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Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016 (2016)

Chapter: Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
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Appendix D

Speaker and Panelist Biographies

Nisreen AL-Hmoud obtained a Ph.D. in microbiology from Abertay University, Dundee, Scotland in 2002. In 2003, she joined the Royal Scientific Society (RSS) of Jordan as a researcher, and since 2009, she has been leading the group of Biosafety at RSS. Dr. AL-Hmoud is a member of the National Biosafety Committee and the National Committee for Science and Technology Ethics in Jordan. She also served as president of the Biosafety and Biosecurity International Consortium (BBIC) steering committee between May 2010 and July 2012. In October 2015, Dr. AL-Hmoud was appointed as director of the Centre for Excellence in Biosafety, Biosecurity and Biotechnology at RSS. Dr. AL-Hmoud started her teaching career in October 2006 as a visiting lecturer of medical microbiology at the department of Biology, Faculty of Science, at the University of Jordan. In February 2008, she joined Princess Sumaya University for Technology (PSUT) as an assistant professor, and later on as a department head and coordinator for the master’s program of Environmental Technology and Management. She is also a lecturer at the Health and Community Development Program of Jordan and the School for International Training Study Abroad Program.

Michael Callahan is a physical scientist boarded in both internal medicine and infectious diseases and is a Diplomat of Mass Casualty Care and Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (UK). Dr. Callahan received his M.S. in International Public Health and his M.D. from the University of Alabama School of Medicine, where he was the 19th Tinsley Harrison Scholar

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
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and received three academic and research awards in his graduate and medical training. His biodefense clinical research is focused on vaccine defeat, immune evade and multidrug-resistant organisms, and on best practices for highly dangerous pathogen infections in Africa where he prospectively enrolls cutaneous anthrax in Nigeria; and monkey pox, Ebola and Marburg in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Angola. In 2002, he was appointed clinical director for Cooperative Threat Reduction programs at six former Soviet Union (ex) Biological Weapons Institutes (VECTOR, State Research Center for Applied Microbiology, Kirov, Bersk, RCMDT, Highly Pure, and RIHOP), which included redirecting of unanticipated dual use and gain-of-function programs. From 2005 to 2012, Dr. Callahan led the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) biodefense therapeutics portfolio, which he expanded from $61 million to $260 million per annum in 2011, involving eight programs that generated nine investigational new drugs (INDs) and three new drug applications with products in market. While at DARPA he launched the Department of Defense Icon program Accelerated Manufacture of Pharmaceuticals (AMP), for which he received the 2010 DARPA Achievement Award, and which generated emergency use good manufacturing practice pH1N1 vaccines, and Nicotinia-expressed monoclonals such as ZMapp. Also while at DARPA, he launched Prophecy, the international physician Early Alert network, which delivers 24/7 emergency consultation, reagents and therapeutics for catastrophic (mass-casualty or HDP) infectious disease outbreaks, severe acute respiratory syndrome Hong Kong and H7N9 Nanjing. His drugs in market include Ambisome (Gilead), which has generated $6 billion since approval, cPG100, and four private-sector INDs involving novel anti-infectives, cytotherapeutics, or host-based antivirals. Dr. Callahan is president of United Therapeutics (UTHR) Division of Cell Therapeutics, and maintains faculty appointments at Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School and King Chulalongkom Medical University in Bangkok. Dr. Callahan continues his federal service as infectious disease and biosafety SME to the Academies, the National Security Council, BSEG, the Office of Net Assessment, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, MITRE, American Society of Microbiology, Infectious Disease Society of America, and the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

Rocco Casagrande is the Managing Director of Gryphon Scientific, LLC. His projects at Gryphon Scientific focus on bringing rigorous scientific analysis to problems of homeland defense. For the past dozen years, Dr. Casagrande has led more than 50 projects to evaluate and improve U.S. preparedness efforts for a chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear attack or emerging infectious disease event and to support a

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×

better understanding of the threat. Dr. Casagrande also served as the principal investigator of several projects supporting the U.S. government’s stance on emerging biotechnologies, including the guidance to the synthetic DNA industry and its moratorium on funding research involving engineered influenza viruses. From December 2002 to March 2003, Dr. Casagrande served as an United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) biological weapons inspector in Iraq where he acted as the chief of the United Nations biological analysis laboratory. Prior to working for UNMOVIC, Dr. Casagrande worked in private industry as an inventor in a nano/biotechnology company. Dr. Casagrande holds a B.A. in chemistry and biology from Cornell University, where he graduated magna cum laude, and a Ph.D. in biology from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Ralph J. Cicerone is the president of the National Academy of Sciences. His research in atmospheric chemistry, climate change, and energy has involved him in shaping science and environmental policy at the highest levels nationally and internationally. Dr. Cicerone was educated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (B.S. in electrical engineering) and the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana (M.S., Ph.D. in electrical engineering, with a minor in physics). In his early career, he was a research scientist and held faculty positions in electrical and computer engineering at the University of Michigan. The Ralph J. Cicerone Distinguished University Professorship of Atmospheric Science was established there in his honor in 2007. In 1978, he joined the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego, as a research chemist. From 1980 to 1989, he was a senior scientist and director of the Atmospheric Chemistry Division at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado. In 1989, he joined the University of California, Irvine, where he was founding chair of the Department of Earth System Science and was appointed the Daniel G. Aldrich Professor of Earth System Science. As dean of the School of Physical Sciences from 1994 to 1998, he recruited outstanding faculty and strengthened the school’s curriculum and outreach programs. Immediately prior to his election as Academy president, Dr. Cicerone served as Chancellor of University of California, Irvine, from 1998 to 2005, a period marked by a rapid rise in the academic capabilities of the campus. His research has focused on atmospheric chemistry, the radiative forcing of climate change due to trace gases, and the sources of atmospheric methane, nitrous oxide, and methyl halide gases.

Louis “Tony” Cox is president of Cox Associates, a Denver-based applied research company specializing in quantitative health risk analysis, casual modeling, advanced analytics, and operations research. Since 1986, Cox

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×

Associates’ mathematicians and scientists have applied computer simulation, biomathematical models, biostatistical and epidemiological risk analyses, casual data mining, machine learning, biomathematical modeling and bioinformatics, operations research, and artificial intelligence models to measurably improve health and engineering risk assessment and decision making for public and private sector clients. In 2006, Cox Associates was inducted into the Edelman Academy of the Institute for Operations Research and Management Science (INFORMS), recognizing outstanding real-world achievements in the practice of operations research and the management sciences. In 2012, Dr. Cox was inducted into the National Academy of Engineering (NAE) “for applications of operations research and risk analysis to significant national problems.” He is a member of the Academies Board on Mathematical Sciences and their Applications (BMSA) and a member of the Academies Standing Committee on the Use of Public Health Data in Food Safety and Inspection Service Food Safety Programs. Dr. Cox holds a Ph.D. in Risk Analysis (1986) and an S.M. in Operations Research (1985), both from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; an A.B. from Harvard University (1978); and is a graduate of the Stanford Executive Program (1993). He is honorary full professor of Mathematics at the University of Colorado, Denver, where he has lectured on risk analysis, biomathematics, health risk modeling, computational statistics and causality; is on the Faculties of the Center for Computational Mathematics and the Center for Computational Biology; and is clinical professor of Biostatistics and Informatics at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center. Dr. Cox is editor-in-chief of Risk Analysis: An International Journal, is area editor for Real World Application for the Journal of Heuristics, and is on the Editorial Board of the International Journal of Operations Research and Information Systems. He is an Edelman Laureate of INFORMS, a member of the American Statistical Association (ASA), and a fellow of the Society for Risk Analysis (SRA).

Ruxandra Draghia-Akli joined DG Research and Innovation of the European Commission as health director in 2009. In her position, Dr. Draghia-Akli is constantly seeking to deepen the reach, the breadth, and the depth of Europe’s excellence in health research and innovation (R&I). Before joining the European Commission, Dr. Draghia-Akli served as vice president of Research at VGX Pharmaceuticals (now Inovio) and VGX Animal Health. She received an M.D. from Carol Davilla Medical School and a Ph.D. in human genetics from the Romanian Academy of Medical Sciences. She also completed a doctoral fellowship at the University of Rene Descartes in Paris and post-doctoral training at Baylor College of Medicine and served as faculty at Baylor. In 2012, she became an honorary member of the Romanian Academy of Medical Sciences.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×

Gerald Epstein is a fellow of the American Physical Society and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He serves on the editorial board for the journal Biosecurity and Bioterrorism and has served on the Biological Threats Panel of the National Academy of Sciences’ Committee on International Security and Arms Control and the Biological Sciences Experts Group for the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. He also served on the Committee on Science, Security, and Prosperity, which produced the report Beyond Fortress America: National Security Controls on Science and Technology in a Globalized World. He received B.S. degrees in physics and electrical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. in physics from the University of California, Berkeley.

Adam Finkel is currently executive director of the Penn Program on Regulation at the University of Pennsylvania, where he is also a senior fellow at the Penn Law School, and is clinical professor of Environmental Health Sciences at the University of Michigan School of Public Health. From 2004 to 2007, he was a visiting professor of Public and International Affairs at the Woodrow Wilson School at Princeton University. From 2000 to 2003, Dr. Finkel was regional administrator for the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in Denver, Colorado, responsible for regulatory enforcement, compliance assistance, and outreach activities in the six-state Rocky Mountain region (Region VIII). From 1995 to 2000, he was Director of Health Standards Programs at OSHA headquarters, and was responsible for promulgating and evaluating regulations to protect the nation’s workers from chemical, radiological, and biological hazards. Dr. Finkel holds an Sc.D. in environmental health sciences from the Harvard School of Public Health, an M.A. in public policy from Harvard’s John F. Kennedy School of Government, an A.B. in biology from Harvard College, and is a certified industrial hygienist. Dr. Finkel has pioneered methodological improvements in human health risk assessment and cost–benefit analysis for the past 25 years, primarily in the areas of quantitative uncertainty analysis, accounting for interindividual variability in susceptibility, and designing regulatory processes to maximize stakeholder input and shed light on economic impacts. He is co-author of four books, including the 2014 volume Does Regulation Kill Jobs? In 2006, he received the David P. Rall Award for Advocacy in Public Health from the American Public Health Association for “a career in advancing science in the service of public health protection.” In 2013, he received the Alumni Leadership in Public Health Practice Award from the Harvard School of Public Health.

Robert Fisher is director, Regulatory Science for the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) Office of Counterterrorism and Emerging

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×

Threats (OCET) and the Medical Countermeasures Initiative (MCMi). He leads the MCMi Regulatory Science Program, oversees intra- and extramural research programs, and works with FDA Centers, PHEMCE stakeholders, and other U.S. and international partners on medical countermeasure-related regulatory science issues. Dr. Fisher joined FDA’s Center for Biologics Research and Review (CBER) as a staff fellow in 2006, and served as a staff scientist from 2013-2015. During his tenure at CBER, he provided scientific leadership for regulatory review of chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) medical countermeasures. He maintained an active research interest in several medical countermeasure related fields, including the modeling of complications related to vaccinia live-virus vaccines and investigating methods for improved characterization of botulism and anthrax antitoxin products. Dr. Fisher received his undergraduate degree in biology from the University of North Carolina at Pembroke and a Ph.D. in toxicology from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He studied filovirus and poxvirus pathogenesis under a National Research Council Research Associateship at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases and holds a certificate in Biohazardous Threat Agents and Emerging Infectious Diseases from Georgetown University.

Richard Frothingham is an associate professor of Medicine at Duke University Medical Center. He received his B.S. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and his M.D. from Duke. He completed clinical training programs in Medicine, Pediatrics, and Infectious Diseases and maintains board certification in Infectious Diseases. He is also a Certified Biological Safety Professional. Dr. Frothingham directs the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Regional Biocontainment Laboratory at Duke University. This laboratory was built to support research to develop drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines for emerging infections and biological threats. The Frothingham lab studies host responses to tuberculosis with the goal of developing better vaccines and treatments. Dr. Frothingham also provides clinical care to persons with HIV infection. Dr. Frothingham serves as co-chair of the Duke Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC). The Duke IBC has reviewed and managed biological research with the potential for dual use since 2005.

Keiji Fukuda is special representative for antimicrobial resistance for the director-general at the World Health Organization (WHO). He previously served as the assistant director-general for health security, the special adviser on pandemic influenza to the director-general, and director of the Global Influenza Programme. Before joining WHO, Dr. Fukuda served as the chief of the Epidemiology Unit, Influenza Branch, Centers for Disease

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×

Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States. He has extensive global and national public health experience with health security and emerging infectious diseases, including field investigations and research, capacity building and preparedness, communications, surveillance, and with international governance and frameworks such as the International Health Regulations, the Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Framework and the Codex Alimentarius. He is currently focusing on shaping the global approach to antimicrobial resistance. Dr. Fukuda is a physician and epidemiologist and received his B.A. from Oberlin College, his M.D. from the University of Vermont, his M.P.H. from the University of California, Berkeley, and additional training in epidemiology at CDC.

George Gao obtained his Ph.D. (D.Phil.) degree in 1995 from Oxford University, United Kingdom. He was selected by the Chinese Academy of Sciences “Hundred Talents” program in 2004, and received the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) Distinguished Young Scholar title in 2005. He is the chief scientist of two consecutive projects on the mechanism of interspecies transmission of viral pathogens and a leading principal investigator of the NSFC Innovative Research Group. He is also a member of the steering committee for the International Consortium of Anti-Virals (ICAV), and a visiting professor at Oxford University. He was awarded the World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) prize in Medical Sciences in 2012 and the Nikkei Asia Prize in 2014. Dr. Gao is a member of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, a fellow of TWAS, a fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology, and the director and professor in the Chinese Academy of Sciences Key Laboratory of Pathogenic Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Microbiology. He is also the vice president of the Beijing Institutes of Life Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Deputy Director-General of the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and dean of the UCAS Cunji College of Medicine.

Margaret Hamburg earned her B.A. from Harvard College, her M.D. from Harvard Medical School, and completed her residency at what is now New York Presbyterian Hospital-Weill Cornell Medical Center. She conducted neuroscience research at Rockefeller University in New York and at the National Institute of Mental Health, and later focused on HIV/AIDS research and policy as assistant director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. In 1991, after just 1 year in the New York City Department of Health, Dr. Hamburg was named its commissioner. During her 6-year tenure, she implemented rigorous public health initiatives that tackled the city’s most pressing crises head-on—including improved services for women and children, a needle-exchange program to combat HIV transmission, and the nation’s first public health bioterrorism

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×

defense program. The most celebrated achievement during her leadership was her aggressive approach to the city’s tuberculosis epidemic, which led to an 86 percent decline in drug-resistant tuberculosis in just 5 years. In 1997, 3 years after she was elected one of the youngest-ever members of the Institute of Medicine, President Bill Clinton named Dr. Hamburg assistant secretary for planning and evaluation in the Department of Health and Human Services, where she served until the end of the Clinton Administration. She then became founding vice president for biological programs at the Nuclear Threat Initiative, a foundation dedicated to reducing the threat to public safety from nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons. President Barack Obama nominated Dr. Hamburg for the post of the Food and Drug Administration commissioner on March 14, 2009. Dr. Hamburg is a member of the National Academy of Medicine and currently serves as its foreign secretary.

Jo Handelsman is the associate director for science at the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), appointed by President Obama and confirmed by the Senate in June of 2014. Dr. Handelsman helps to advise President Obama on the implications of science for the nation, ways in which science can inform U.S. policy, and on federal efforts in support of scientific research. Prior to joining OSTP, Dr. Handelsman was the Howard Hughes Medical Institute Professor and Frederick Phineas Rose Professor in the Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology at Yale University. She previously served on the University of Wisconsin, Madison, faculty as a professor in plant pathology from 1985 to 2009 and as professor and chair of the Department of Bacteriology from 2007 to 2009. In 2013, she served as president of the American Society for Microbiology. Dr. Handelsman is an expert in communication among bacteria that associate with soil, plants, and insects and helped pioneer the field of metagenomics, bridging agricultural and medical sciences. Dr. Handelsman is also recognized for her research on science education and women and minorities in science, and received the Presidential Award for Excellence in Science Mentoring in 2011. Dr. Handelsman also co-chaired the PCAST working group that developed the 2012 report, “Engage to Excel,” which contained recommendations to the president to strengthen STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) education to meet the workforce needs of the next decade in the United States. Dr. Handelsman received a B.S. from Cornell University and a Ph.D. in Molecular Biology from the University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Ruthanne Huising is an ethnographer of work and organizations. She studies how organizations respond to external pressures to change and the implications of these changes for professional control and expertise.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×

Across various projects she has observed how organizations accommodate regulatory change (Canada’s Human Pathogens and Toxins Act), auditing fads (Environment, Health & Safety Management Systems), and efficiency efforts (Ontario’s perioperative coaching program), and the complex responses of scientists, biosafety officers, health physicists, surgeons, nurses, and administrators. Ruthanne is an associate professor in the faculty of management at McGill University. She received her Ph.D. from the Sloan School of Management at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Gavin Huntley-Fenner is an independent human factors consultant. His consulting and research interests are focused on the contribution of risk perception and reasoning to warnings effectiveness. Prior to focusing full-time as a human factors consultant, Dr. Huntley-Fenner was a business consultant at McKinsey & Company. He began his professional career as an assistant professor at the University of California, Irvine, after earning his Ph.D. in Brain and Cognitive Sciences from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. From 2010-2014, he served as a member of the Food and Drug Administration’s Risk Communication Advisory Committee.

Lawrence Kerr is the director of pandemics and emerging threats within the Office of Global Affairs at the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). Dr. Kerr leads and manages the office, overseeing a broad policy portfolio including the global health security agenda implementation, pandemics and emerging threats, antimicrobial resistance, security policy issues (biosafety and biosecurity, biothreat prevention [Biological Weapons and Toxins Convention, United Nations Security Council 1540, Global Partnership against the Spread of Materials and Weapons of Mass Destruction]), and dual use research of concern. Prior to joining HHS in December 2015, Dr. Kerr served as the director for medical preparedness policy in the Resilience Directorate at the White House National Security Council Staff as the principal staff member responsible for coordinating policy regarding public health and medical resilience for biological events, whether the results of naturally emerging disease or deliberate release including his role on the Ebola Task Force. He previously served as the senior bio advisor to the director of the National Counterproliferation Center (NCPC) within the Office of the Director of National Intelligence. Dr. Kerr advised the senior leadership on strategic plans to prevent and counter the spread of biological weapons of mass destruction. Before joining NCPC in April 2006, he was director for biodefense policy with the White House Homeland Security Council in the Executive Office of the President. He served as assistant director for homeland security for the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) and as director

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×

of bioterrorism, research and development for the Office of Homeland Security in the Executive Office of the President. Dr. Kerr joined the Life Sciences division of OSTP in January 2001, where he came from his position at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases at the National Institutes of Health. He holds a B.S. in Biology and Art History and a Ph.D. in Cell Biology, both from Vanderbilt University.

Gabriel Leung is dean of medicine and chair professor of public health medicine at The University of Hong Kong. Previously he was Hong Kong’s first under secretary for food and health, then director of the chief executive’s office in government. Dr. Leung is one of Asia’s leading epidemiologists, having authored more than 400 scholarly papers and edited numerous leading journals. He directs the university’s World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Infectious Disease Epidemiology and Control. His research defined the epidemiology of two novel viral epidemics, namely severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in 2003 and influenza A (H7N9) in 2013. While in government, he led Hong Kong’s policy response against the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic.

Jonathan Moreno is 1 of 16 Penn Integrates Knowledge university professors at the University of Pennsylvania, holding the David and Lyn Silfen chair. He is also professor of medical ethics and health policy, of history and sociology of science, and of philosophy. Dr. Moreno is a senior fellow at the Center for American Progress in Washington, DC. In 2008-2009 he served as a member of President Obama’s transition team. His work has been cited by Al Gore and was used in the development of the screenplay for The Bourne Legacy. His online neuroethics course drew more than 36,000 registrants in 2013. Dr. Moreno’s writings have been translated into Chinese, German, Japanese, and Portugese. The American Journal of Bioethics has called him “the quietly most interesting bioethicist of our time.” Dr. Moreno is an elected member of the National Academy of Medicine. He has served as a senior staff member for three presidential advisory commissions, including the current bioethics commission under President Obama, and has given invited testimony for both houses of Congress. Dr. Moreno is the U.S. member of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization International Bioethics committee. Dr. Moreno received his Ph.D. in philosophy from Washington University in St. Louis, was an Andrew W. Mellon postdoctoral fellow, holds an honorary doctorate from Hofstra University, and is a recipient of the Benjamin Rush Medal from the College of William and Mary Law School and the Dr. Jean Mayer Award for Global Citizenship from Tufts University.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×

Kara Morgan has 16 years of experience in risk analysis and decision analysis. She earned her B.S. in Mathematics from Michigan State University, her M.S. in Environmental Science from Indiana University, and her Ph.D. in Engineering and Public Policy from Carnegie Mellon University. After earning her Ph.D., she worked for 4 years at Research Triangle Institute, supporting the Environmental Protection Agency with the use of data-based decision making methods. Then, she spent 10 years at the Food and Drug Administration, working to support the development and implementation of risk-based decision-making tools and to implement strategic program planning for improving the achievement of outcomes. She is currently a research leader at Battelle Memorial Institute in the Health and Analytics sector. In that role, she works with clients to improve their use of data to inform decision making, supports knowledge management tasks related to quality measures for health care improvement, and works with clients to assess the outcomes their programs are achieving. She is also an adjunct professor at the Ohio State University’s Glenn College of Public Affairs, where she teaches courses on risk and decision analysis. Dr. Morgan’s professional focus has been on developing tools and methods for supporting effective data-driven risk management decisions. Her areas of emphasis include performance measurement, strategic planning, program evaluations, knowledge management, risk and decision analysis, and application of these tools and methods to improve decision making and improve outcomes.

Philip Potter obtained his Ph.D. in molecular carcinogenesis at the Paterson Institute for Cancer Research in Manchester, United Kingdom, and moved to St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, shortly thereafter. His laboratory has worked for many years on the modulation of the response of tumor cells to chemotherapy, using both small molecule and molecular approaches. The latter has principally involved the use of adenovirus to deliver agents, such as ribozymes and drug metabolizing enzymes to cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Consequently, he has expertise in the design and construction of viral vectors and their practical use in the laboratory. Dr. Potter has more than 11 years of experience serving on the St. Jude Institutional Biosafety Committee, including as vice chairman and chairman. He is currently the vice chair of the IBC, and the chairman of the dual use research of concern subcommittee for the institution.

Monica Schoch-Spana, a medical anthropologist, is a senior associate with the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) Center for Health Security and a faculty member with the School of Medicine at the University of Pittsburgh and the Department of Anthropology at Texas State University. Dr. Schoch-Spana is a leading social science researcher in

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×

public health emergency preparedness. Her studies have been influential in debunking myths about mass behaviors in the context of bioterrorism and other health crises and in reframing the management of catastrophic health events to include social, ethical-moral, and governance dimensions. National advisory roles include serving on the Homeland Security Subcommittee of the Board of Scientific Counselors for the Environmental Protection Agency, the Resilient America Roundtable of the National Academy of Sciences, and the National Research Council Committee on Increasing National Resilience to Hazards and Disasters. Dr. Schoch-Spana has chaired national working groups to produce peer-reviewed, evidence-based consensus guidance for authorities on how to partner with citizens and civil society in relation to bioterrorism response, influenza pandemic planning, and nuclear incident preparedness, and she has organized three national meetings on how to strengthen community resilience to extreme health events. Her current research projects focus on local health department capacity for community engagement, communication dilemmas concerning medical countermeasures, and public participation in the development of policies for allocating scarce medical resources in a disaster. In 2003, Dr. Schoch-Spana helped establish the UPMC Center for Health Security. Prior to that, she worked at the Johns Hopkins University Center for Civilian Biodefense Strategies starting in 1998. She received her Ph.D. in cultural anthropology from Johns Hopkins University and a B.A. from Bryn Mawr College.

Ethan Settembre is vice president and head of research for Seqirus. He holds a Ph.D. in biochemistry from Cornell University and completed his postdoctoral training in Structural Virology at Harvard Medical School. He then joined Novartis Vaccines & Diagnostics in 2008 where he held several key positions in research developing vaccines against multiple viral targets, including influenza. Currently, he heads the Seqirus Research group focused on influenza vaccine development.

Michael Selgelid is director of the Centre for Human Bioethics, and the World Health Organization (WHO) Collaborating Centre for Bioethics therein, at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia. He is a member of the board of directors of the International Association of Bioethics and serves on the Ethics Review Board of Médecins Sans Frontières. His main research focus is public health ethics with emphasis on ethical issues associated with infectious disease. He edits a book series in Public Health Ethics Analysis for Springer and a book series in Practical Ethics and Public Policy for ANU Press. He is co-editor of Monash Bioethics Review and an associate editor of the Journal of Medical Ethics. Dr. Selgelid earned a B.S. in

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×

Biomedical Engineering from Duke University, and a Ph.D. in Philosophy from University of California, San Diego.

Samuel L. Stanley, Jr. was appointed as the fifth president of Stony Brook University in May 2009. Since that time he has presided over a tremendous growth of the university, through the implementation of a faculty hiring program that has brought 200 net new faculty to Stony Brook, a 5-fold increase in endowed professorships, the largest number of applicants and most accomplished classes in the school’s history, and record fundraising totals, including one of the largest gifts ever to a public university. Before becoming president of Stony Brook University, Dr. Stanley served as vice chancellor for research at Washington University in St. Louis, where he had a distinguished career as a biomedical researcher with a focus on host defense against emerging pathogens. Dr. Stanley currently serves as the chair of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB), is a member of the National Security Higher Education Advisory Board (NSHEAB), is the chair of Brookhaven Science Associates (BSA), which manages Brookhaven National Laboratory, is a member the board of directors of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, and is a member of the board of directors of the Research Foundation, State University of New York.

Volker ter Meulen qualified as an M.D. in 1960. He received his postdoctoral training in virology in the United States, at the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. On returning to Germany in 1996, he specialized in pediatrics and was subsequently visiting scientist at the Wistar Institute for Anatomy and Biology in Philadelphia and at the Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory in Berkeley, from 1969-1970. In 1975 he became a full professor and chairman of the Institute of Virology and Immunobiology at the University of Würzburg. He retired in 2002, having twice been elected dean of the faculty of medicine at Würzburg University. During his research career, Dr. ter Meulen worked on molecular and pathogenic aspects of viral infections in man and animals, in particular on infections of the central nervous system. Internationally, Dr. ter Meulen has served on a number of committees of organisations and scientific societies/unions in the area of virology and infectious diseases, covering a broad spectrum of important issues connected to human and animal pathogens. From 2003-2010, Dr. ter Meulen was president of the German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. From 2007-2010, he was president of the European Academies Science Advisory Council (EASAC), the association of the National Science Academies of the European Union, which is the IAP associated regional network for Europe. He was elected IAP Co-Chair in February 2013.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×

Silja Vöneky is co-director of the Institute for Public Law and is a professor of public international law, comparative law, and ethics of law at the University of Freiburg (Germany). Her areas of focus include international law, international humanitarian law, international environmental law, the law of the sea, international protection of human rights, the relation of ethics and law, and especially questions on how to regulate existential risks (biosecurity law and democratic legitimacy.) Since 2001, Professor Vöneky has served as the legal adviser to the German Federal Foreign Office, German Federal Ministry of Research, German Federal Ministry of the Environment, and the Alfred Wegener Institute for Scientific Marine and Polar Research. Since 2012, she has been a member of the German Ethics Council, appointed on the proposal of the federal government, and was the head of the Working Group on Biosecurity of the German Ethics Council.

Carrie Wolinetz is associate director for science policy and director of the Office of Science Policy (OSP) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). As leader of OSP, she advises the NIH director on science policy matters of significance to the agency, the research community, and the public on a wide range of issues, including human subjects protections, biosecurity, biosafety, genomic data sharing, regenerative medicine, the organization and management of NIH, and the outputs and values of NIH-funded research. Prior to joining NIH, Dr. Wolinetz worked on biomedical research policy issues as the deputy director for federal affairs at the Association of American Universities (AAU) and the director of scientific affairs and public relations at the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (FASEB). She also served as the president of United for Medical Research, a leading NIH advocacy coalition. Outside of NIH, Dr. Wolinetz teaches as an adjunct assistant professor at Georgetown University in the School of Foreign Service’s program on Science, Technology & International Affairs. She has a B.S. in animal science from Cornell University, and she received her Ph.D. in animal science from Pennsylvania State University, where her area of research was reproductive physiology.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×
Page 114
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×
Page 115
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×
Page 116
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×
Page 117
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×
Page 118
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×
Page 119
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×
Page 120
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×
Page 121
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Speaker and Panelist Biographies." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gain-of-Function Research: Summary of the Second Symposium, March 10-11, 2016. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23484.
×
Page 122
Next: Appendix E: List of Attendees »
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On March 10-11, 2016, the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a public symposium on potential U.S. government policies for the oversight of gain-of- function (GOF) research. This was the Academies’ second meeting held at the request of the U.S. government to provide a mechanism to engage the life sciences community and the broader public and solicit feedback on optimal approaches to ensure effective federal oversight of GOF research as part of a broader U.S. government deliberative process.

The first symposium, held in December 2014, examined the underlying scientific and technical questions surrounding the potential risks and benefits of GOF research involving pathogens with pandemic potential. The second symposium focused on discussion of the draft recommendations regarding GOF research of a Working Group of the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity. This report summarizes the key issues and ideas identified during the second symposium.

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