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14 CHAPTER TWO BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING PURPOSE, PROCESSES, AND TOOLS BACKGROUND The first step in an organizationâs BIM implementation is to clearly identify its end goals or purpose for using BIM. The next step is to determine which BIM processes and tools will best enable the organization to reach those goals. A BIM classification system, which describes BIM purpose, processes, and tools for use across the facility life cycle, has been developed to assist organizations in the process of defining BIM objectives and facilitating BIM implementation. This chapter provides general information about the classification system. It also provides the related airport experience. BIM Purposes An organization can use BIM to gather, generate, analyze, and com- municate facility information as well as realize a facility, which means to use BIM to make or control a physical element using facility information. The following list outlines these purposes (objectives) and provides the subcategories (Kreider and Messner 2013): BIM may be used to gather facility information for the following purposes: 1. Capture the current status of the facility and facility elements 2. Quantify the amount of a facility element 3. Monitor the performance of facility elements and systems 4. Qualify facility elementsâ status. BIM may be used to generate facility information for the following purposes: 1. Prescribe the need for and select specific facility elements 2. Arrange the location and placement of facility elements 3. Size the magnitude and scale of facility elements. BIM may be used to analyze facility information for the following purposes: 1. Coordinate the efficiency and harmony of the relationship of facility elements 2. Forecast the future performance of the facility and facility elements 3. Validate the accuracy of facility information and that it is logical and reasonable information. BIM may be used for the purpose of communicating facility information to 1. Visualize a realistic representation of a facility or facility elements Massportâs decision to implement BIM represents a significant, multi-year change in how it executes projects and develops information about its assets. â Massport BIM Guide (2015)
15 2. Transform information and translate it to be received by another process 3. Draw a symbolic representation of the facility and facility elements 4. Document the facility information including the information necessary to precisely specify facility elements. BIM may be used for the purpose of realizing a facility using facility information to 1. Fabricate the elements of a facility 2. Assemble the separate elements of a facility 3. Control the operation of executing equipment 4. Regulate the operation of a facility element. After defining the objectives for BIM implementation, the BIM uses within each purpose are specified to address areas of application. The 25 common BIM uses (Penn State 2013): 1. Maintenance Scheduling 2. Building System Analysis 3. Asset Management 4. Space Management/Tracking 5. Disaster Planning 6. Record Modeling 7. Site Utilization Planning 8. Construction System Design 9. Digital Fabrication 10. 3D Control and Planning 11. 3D Design Coordination 12. Design Authoring 13. Energy Analysis 14. Structural Analysis 15. Lighting Analysis 16. Mechanical Analysis 17. Other Engineering Analysis 18. LEED Evaluation 19. Code Validation
16 20. Programming 21. Site Analysis 22. Design Reviews 23. Phase Planning (4D Modeling) 24. Cost Estimation 25. Existing Conditions Modeling. Each BIM use relates to a specific part of the facility life cycle, as shown in Figure 1. During the feasibility, planning, and development phase, BIM (facilitated by BIM uses) provides owners with information about the current state of the facility and can be used to generate information for analysis. During design and construction, BIM enables the generating of information, analysis, communication, and construction. During the operations phase, BIM can be used to continue gathering information to monitor the performance of a facility and its systems. BIM Definitions Purpose: the specific objective to be achieved when applying BIM during a facilityâs life. Use: a method of applying building information modeling during a facilityâs life cycle to achieve one or more specific objectives. Process: the process of utilizing BIM tools and approaches to improve âtraditionalâ business process and bring value to projects. Tool: support BIM processes at the project and organization levels and are generally categorized as authoring tools or audit and analysis tools. Resource: the systems, tools and/or knowledge required in addition to BIM tools to support and complete the BIM process. Sources: Kreider and Messner (2013); McGraw-Hill (2012); Penn State (2010). BIM Processes The term BIM process describes the âutilization of BIM tools and approaches to improve âtraditionalâ business process and bring value to projectsâ (McGraw-Hill 2012). BIM processes include planning, design, construction, facility maintenance and operations, and facility management processes. BIM Tools BIM tools support BIM processes at the project and organization levels. Tools are generally categorized as either authoring tools or audit and analysis tools. âAuthoring tools create models while audit and analysis tools analyze or add to the richness of information in a modelâ (Penn State 2010). Authoring tools are used to create 3D designs of facilities; incorporate the âproperties, quantities, means and methods, costs and schedulesâ; and facilitate BIM (Penn State 2010). BIM Resources BIM resources include additional systems, tools, and knowledge used to support and complete the BIM process. Resources include items such as a computer maintenance management system (CMMS), local code knowledge, and LEED building cer- tification knowledge. Additional tools include laser scanning to capture existing conditions and integrate them with models, augmented reality to blend models with live camera views of reality, simulation and analysis to optimize logistical planning and decision making, hyper-realistic immersive visualization to communicate complex information, and radio frequency identification systems for facility operations (McGraw-Hill 2014).
17 Table 2 combines all of these concepts and displays each BIM use along with the purposes, processes, tools, and resources associated with each use. TABLE 2 TYPICAL BIM USES, TOOLS, PROCESSES, AND RESOURCES BIM Uses BIM Use Purpose BIM Use Purpose Subcategory BIM Use Objective BIM Tools BIM Process Resources Maintenance scheduling Analyze Forecast Predict timing for ele- ment maintenance/ replacement Analysis Facility maintenance â¢ Record model â¢ Building automation system â¢ Computer maintenance management system Building system analysis Analyze Regulate Regulate facility ele- ments to optimize operations Analysis Design, facil- ity operations â¢ Record model â¢ Building systems analysis software Asset management Analyze Forecast Predict performance of facility over time Analysis/audit Facility opera- tions and maintenance â¢ Record model â¢ Asset management system Space management/ tracking Gather Monitor Observe the performance of facility elements and systems Analysis/audit Facility management â¢ Record model â¢ Content management software Disaster planning Gather Capture Represent or preserve the current status of the facil- ity and facility elements Audit Planning, design, facility management â¢ Record model â¢ Building automation system knowledge â¢ Emergency response knowledge Record modeling Communicate Document Create a record of facility information Authoring Design â¢ 3D model Site utilization planning Generate Arrange Determine location and placement of facility/ facility elements Analysis Construction â¢ 3D model â¢ Design authoring software â¢ Scheduling software Construction system design Analyze Coordinate Ensure the efficiency and harmony of the relation- ship of facility elements Analysis Construction â¢ 3D system design software Digital fabrication Realize Fabricate Use facility information to manufacture the ele- ments of a facility Authoring and analysis Design and construction â¢ 3D modeling software â¢ Fabrication equipment â¢ Fabrication methods 3D control and planning Analyze Coordinate Ensure the efficiency and harmony of the relation- ship of facility elements Authoring Design and construction â¢ 3D model 3D design coordination Analyze Coordinate Ensure the efficiency and harmony of the relation- ship of facility elements Analysis Design and construction â¢ 3D model â¢ Model review software Design authoring Generate Arrange Determine the location and placement of facility elements Authoring Design â¢ 3D modeling software Energy analysis Analyze Forecast Predict the future perfor- mance of the facility and facility elements Analysis Design, facility management â¢ 3D model â¢ Engineering analysis software Structural analysis Analyze Validate Check or prove accuracy of facility information and that it is logical and reasonable Analysis Design â¢ 3D model â¢ Engineering analysis software Lighting analysis Analyze Forecast Predict the future perfor- mance of the facility and facility elements Analysis Design â¢ 3D model â¢ Engineering analysis software Mechanical analysis Analyze Forecast Predict the future perfor- mance of the facility and facility elements Analysis Design â¢ 3D model â¢ Engineering analysis software Table 2 continued on p. 18
18 BIM Implementation Maturity Based on BIM Uses BIM implementation maturity can be evaluated based on the type of BIM use utilized by an organization (Khosrowshahi and Arayici 2012). BIM use frequency can also provide insight about the implementation maturity in industry (Jung and Lee 2015). The three BIM implementation maturity stages are progressive in nature (Khosrowshahi and Arayici 2012). The imple- mentation stages are as follows: â¢ Stage 1 (Basic)âtransitioning from 2D to 3D object-based modeling and documentation; does not require an interdis- ciplinary or collaborative effort. â¢ Stage 2 (Intermediate)âtransitioning to collaboration (data sharing) and interoperability (integrated data communica- tion) among the project team (stakeholders). â¢ Stage 3 (Advanced)âtransitioning to integration throughout all project life-cycle phases. Each stage adds more BIM uses. For example, using Design Authoring (creating 3D modelsâCAD) only to design/ communicate project plans or to do 3D Design Coordination (clash detection) would be classified as Stage 1. At Stage 2, for example, the designer or constructor would develop and deliver a model to the owner that facilitates Maintenance Scheduling. BIM Uses BIM Use Purpose BIM Use Purpose Subcategory BIM Use Objective BIM Tools BIM Process Resources Other engineering analysis Analyze Forecast Predict the future perfor- mance of the facility and facility elements Analysis Design â¢ 3D model â¢ Engineering analysis software LEED evaluation Analyze Forecast Predict the future perfor- mance of the facility and facility elements Analysis Planning, design, con- struction, operations â¢ 3D model â¢ LEED credit knowledge Code validation Analyze Validate Check or prove accuracy of facility information and that it is logical and reasonable Analysis Design â¢ 3D model â¢ Model checking software â¢ Local code knowledge Programming Generate Prescribe Determine the need for and select specific facil- ity elements Authoring Planning, design â¢ Design authoring software Site analysis Analyze Coordinate Ensure the efficiency and harmony of the facility elements Analysis Planning, design â¢ 3D model software â¢ GIS software Design reviews Communicate Visualize Form a realistic represen- tation of a facility or facility elements Analysis Design and constructions, facility management â¢ 3D model â¢ Design review software â¢ Interactive review space Phase planning 4D modeling Analyze Coordinate Ensure the efficiency and harmony of the relation- ship of facility elements Analysis Construction â¢ 3D model â¢ Scheduling software â¢ 4D modeling software Cost estimation Gather Quantify Express or measure the amount of a facility element Analysis Planning, design and construction, facility management â¢ Design authoring software â¢ 3D model â¢ Model-based estimating software â¢ Cost data Existing conditions modeling Gather Capture Represent or preserve the current status of the facil- ity and facility elements Authoring Design â¢ 3D model â¢ 3D laser scanning â¢ 3D laser scanning point cloud translation into objects Source: McCuen and Pittenger (2015).
19 At Stage 3 implementation, âmodel deliverables extend beyond semantic object properties to include business intelligence, Lean construction principles, green policies and whole life cycle costingâ (Khosrowshahi and Arayici 2012). Asset Manage- ment is an example of Stage 3 BIM implementation. Although each stage provides benefit, Stage 3 is the basis of the BIM philosophy. Implementation at this level will generate the most benefits for owners and stakeholders (Khosrowshahi and Arayici 2012). A recent survey of AECs and owners in North America assessed the use frequency (in parentheses) of the following BIM uses (listed in descending order) among the respondents (Jung and Lee 2015). A description of each use is as follows (Penn State 2010): â¢ 3D Coordination (95.5%): âClash Detection software is utilized during the coordination process to determine field conflicts by comparing 3D models of building systems. The goal of clash detection is to eliminate the major system conflicts prior to installation.â â¢ Cost Estimation (95.5%): â[A] BIM model can offer an accurate quantity take-off and cost estimate early in the design process and provide cost effects of additions and modifications with potential to save time and money and avoid budget overruns. This process also allows designers to see the cost effects of their changes in a timely manner which can help curb excessive budget overruns due to project modifications.â â¢ Structural Analysis (90.9%): â[I]ntelligent modeling software uses the BIM model to determine the most effective engi- neering method based on design specifications. Development of this information is the base for what is passed on to the owner and/or operator for use in the buildingâs systems (i.e., energy analysis, structural analysis, emergency evacuation planning, etc.). These analysis tools and performance simulations can significantly improve the design of the facility and its energy consumption during its life cycle in the future.â â¢ Existing Condition Modeling (81.8%): â[A] project team develops a 3D model of the existing conditions for a site, facili- ties on a site, or a specific area within a facility. This model can be developed in multiple ways depending on what is desired and what is most efficient. Once the model is constructed, it can be queried for information, whether it be for new construction or a modernization project.â â¢ Building System Analysis (72.2%): This analysis âmeasures how a buildingâs performance compares to the specified design. This includes how the mechanical system operates and how much energy a building uses. Other aspects of this analysis include, but are not limited to, ventilated facade studies, lighting analysis, internal and external CFD airflow, occupant evacuation, and solar analysis.â â¢ Design Authoring (63.6%): â3D software is used to develop a BIM model based on criteria that is important to the translation of the buildingâs design. Two groups of applications are at the core of BIM-base design process are design authoring tools and audit and analysis tools.â â¢ Maintenance Scheduling (54.4%): â[T]he functionality of the building structure (walls, floors, roof, etc.) and equip- ment serving the building (mechanical, electrical, plumbing, etc.) are maintained over the operational life of a facility. A successful maintenance program will improve building performance, reduce energy repairs, and reduce overall maintenance costs.â [Complete descriptions for each of the 25 BIM uses, including potential value, resources, and team competencies, are provided in the BIM Project Execution Planning Guide (Penn State 2010.)] The results revealed that 3D Coordination and Cost Estimation were used most. Additionally, the types of uses, which are used across the life cycle, indicate a Stage 3 (Advanced) BIM implementation maturity for more than half of the respondents. When compared with results from six other continents, North America was most advanced in terms of BIM implementation (Jung and Lee 2015). More information about BIM implementation is provided in the next chapter. AIRPORT EXPERIENCEâSURVEY RESULTS AND CASE EXAMPLES Respondents identified BIM purposes that support their use of BIM. The most cited reason by airports was to gather facility information to determine the location and placement of facility elements. Communicating facility information was also con- sistently cited by airports to visualize, draw, and document facility (elements).
20 Respondentsâ use of BIM tools is shown in Figure 7. Consistent with literature, the authoring tools are used by most respon- dents. Authoring tools are used to generate information about a facility to prescribe, arrange, and size facility elements. They are also used to communicate information to visualize, trans- form, draw, and document facility elements. FIGURE 7 BIM tools used by respondents in 2015 (McCuen and Pittenger 2015). ANCâs long-term BIM objective is to create a repository of accurate, detailed, data-rich, and geospatially located BIMs of every airport building over 1,000 ft2. These BIMs will contribute to effective facility management and future renewal/replacement projects. As part of this BIM effort, ANC houses a growing repository of photo-realistic digital images produced from laser scans and viewable through a web viewer. These images are intended to support the airportâs operations and maintenance (O&M) âwayfindingâ through enhanced visualiza- tion (e.g., to clearly identify objects such as a bag belt segment or the configuration of a specific drive motor). The mantra (and challenge) is to ANC is determining how to most effectively deliver the 3D representations (through off-the-shelf tools) to the various stakeholders who would benefit from having the information. Because of a lack of interoperability between tools, it is nec- essary to consider tools that offer file formats that will transfer from one BIM business process, such as design, to another, such as facility management. ANC has implemented an asset structure (i.e., categorized its asset types) to integrate with BIM platforms, which will enable use of BIM for asset management and will allow ANC to add visualization to its operations and maintenance activities. Figure 8 shows the respondentsâ BIM uses. Consistent with literature, 3D coordination (used for avoidance of utilities breaks during construction, for example) was most commonly cited. Figure 9 shows the comparison of BIM use response from this study (illustrated by squares) compared with the Jung and Lee (2015) results for North America (illustrated by triangles) for the given BIM uses. Nine participants in this study currently report BIM uses (five airports, four AECs). The population demographics for the North America survey included AECs and owners, but the population distribution was unspecified (Jung and Lee 2015). Therefore, responses will have inherent differ- ences. The reader is also cautioned about the purposive nature of this study. However, a comparison does yield some insight. Expectedly, the basic BIM uses have high use among all respondents. 3D Design Coordination (clash detection), noted in the previous chapter as being associated with the greatest project BIM benefit, was shown to have the most use. Results for Exist- ing Conditions Modeling show similar high levels of use. Design Authoring (developing a 3D model) has a higher reported use in this study, indicating an alignment with the results from a recent survey that found 73% of owner participants rated their increased understanding of proposed design solutions as one of the top-rated positive impacts of BIM (McGraw-Hill 2015). All of the AECs in this report have higher levels of BIM activity, a distribution that may not have the same representation in the other study. Among this studyâs participants, less frequency was reported for the more advanced uses (Building System Analysis and Maintenance Scheduling). However, according to responses related to future BIM use (holding the North America response constant), those gaps close, as shown in Figure 9. âknow what you have and see what you have.â â Ted Stevens, Anchorage International Airport Balfour Beatty Construction is researching new ways to benefit owners, such as offering radio frequency identification tagging for elements hidden in walls and above ceilings to enhance facility management. â Balfour Beatty Construction
21 FIGURE 8 Survey responses for common BIM uses (McCuen and Pittenger 2015). FIGURE 9 Current (2015) and future (expected) BIM uses survey results for this study contrasted with North America (benchmark) study (McCuen and Pittenger 2015).
22 Survey results from this study provided airport profiles for the sequence of BIM use implementation (listed in Appendix A). The general trend exhibited among the respondents is to implement BIM uses that correlate with the plan, design, and construction phases (project-based) first, then implement uses in the operations (organizational-based) phase. The type of BIM uses utilized by an organization can be evaluated to determine its implementation maturity, as described in the literature section (Khosrowshahi and Arayici 2012). In addition, the number of BIM uses that an organization has integrated into its operations can also provide insight (Jung and Lee 2015). The methodology rests on the assumption that an increasing number of BIM uses indicates greater adoption/implementation. Table 3 shows BIM use categories for respondent airports. The most notable trend among respondents is the future (expected) shift from project-level (beginning to basic) implementation to an organization-level (intermediate to advanced) implementation, as evidenced by the addition of BIM uses that support the operations phase. From Project-Based to Organization-Based Denver International Airportâs (DENâs) adoption of BIM was initially project driven (i.e., the effort was tied to a specific project that provided an opportunity for DEN to implement BIM). DEN has since become more organization-centric and has increased internal stakeholder buy-in by no longer outsourcing BIM services. However, it is not just about adding BIM, but about a change management process for the entire airport. DEN finds that the cost of maintaining the BIM staff (which is much greater than the investment in BIM software) is offset by the benefit that the group contributes in supporting DENâs BIM program and other departmentsâ programs (e.g., maintenance, project management, finance). For example, the BIM group regularly works with the Planning Department to conduct analyses for project prioritization. DEN also invests a lot of time in cross-training personnel from other departments in BIM. Lessons Learned: DENâs in-house, dedicated BIM staff consists of five staffers. The challenge was in finding qualified applicants that have sufficient BIM experience, since the pool of BIM-proficient professionals is currently very small. â Denver International Airport TABLE 3 BIM USE CATEGORIES FOR RESPONDENT AIRPORTS Organization Years Using BIM BIM Use Categories BIM approach No. of BIM uses BIM implementation maturity based on BIM uses Current Future Current Future Current Future 1 - Airport 5 Organization Organization 17 24 Advanced 2 - Airport 3 Project Organization 11 14 Intermediate Advanced 3 - Airport 8 Organization Organization â 21 Basic Advanced 4 - Airport 1 Organization Organization 15 24 Intermediate Advanced 5 - Airport 2 Organization Organization 17 21 Advanced 6 - Airport 1 Project Organization 0 24 â Advanced 7 - Airport 1 Project Organization 4 11 Basic Intermediate 8 - Airport 1 Project Organization 0 12 â Intermediate Source: McCuen and Pittenger (2015). Adding those BIM uses will facilitate the airportsâ expansion and advancement of their current use of BIM, as noted by the anticipated increase in BIM uses and BIM use types that relate to greater implementation maturity, which will, in turn, trans- late to greater benefits. This maturity assessment based on BIM uses reported is fairly consistent with those in next chapter, which are based on self-assessment and incorporate experience, project implementation, and BIM use across the life cycle.