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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Application of Remote Real-Time Monitoring to Offshore Oil and Gas Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23499.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Application of Remote Real-Time Monitoring to Offshore Oil and Gas Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23499.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Application of Remote Real-Time Monitoring to Offshore Oil and Gas Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23499.
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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Application of Remote Real-Time Monitoring to Offshore Oil and Gas Operations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23499.
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Page 110

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107 A P P E N D I X D Telecommunications Options for Offshore Drilling and Production Operations for Connections to Onshore Headquarters Support Centers

Te ch no lo gy O pt io n B an dw id th R an ge St an da rd Co m m un ic at io n Li nk a D ri lli ng b Pr od uc tio nc Vi de oc on fe re nc in gd Re qu ire m en ts Th e st an da rd b an dw id th fo r an o ffs ho re p la tfo rm is 5 to 10 M bp s b ut is p ro je ct ed to ris e to 2 0 M bp s. If de m an d fo r v id eo co m m un ica tio ns fro m o ffs ho re in st al la tio ns in cr ea se s, re qu ire d ba nd - w id th co ul d ris e to 1 00 M bp s. In st an t m es sa gi ng ta ke s l es s t ha n 1 Kb ps , w hi le a Vo IP ca ll re qu ire s 56 K bp s. Dr ill in g to ol s a re ca pa bl e of ta kin g di re ct io na l s ur ve ys an d tra ns m itt in g da ta to th e su rfa ce in re al ti m e; th e lo ca tio n of th e w el lb or e ca n be ca lcu la te d by u sin g m ea su re m en ts o f i nc lin at io n, az im ut h, a nd to ol fa ce . Si m ila rly , d ril lin g to ol s c an ta ke m ea su re m en ts o f fo rm at io n pr op er tie s a fte r da ta a re se nt to th e su rfa ce an d as se m bl ed in to a lo g. Da ta tr an sm iss io n ra te s w ill de pe nd o n th e ap pr oa ch us ed . SC AD A sy st em s h av e be en in op er at io n fo r y ea rs a nd ca n us ua lly b e m ig ra te d to h ig h- sp ee d ne tw or ks a nd o pe n no np ro pr ie ta ry p ro to co ls w ith p la nn in g an d st ud y o f av ai la bl e op tio ns . Sy st em s d es ig ne rs m us t b e fa m ili ar w ith is su es o f fu nc tio na lit y, tra ns m iss io n de la ys , p ol lin g cy cle s, da ta pr oc es sin g re qu ire m en ts , an d av ai la bl e te ch no lo gi es . In a dd iti on , p ro pr ie ta ry a nd ve nd or -s pe cifi c p ro to co ls an d pr og ra m s s ho ul d be av oi de d at a ll co st s i n lie u of op en st an da rd s a nd e as ily in te rc ha ng ea bl e so ftw ar e an d ha rd w ar e fro m o ne ve nd or to a no th er . Fo r D TS , a fi be r-o pt ic ca bl e ca n be u se d bo th a s s en so r a nd fo r c om m un ica tio ns a t v er y hi gh tr an sm iss io n sp ee ds . St an da rd -d efi ni tio n vid eo w or ks a t 1 M bp s, bu t H D vid eo re qu ire s 4 M bp s a nd HD X ne ed s m or e th an 7 M bp s; u su al to ta l b an d- w id th re qu ire m en t f or a ll ap pl ic at io ns o n a dr ill in g rig is 2 to 4 M bp s.

M icr ow av e M icr ow av e ca n ra ng e fro m 5 12 Kb ps to 5 M bp s, de pe nd in g on th e co m m un ica tio ns p at h. M icr ow av e is lim ite d by li ne - of -s ig ht li nk s, an d ho ps a re us ua lly li m ite d to a bo ut 2 0 m ile s u nt il a re pe at er st at io n is ne ed ed in th e ne tw or k. Ye s Th ro ug h th e us e of m icr ow av e te le co m m un ica tio ns te ch no l- og y, da ta a re tr an sp or te d via w av el en gt hs th at m ea su re le ss th an 1 m et er . M icr ow av e co m m un ica tio ns so lu tio ns of fe r m or e ba nd w id th fo r da ta b ut a re re st ric te d to sh or te r d ist an ce s b ec au se of si gn al a tte nu at io n. M icr ow av e te le co m m un ica tio ns ar e of te n ch os en fo r l oc at io ns th at a re n ea r e ac h ot he r, su ch a s a cl us te r o f f ac ili tie s on a fi el d. Us ua lly n ot ca pa bl e of h an dl in g vid eo se ss io ns o ve r t he lo ng di st an ce s t o a sh or eb as e or on sh or e op er at io ns ce nt er . Sa te lli te Co m m er cia l s at el lit e In te rn et ba nd w id th ca n ra ng e fro m 20 0 M B pe r d ay to 2 5 GB p er m on th . A sh ar ed d ow nl oa d ca rri er m ay h av e a bi t r at e of 1 to 4 0 M bp s, to b e sh ar ed by 1 00 to 4 ,0 00 e nd u se rs . Th e hi gh es t-c ap ac ity co m - m un ica tio ns sa te lli te h as a to ta l t hr ou gh pu t c ap ac ity o f 14 0 Gb ps fo r a ll us er s. Ye s Th e m os t w id el y c ho se n so lu tio n fo r o ffs ho re co m m un ic at io ns , s at el lit e co m m un ic at io ns re qu ire a VS AT a t t he o ffs ho re si te , a b ro ad ba nd sa te lli te co nn ec tio n in sp ac e, a nd a te le po rt on sh or e. A va ila bl e an yw he re in th e w or ld , sa te lli te se rv ic es a re u se d m an y t im es fo r v es se ls th at m ay b e on th e m ov e or fo r ex tre m el y r em ot e lo ca tio ns . Ye s, bu t i n se ve ra l o pe ra tin g re gi on s ( N or th S ea , G ul f o f M ex ico , G ul f o f T ha ila nd , no rth w es t c oa st o f A us tra lia ) of th e w or ld , fi be r-o pt ic ca bl es o ffe r a n al te rn at ive fo r fi xe d pl at fo rm s. On ly ba sic ca pa bi lit y u nl es s op er at or in ve st s t he m on ey to u pg ra de se rv ice s; iss ue s of la te nc y a nd sh ar in g ba nd w id th w ith re al -ti m e ap pl ica tio ns m us t b e co ns id er ed . (co nt in ue d on n ex t p ag e)

Fib er Fib er -o pt ic ne tw or ks o pe ra te un de r s ta nd ar ds su ch a s 10 Ba se -F , 1 00 Ba se -F , F DD I, 1, 00 0B as e- F, an d 10 Gb as e an d in cl ud e ba nd w id th ca pa cit y i n th ei r d efi ni tio ns — fro m 1 0 M bp s t o 10 G bp s. Ye s Dr ill in g rig s a re u su al ly in re m ot e lo ca tio ns w he re ge tti ng fi be r t o th e rig is ex pe ns iv e. A lth ou gh it is lim ite d be ca us e ca bl es m us t b e ru n fro m p oi nt to po in t, fib er is a n op tim al co m m un ic at io ns so lu tio n fo r c lu st er ed fa ci lit ie s o r of fs ho re lo ca tio ns th at a re in h ig h- tra ffi c a re as , s uc h as th e N or th S ea o r t he U .S . Gu lf of M ex ic o. A ls o, fi be r ca bl es a re u se d to tr an sm it da ta b et w ee n su bs ea tr ee s, m an ifo ld s, ju m pe rs , s le ds , an d co nt ro ls vi a um bi lic al s. Ye s, an d us e of th is op tio n is in cr ea sin g in so m e op er at in g ar ea s. Of te n fib er ca n be la id fo r i nt er na l fi el d op er at io ns , bu t V SA T m us t b e us ed to co nn ec t t o sh or eb as e. Ye s N o t e : M bp s = m eg ab it s pe r se co n d; K bp s = k ilo bi ts p er s ec on d; V oI P = v oi ce o ve r In te rn et p ro to co l; SC A D A = s u pe rv is or y co n tr ol a n d da ta a cq u is it io n ; D T S = d is tr ib u te d te m p er at u re s u rv ey s; H D = h ig h d efi n it io n ; M B = m eg ab yt e; G B = g ig ab yt e; G bp s = g ig ab it s p er s ec on d ; F D D I = fi be r- d is tr ib u te d d at a in te rf ac e; V SA T = v er y sm al l ap er tu re te rm in al . a V oi ce , i n st an t m es sa gi n g, W i- Fi , a n d ce ll ph on e. b F or e xa m pl e, m ea su re m en ts w h ile d ri lli n g, lo gg in g w h ile d ri lli n g, d ir ec ti on al . c F ie ld a u to m at io n , S C A D A , e qu ip m en t h ea lt h m on it or in g. d V id eo fr om r ig fl oo r an d H D c am er as o n c ri ti ca l e qu ip m en t, c lo se d- ci rc u it te le vi si on , m on it or in g of r em ot el y op er at ed v eh ic le s. So u r c e : G en er at ed b y th e co m m it te e. Te ch no lo gy O pt io n B an dw id th R an ge St an da rd Co m m un ic at io n Li nk a D ri lli ng b Pr od uc tio nc Vi de oc on fe re nc in gd

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Application of Remote Real-Time Monitoring to Offshore Oil and Gas Operations Get This Book
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TRB Special Report 322: Application of Remote Real-Time Monitoring to Offshore Oil and Gas Operations provides advice to the Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE) of the U.S. Department of the Interior on the use of remote real-time monitoring (RRTM) to improve the safety and reduce the environmental risks of offshore oil and gas operations. The report also evaluates the role that RRTM could play in condition-based maintenance (CBM), and how BSEE could leverage RRTM into its safety enforcement program.

The report makes recommendations to BSEE about how RRTM could be incorporated into BSEE's regulatory scheme. The recommendations also suggest that BSEE monitor the development of RRTM technologies in relation to risk-based goals governing offshore oil and gas processes.

As a part of this study, TRB held a workshop and issued TRB's Conference Proceedings on the Web 17: Application of Real-Time Monitoring of Offshore Oil and Gas Operations: Workshop Report, which summarizes presentations made during the committee’s workshop in Houston, Texas, on April 20–21, 2015. A Report in Brief for this publication is also available. Read the media advisory.

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