, 7

development of, 1, 23-24

Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1994. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2348.
×

disassembly operations in, 85, 87

dunnage decontamination in, 85, 92-93

energetics destruction in, 88-89, 113-114

experimental research facility for, 18, 128

improvement of, 8, 11, 15-16, 94-97, 116-118, 125-126

management structure, 95

material feed streams in, 56-57, 87

metal parts decontamination in, 89, 115

mineralization in, 55

monitoring procedures in, 93-94

pollution abatement in, 89-92

process, 7-8, 85-93

programmatic risk assessment of, 72-77, 83-84

recommendation for implementation, 16, 125

relative risk assessment of, 78-80

risk of storage vs. implementation of, 5-6, 11, 130

risks in, 67-68

storage in, 85

transport operations in, 6, 85

Binary munitions, 21n

Biological treatment

as alternative technology, 9, 10

developmental status, 176-177

enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis, 106-107, 176-179

integrated with neutralization process, 110, 111-113, 176, 179-180

mineralization via, 56

of oxidation waste products, 106, 180

Bis(2-chloroethyl)sulfide, 34

Blister agents, 2, 34

degradation in storage, 3

reported leakages of, 43-45

See also Mustard agents

Blue Grass Army Depot, 5, 24, 46, 77

Bursters, in munitions, 35

C

Calcium hydroxide, 10, 105

Cancer/carcinogenicity, 69

Candle mist-eliminator vessel, 90

Carbon filter beds

in baseline system, 87

potential problems with, 152-153

recommendations for, 16, 116-118, 125-126

role of, 148

technical description of, 148-153

Catalytic fixed-bed oxidation, 108

Charcoal scrubbing, 11, 115-118

Chemical Agent Munitions Disposal System (CAMDS), 18, 19, 68, 119, 128

Chemical and munitions stockpile

condition of, 1, 2-3

contents of, 2, 21, 34-35

current status of, 43-45

degradation risks, 2-3, 19, 128-129

evolution of disposal methods for, 1

legislative history, 22-23

locations of, 2, 24, 35, 42

in National Research Council research, 22-25

non-agent materials in, 56-58

storage risk vs. disposal risk, 5-6, 10, 11, 12, 32, 83, 121, 130

Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

monitoring program, 59-60

origins of, 1, 22

recommendations for, 12-20, 120-131

staffing needs, 19-20, 129

Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993, 10, 52, 56, 110-111, 161, 162

Chlorine oxide, 105

Clean Air Act, 3, 59

Clean Water Act, 3, 59

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, 59

Corrosion

in high-pressure oxidation, 107

as obstacle to disassembly, 45

in oxidation-neutralization approach, 112

of stored munitions, 45

in supercritical water oxidation, 157, 158

Cryofracture process, 87

D

Decontamination fluids, 57

Decontamination levels

in baseline system, 89 3X, 53, 56 5X, 53, 54, 58, 89

Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1994. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2348.
×

Defense, Department of, 58

Depot Area Air Monitoring System (DAAMS), 8, 93

Dioxins, 11, 69, 71

Disassembly

in baseline system, 85, 87

corrosion as obstacle to, 45

cryofracture process for, 87

mechanized, 14-15, 124

for neutralization processes, 163-164

recommendations for system design, 14-15, 124

Disposal of Chemical Munitions and Agents, 43

Disposal processes

design recommendations, 14-16, 124-126

evaluation criteria, 3-7

feed streams, 56-57

goals for, 3, 9, 52

historical approaches to, 1

in National Research Council research, 22-25

non-agent materials in, 58

regulatory environment, 3, 25

residual materials in, 52-56

risks in, 67-68, 72-77, 78-80

as systems approach, 4

waste streams in, 57

Dunnage, 3

alternative technologies for, 115-116

in baseline system, 8, 56, 57, 85, 92-93

decontamination of, 58

in recommendations for system design, 14, 124

types of materials in, 57, 58

E

Economic considerations, 4

in delay of implementation, 32

as evaluation criterion, 82-83, 130

Electrical incinerators, 115, 116

Electrochemical oxidation, 106

Electroencephalograph monitoring, 68

Energetics, 2

alternative technologies for treatment of, 10, 114-115

in baseline system, 7, 87, 88-89

alecontamination of, 58

materials classified as, 35, 57

in neutralization processes, 164

on-site disposal, recommendations for, 18, 127

propellant removal from, 35, 114

propellant stabilizer degradation in, 2-3, 19, 24, 46-51, 128-129

in recommendations for system design, 14, 15, 124-125

in slurry form, 15, 58, 125

in waste stream separation, 3, 56-57

Energy, Department of, 70

Environmental Protection Agency, 5, 58, 59, 66, 70

Environmental risk

in citizen concerns, 30-31

in evaluation of disposal technologies, 25

in neutralization processes, 171

persistence of mustard agents, 35

regulatory protection, 58-60

Ethanolamine, 10, 105

Evaluation criteria, 4-7

cost considerations in, 82-83, 130

definition of end products in, 52

nontechnical factors in, 25-26, 62

public opinion as, 83

risk minimization as, 4-7, 61-62, 66-67, 130

safety as, 99-100

for selecting alternative technologies, 98-101

socioeconomic factors as, 81-82

technology readiness as, 98, 100

Evaluation of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Disposal System Operational Verification Testing, 94-96

Explosives, in chemical munitions, 35

Exposure assessment, 66

F

Fluidized-bed combustion, 108

Fuses, 35

G

Gas wastes, 52, 57

activated carbon filter beds for, 16, 125-126, 148-153

in baseline system, 8, 89-90, 92

in dunnage decontamination, 92

emission standards, 53, 59

in enhanced baseline system, 11, 116-118

exposure standards, 53

health risks, 70

Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1994. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2348.
×

in high-temperature, low-pressure pyrolysis, 107-108

in neutralization processes, 163, 165, 169, 171

temporary storage of, 116

GB, 2, 34

accidental release of, 6

adverse effects of, 68

baseline system performance in destruction of, 94

caustic neutralization of, 56

enzyme-catalyzed biologic hydrolysis of, 106-107, 176-177, 178-179

leakage of, 45

low-temperature, low-pressure detoxification of, 105

mineralization of, 55

neutralization of, 10, 16, 26, 159, 160, 166, 173-174, 180

physical properties, 21, 34

storage risks, 67

in supercritical water oxidation, 156-157

Gelled agent, 15, 16, 17, 45, 113, 124, 126

General Accounting Office, 2

H

H, 34, 69

adverse effects of, 68

Hazardous Materials Transportation Act, 3, 59

HD, 34

baseline system performance in destruction of, 94

low-temperature, low-pressure detoxification of, 105

mineralization of, 55

in neutralization-incineration system, 110

neutralization of, 10

in World War I, 69

Health risk

agent exposure standards, 53

in citizen concerns, 27-29

in evaluation of disposal technologies, 25, 61

evidence of, 68-69

long-term, low-level exposure, 69-72

programmatic risk assessment of, 72-77, 83-84

recommendations for research, 12, 122

types of, in disposal technology, 62-63

High-temperature, low-pressure oxidation, 108, 114

High-temperature, low-pressure pyrolysis, 107-108, 114

HT, 34

Hydrogen chloride, 107

Hydrogen fluoride, 107

Hydrogen peroxide, 105, 106, 161

Hydrogenation process, 109, 115

Hydrolysis.

See also Neutralization of GB, 159

See also Neutralization

I

Implementation

of alternative technologies, procedure for, 18-19, 128

cost of delay in, 4

of liquid incinerator pilot testing, 10

pace of, 11, 121

in Public Law, 102-484, 136-137

recommendations for, 16, 20, 125

risk of delay in, 6-7, 11, 13, 75, 130

schedule for, 25, 32, 82, 119

site-specific considerations, 4, 13, 18, 122-123, 128

Incineration technologies

in alternative disposal technologies, 9

areas for improvement in, 8

in baseline system, 1, 7-8, 11, 88-89, 90-92, 95

baseline system dunnage furnace, 92-93

electrical power in, 115, 116

energetics destruction in, 15, 113-114, 125

health concerns, 5

integrated with neutralization processes, 110-111

liquid incinerator, 9, 10, 85, 88

for metal parts decontamination, 115

risk of long-term, low-level exposure, 70-72

See also Afterburner processing

Ionizing radiation, 106

J

Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS), 1, 2, 7, 8, 11, 15, 24, 35, 45, 49, 59, 68, 85, 92, 97, 117, 151

performance evaluation, 94-96

risk assessment of, 77

Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1994. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2348.
×

L

Landfill of neutralized materials, 26, 116

in slurry form, 53

Leakage, evidence of, 43-45

Lethal doses, 53

Liquid incinerator, 9

in baseline system, 88, 95

possible implementation schedule, 10

Long-term effects

current estimation of, 69-72

in disposal operations, 63

EEG patterns in assessment of, 68

environmental, 30

persistence of mustard agents, 35

in risk assessment, 5, 6

Low-temperature, low-pressure detoxification, 101, 105

Low-temperature, low-pressure oxidation, 105-107

M

M55 rockets, 22

baseline system performance in decontamination of, 94

energetics destruction in baseline system, 88

estimates of safe storage life, 47, 48

leakage from, 6, 43-45

propellant removal from, 35

propellant stability in, 2-3, 19, 24, 46-51, 67, 128-129

recommendations for, 19, 51, 128-129

storage condition of, 2-3, 46

Mason Report, 50

Mechanized disassembly, 14-15, 124

Metal parts, 3

alternative technologies for decontamination of, 10, 115

in baseline system, 7, 56, 57, 87, 89

corrosion of, 45

decontamination of, 58, 113

gelled agent in, 113

in neutralization processes, 164

on-site disposal, recommendations for, 18, 127

in recommendations for system design, 14, 15, 124, 125

types of components in, 57

Metals emissions in baseline system, 92

Mineralization

in baseline system, 55

chemical processes in, 55

definition, 55

in low-temperature, low-pressure oxidation, 105-106

MITRE Corporation, 19, 24, 49-50

Moderate-temperature, high-pressure oxidation, 107

Molten salt processes, 108, 114-115

Monitoring

in baseline system, 8, 85, 93-94

of charcoal filter beds, 117, 151, 153

current state of, 59-60

decontamination levels in, 53

dose-response, 68

in enhanced baseline system, 116-118

false positives in, 93-94, 151

of neutralization processes, 171

of occupational exposures, 68

recommendations for, 19, 128-129

regulatory requirements, 59

temperature, in baseline system, 88

temporary gas storage for, 116

Munitions

binary, 21n

corrosion in, 45

recommendations for disassembly, 14-15, 124

removal of agent in baseline system, 7

unitary, definition of, 21n

See also Energetics

Mustard agents.

See also Blister agents

adverse effects of, 68, 69

biological treatments for, 106, 107, 177, 179

carcinogenicity, 69

gelled, 15, 45, 113, 124

low-temperature, low-pressure detoxification of, 105

neutralization of, 16, 126, 160, 161, 168, 169, 172, 173

physical properties of, 21, 34-35

pressurized in stored projectiles, 44, 45, 67

N

National Research Council, 1, 2, 43

in chemical agent and munitions disposal research, 22-25

Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1994. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2348.
×

Natural disasters, 80

Nerve agents, 2

health monitoring in storage areas, 68

See also GB;

VX

Neutralization

advantages of, 159

in alternative disposal technologies, 9-10, 130

developmental status, 173-175

disposal of gelled materials in, 16, 17, 126

of GB via NaOH, 56

in integrated systems, 109-113, 179-180

limitations of, 162-164

in low-temperature, low-pressure detoxification, 105

potential applications for, 164-165

recommendations for research, 16-18, 20, 109-113, 126-128

research needs for, 172-174

risks in, 170-171

system design, 165-170

technical description, 159-162

waste streams in, 161, 163, 165, 168-170

Newport Army Ammunition Plant, 18, 24, 42, 127, 164, 165

Nitrocellulose, 46, 49

2-Nitrodiphenylamine, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51

Nitrogen oxides, 69, 96

in baseline system, 8

regulation of, 59

Nitroglycerin, 46

O

Ocean dumping, 1, 23

Office of Technology Assessment, 2, 49

Oxidation processes

in alternative disposal technologies, 9, 10

biological treatments, 106-107

electrochemical, 106

for energetic destruction, 58, 114

high-temperature, low-pressure, 108, 114

integrated with neutralization process, 110, 111-113, 166-168, 169

low-temperature, low-pressure, 105-107

moderate-temperature high-pressure, 107

safety concerns in, 10

supercritical water oxidation, 9, 10, 58, 107, 110, 114, 154-158

ultraviolet light in, 106

wet air oxidation, 9, 10, 107, 110, 114, 154-158

Oxone, 105

P

Plasma arc furnace, 108, 115

Pollution abatement

activated carbon filter beds for, 16, 87, 125-126, 148-153

in baseline system, 7, 8, 89-92

dunnage furnace, 92-93

in enhanced baseline system, 11, 116-118

role of, 53

Polychlorinated biphenyls, 89

Potassium hydroxide, 10

Potassium persulfate, 105-106

Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement, 64, 78

Propellants. See Energetics

Public concern/opinion, 5, 22

Alternative Technologies Forum for, 138-147

alternative technology research and, 24

in decision-making process, 82, 83, 84

demilitarization treaty requirements in, 29

disposal activities after demilitarization in, 29, 81-82

ecological impacts in, 30-31

in evaluation of disposal technologies, 2, 7, 26-27, 31

health risk in, 27-29

location of final processing facility and, 56

management of disposal facilities in, 30

in Public Law 102-484, 133-134

recommendations for role of, 14, 123-124

site-specific impacts in, 30

socioeconomic impacts in, 81, 84

Public Law 99-145, 22

Public Law 102-484, 22, 27, 133-137

Pueblo Depot Activity, 42

Q

Quench tower, 90

Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1994. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2348.
×

R

Research needs

for alternative technologies, 10, 16-19, 118-119, 126-129

experimental facility for, 18, 128

integrated systems in alternative technologies, 109-113

latent health risk of disposal activities, 12, 122

M55 rocket propellant stability, 51

for neutralization processes, 172-174

recommendations for, 16-19, 126-129

for removal of gelled agent, 15, 124

site-specific risk, 13, 77, 122-123

stockpile degradation, 19, 128-129

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 3, 59, 89

Resource recovery, 55, 109

Risk factors

assessment methodology, 61-67

citizen concerns about, 27-29

definition of total risk, 4

in delayed implementation, 6-7, 11, 13, 20, 32, 75, 123, 130

as evaluation criterion, 4-7, 61, 62, 130

latent health hazards, 12, 122

in long-term, low-level exposure, 5, 69-72

M55 rockets, 46, 48-51

measurement of safety, 63

obstacles to assessment, 71

occupational, 62-63

in oxidation processes, 10

programmatic studies, 72-77, 83-84

relative risk in alternative technologies, 80-81

relative risk in baseline system operations, 78-80

as selection criterion for alternative technologies, 99-100

site-specific, 4, 13, 61-62, 77-78, 122-123, 123

in storage vs. disposal, 5-6, 10, 11, 12, 32, 83, 121, 130

Rocky Mountain Arsenal, 26, 68

S

Salt wastes, 53

in baseline system, 8, 88, 90, 92-93

in low-temperature, low-pressure detoxification, 105

in recommendations for improving baseline system, 96

Science Applications International Corporation, 48, 49

Slag removal, 8

in baseline system, 88, 95

Slurry wastes, 53

energetics as, 15, 58, 125

Sodium hydroxide, 10, 57, 105

Sodium hypochlorite, 10, 105

Solvolysis. See Neutralization

Staffing needs, 19-20, 129

Storage

in baseline system, 85

current stockpile conditions, 2-3

of gas stream, 116

munitions leakages in, 43-45

programmatic risk assessment of, 72-77

reconfiguration of, pending disposal, 13, 123

relative risk of, 78

risk of disposal vs. degradation in, 5-6, 10, 11, 12, 32, 83, 121, 130

risks of, 57

site-specific risks, 13, 122-123

Sulfuric acid, 105-105

Supercritical water oxidation

advantages of, 154

as alternative technology, 9, 10, 107

disadvantages of, 157, 158

of energetics, 58, 114

integrated with neutralization process, 111-113, 169

integrated with neutralization processes, 110

technical description, 154-157

See also Oxidation processes

T

Thermal treatment

high-temperature, low-pressure oxidation, 108

high-temperature, low-pressure pyrolysis, 107-108

of stack gases, 117, 151

for unconditional release of treated material, 53

See also Incineration technologies

Tooele Army Depot, 6, 7, 8, 18, 42, 43, 50, 68, 85, 94, 128, 149

recommendations for improving baseline installation at, 95-97

Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1994. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2348.
×

Toxic Substances Control Act, 3, 59

Transportation

in alternative disposal systems, 17-18, 127

in baseline system, 85

in evaluation of disposal technologies, 26

neutralization levels required for, 56

off-site operations in alternative technologies, 10

risk in, 6, 67

Transportation, Department of, 58-59

Treaty requirements, 1, 10, 21, 25, 52, 56, 110-111, 161, 162

citizen concerns about, 29

U

Ultraviolet fight, 106

V

Venturi scrubber, 90

VX, 2, 34, 96

adverse effects of, 68

baseline system performance in destruction of, 94

caustic neutralization of, 106

enzyme-catalyzed biologic hydrolysis of, 106-107, 177-179

hydrolyric neutralization of, 10, 16, 160-161, 166-168, 169, 172, 180

low-temperature, low-pressure detoxification of, 105

mineralization of, 55

in neutralization-incineration system, 110

physical properties, 21, 34

in supercritical water oxidation, 156-157

W

Waste streams

in baseline system, 7-8, 57, 92-93

complete decontamination of, 55

decontamination fluids in, 57

decontamination levels, 53

in dunnage decontamination, 92-93

in energetics destruction, 114

liquid, 52

in low-temperature, low-pressure oxidation, 105

in neutralization processes, 160, 161, 163, 165, 168-170, 171

non-agent materials in, 58

recommendations for system design, 14-15, 124-125

regulation of, 58-60

resource recovery from, 55, 109

salt products, 8, 88, 90, 92-93, 96, 105

separation of, 3

solid materials, 52-53

types of, 52-53, 57

water discharge standards, 59

water emission/exposure standards, 53

in wet air oxidation, 10

in wet-air oxidation, 112

See also Gas wastes

Wet air oxidation, 9, 10, 107, 110, 114

advantages of, 154

biological treatment after, 106, 180

disadvantages of, 158

integrated with neutralization process, 111-113, 169

technical description, 154-157

See also Oxidation processes

Workers, chemical disposal, 62-63

World War I, 69

World War II, 69

Suggested Citation:"References and Bibliography." National Research Council. 1994. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/2348.
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Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions Get This Book
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The U.S. Army's chemical stockpile is aging and gradually deteriorating. Its elimination has public, political, and environmental ramifications. The U.S. Department of Defense has designated the Department of the Army as the executive agent responsible for the safe, timely, and effective elimination of the chemical stockpile. This book provides recommendations on the direction the Army should take in pursuing and completing its Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program.

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