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31 CHAPTER FOUR TECHNICAL ISSUESâCONTRACTS, RESOURCES, AND REQUIREMENTS After an organization adopts and implements BIM, it then develops its strategy to execute BIM on projects and in its opera- tions. This chapter provides general information about BIM technical issues across the facility life cycle. It also provides related airport experience. BACKGROUND Contracts BIM supports an integrated, collaborative approach to project delivery and contracting strategies for new construction and renewal projects. The coordination and information-sharing capabilities of BIM facilitate efficient communication between team members for increased project knowledge and improved solutions. The need for improved contracts to sup- port BIM is a continuing challenge for the industry, as 54% of respondents in a recent survey identified the need for more use of contracts to support BIM (McGraw-Hill 2012). Industry organizations such as the American Institute of Architects (AIA) with its BIM Agreement and the Association of General Contractors with its Consensus Docs are addressing the contracting issues. The AIA Digital Practice Documents include the Building Information Modeling and Digital Data Exhibit (E203), Digital Licensing Agreement (C106), Project Digital Data Protocol Form (G201), and Project Building Information Modeling Protocol Form (G202). The AIA documents are intended to be attached to the project agreement at the time the agreement is executed. Perhaps the most widely adopted aspect of the original AIA documents is the definition of Level of Development (LOD) in terms of the expected accuracy of model element graphics and information content. NBIMS recently revised the original LOD categories to include LOD 350 (NBIMS 2015). LOD describes the minimum dimensional, spatial, quantitative, qualitative, and other data included in a model element to support the authorized uses associated with such LOD, as follows (AGC, AIA, and NBIMS 2015; images from Massport 2015, used with permission): LOD 100âModel element may be graphically represented in the model with a symbol or other generic representa- tion, but does not satisfy the requirements for LOD 200. Information related to the model element can be derived from other model elements. LOD 200âModel element is graphically represented within the model as a generic system, object, or assembly with approximate quantities, size, shape, location, and orientation. Non-graphic information may also be attached to the model element. LOD 300âModel element is graphically represented within the model as a specific system, object, or assembly in terms of quantity, size, shape, location, and orientation. Non-graphic information may also be attached to the model element. LOD 350âModel element is graphically represented within the model as a specific system, object, or assembly in terms of quantity, size, shape, orientation, and interfaces with other building systems. Non-graphic information may also be attached to the model element. LOD 400âModel element is graphically represented within the model as a specific system, object, or assembly in terms of size, shape, location, quantity, and orientation with detailing, fabrication, assembly, and installation infor- mation. Non-graphic information may also be attached to the model element.
32 LOD 500âModel element is a field verified representation in terms of size, shape, location, quantity, and orienta- tion. Non-graphic information may also be attached to the model elements. Within the collaborative environment of BIM, project delivery methods that integrate design and construction with the owner and facility operations will enable the greatest opportunity to optimize the project. Design-Build and Integrated Project Delivery assemble the team during the planning or early design phase, which, with the support of BIM, enables collaborative problem solving early in the project life cycle. As a result the facility owner benefits from cost avoidance and improved per- formance (Smith and Tardif 2009). Additionally, an integrated approach to project delivery distributes risk in a more equitable way, with the team collaborating on solutions that are best for the facility owner. The traditional method of Design-Bid-Build has built-in barriers between the designer and contractor, resulting in a potential adversarial and contentious relationship. Even with Construction Manager-at-Risk, BIM enables a more robust guaranteed maximum price associated with the shared project knowledge and problem solving between the design and construction team (McGraw-Hill 2012). Although in some cases, certain roles on the team may be assuming additional risks, such as the designers that share models; an integrated team agreement defining roles and responsibilities will assist with this issue. Resources and Requirements It is important that the BIM personnel, project team, and organizational stakeholdersâ roles and responsibilities be defined clearly and early. The BIM Project Execution Planning Guide (Penn State 2011) is a useful tool for developing the contracts, communication procedures, technology, and quality control to support BIM implementation at the project level. The guide includes 13 sections to be completed upon team formation: 1. Project information 2. Key project contacts 3. Project goals/BIM uses 4. Organizational roles/staffing 5. BIM process design 6. BIM information exchanges 7. BIM and facility data requirements 8. Collaboration procedures 9. Quality control 10. Technological infrastructure needs 11. Model structure 12. Project deliverables 13. Delivery strategy/contract. A clear definition of the BIM roles and responsibilities within a facility ownerâs organization is essential if the owner is seeking BIM for operations and asset management. As presented in the previous chapter, critical to the organizationâs BIM implementation is a BIM champion, along with key personnel to execute the implementation. These key personnel include a BIM manager, BIM specialist, and technology specialist. The BIM manager and specialist should have the requisite skills and knowledge in design, construction, and operations roles. Although BIM relies on technology to enable improvement, the discipline-related competencies of individuals in these roles are critical to implementation if an owner is to realize improved personnel productivity.
33 Contracting BIM Project Services When an owner contracts BIM services on a project, it is common to have a BIM Manager who guides BIM activities throughout design and construction. The first steps involve developing the team and establishing requirements for the final deliverable. The initial BIM project execution plan is developed and approved by the team. The project delivery method will affect how the BIM Manager facilitates the process: â¢ Design-Bid-Build (DBB): The BIM Manager works with the owner to establish contractor BIM requirements to be included in the bid package. â¢ Construction Manager/General Contractor or Construction Manager-at-Risk (CM/GC or CMAR): The BIM Manager works with the CM/ GC/CMAR to ensure that the contractor BIM requirements are included in the bid package. â¢ Design-Build (DB): The BIM Manager works with the contractor to ensure that both the design and construction deliverables are understood. â Iron Horse Architects Defining the information exchanges between project par- ticipants will ensure that the author and receiver for each information exchange transaction clearly understand the information content. The Penn State Project Execution Plan- ning Guide (2011) includes an information exchange work- sheet for use by the BIM coordinator and project team. The information exchange worksheet was created to be completed in the early stages of a project after the BIM process is designed and mapped. For example, if 3D coordination is one of the BIM processes to be used on a project, then the exchange process and information content between team members are to be defined to provide the information needed by each member to perform his or her tasks within the process. Information exchange standards are to be defined at the project level, unless a national or industry standard information exchange exists. NBIMS version 3 (2015) includes eight information exchange standards that were developed by industry experts, then vetted and approved by a majority vote of buildingSMART allianceâ¢ members. Complete description and information exchange requirements are available in the NBIMS version 3. The eight standards are 1. Construction Operations Building information exchange (COBie)âversion 2.4, Appendix AâLife-cycle information exchange for Product Data (LCie) 2. Design to Spatial Program Validation (SPV) 3. Design to Building Energy Analysis (BEA) 4. Design to Quantity Takeoff for Cost Estimating (QTOIE) 5. Building Programming information exchange (BPie) 6. Electrical information exchange (SPARKie) 7. Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning information exchange (HVACie) 8. Water Systems information exchange (WSie). In addition to BIM personnel, material and financial resources will be needed to successfully implement BIM. Developing the organizationâs strategy for BIM use so that it clearly details the intended maturity level of implementation, tools to support the BIM uses, and BIM processes for information exchanges will assist with successful implementation. The Interactive Capability Maturity Model is a free resource that measures the level of maturity at the project level exclu- sively within an organization (NBIMS 2007, 2015). Tools (software) to consider as internal resources are (1) BIM estimating tools; (2) model validation, program, and code compliance tools; (3) project communication and model review tools; (4) model viewing tools; (5) model servers; (6) facility and asset management tools; and (7) operation simulation tools (Smith and Tardif 2009). The primary criteria for selecting tools include interoperability, or a common data exchange language, through which the exchange of information can be executed between technologies without redundant human input of the informa- Without clients defining exactly what data they require and whenâthe employerâs information requirementsâthen full asset data will not be extracted during construction. â Gatwick Airport (2014)
34 tion. Without interoperability the tools will not support collaboration but instead will establish islands of information with no means for efficient sharing between team members. Gatwick Airport aims to have 100% fully integrated asset information coordinated through BIM integrating and other databases. Reaching this goal will require compatibility and interoperability with existing management systems used across the various departments within the airport for operational maintenance and commercial billing. â Gatwick Airport (2014) AIRPORT EXPERIENCEâSURVEY RESULTS AND CASE EXAMPLES Seventy-five percent of the respondent airports require BIM for new projects. Most of the airports require BIM based on a project size of $5 million or greater; fewer airports require BIM on all projects, regardless of size. Boston Logan International Airport (BOS) uses a BIM Decision Matrix (located in Appendix C) to determine when and how to use BIM for each project type. An organizationâs BIM strategy may change as technology evolves. Lessons Learned: Donât use BIM for the sake of using BIM. If BIM is misapplied, it can be costly and yield no benefit. Massport has shifted from a âBIM for all projectsâ to a âBIM for selected projectsâ philosophy. Massportâs Lean BIM Approach There is great diversity in type and size of projects at an airport, and not all projects will benefit from BIM use. MPA has recently adopted a Lean BIM approach that requires process changes. Specifically, application of BIM tools and uses must be clearly linked with the success of a given project. The âMassport Decision Matrixâ is used to determine if BIM application is appropriate for a specific project. If benefits can be derived, then a âProject Success Plan,â a process that links Lean Principles to BIM use (see figure below; Massport BIM Guide 2015, p. 19) is initiated to determine which BIM uses are appropriate for the project and which are not. For example, if a project has no LEED requirements, MPA will not perform the energy modeling because it is costly and wastes effort. LAWA is gradually removing the term âBIMâ from its require- ments because it is generally not well understood. It is being replaced by more concise language related to the âmanaging of informationâ for the purposes of decision making, which is a âIf an owner does not require BIM for a project but the consultant develops a model anyway, the owner may benefit from obtaining it.â â Boston Logan International Airport
35 more familiar concept to executive management. LAWA is not receiving âBIMâ; rather, it is receiving information that has been authored, vetted, and finalized in the form of asset data to be used by internal stakeholders (Asset Management, Facilities). Iron Horse Architects state that 3D modeling is a standard business practice for many architects who use it for the purpose of spatial coordination, which adds value to the designer during the design process. On the contrary, architects generally pro- vide BIM only on projects when specified (and purchased) because the benefit of BIM is not realized by the architect, but by the owner of the asset. BIM is more design-labor intensive and, therefore, more costly. However, since design fees/additional cost of BIM is the smallest portion of costs on large projects, it is often easily offset and justified, especially when the BIM data will be leveraged by the owner to create savings in the facility management phase. For this reason, even if an airport is not currently contracting BIM, it may be advantageous for it to do so on large projects so that it does not miss the opportunity to capture the data for future use. Balfour Beatty Construction states that BIM is a standard business practice for many general contractors who use it (and require subcontractors to use it) for the purpose of spatial coordination (i.e., clash detection), which adds value to the contrac- tor during the construction process. Therefore, contractors may use BIM regardless whether an owner requires it on a project. Figure 11 shows the BIM requirements that respondent air- ports add to their request for proposals (RFP) for new con- struction and renovation/renewal projects. All of the airports require a BIM project execution plan and specify technology (software requirements). Inclusion of risk allocation clauses was cited least by respondents. However, a recent case study with the American Institute of Steel Construction revealed a need to better define project team relationships and expanded roles and responsibilities, which need to align with the additional risks associated with BIM-related project activities (McGraw-Hill 2012). FIGURE 11 Airport RFP BIM requirements for new construction or renovation/renewal projects (McCuen and Pittenger 2015). Balfour Beatty Construction states that another challenge general contractors face relates to getting owners to define and communicate BIM needs early enough in the project process so that the requirements can be seamlessly added into the pro- cess. Contractors need to know what the ownerâs end-of-project goals are, what type of data are required and in what format, and so on. On a current nonairport project, the owner initiated a predesign BIM meeting with the contractor that included the facilities operations and management groups, to establish the project-related BIM requirements. Consistent with literature, respondents indicated a need for guidance for improving contracts to support BIM, as develop- ing contract language is a continuing challenge. âWe want BIMâ is not a useful ownerâs requirement. Owners need to specify the why-how-what-and-when aspects related to BIM deliverables. Perspective of BIM and associated benefits is unique to each organization. Therefore, it is imperative for owners to develop a written BIM Guide to direct consultants toward owner requirements and goals. The purpose of the Massport BIM Guide is to ensure that at the end of a project, MPA gets what it needs to manage and maintain the facility. â Boston Logan International Airport âAn owner is to clearly communicate what it wants in BIM and how it is going to use the information so that consultants can deliver.â â Iron Horse Architects
36 At the time of this writing, DENâs BIM/GIS design standards manual [Electronic Data Collection and Interchange (EDCI) Compliance Design Standards Manual] was available at http://business.flydenver.com/bizops/documents/ denEDCIComplianceDSM.pdf. DEN is in the process of rewriting the manual to reflect the lessons learned during the execution of its recent large capital project. Lessons Learned: Developing contractual language is an iterative process that results from the general lack of guidance. When contractually requiring consultants to record/provide asset data, it is important to be very specific in the contract lan- guage about what asset data are to be captured. The SFO BIM Guide provides consultants with project performance requirements, which are outcome-focused, in terms of data and documents, instead of prescriptive requirements, which are process-focused. Specifically, SFO requires consultants to develop project-specific BIM execution plans, which facilitate âbringing them to the table as true partners.â The goal is to benefit from the value being developed by the consultants according to their talents and skills during design and construction for the purpose of making outcomes directly useful to SFO facilities maintenance and operations as well. Historically, the application of BIM in design and construction has been project-focused. Even when an owner required BIM as part of the project closeout package, it generally went unused by facilitiesâ O&M. SFO is directly addressing that industrywide issue by partnering with consultants to develop project execution plans that include considerations for using data beyond construction closeout. This creates a valuable feedback loop that allows SFO to fine-tune the SFO BIM Guide. Currently, SFO is finalizing its RFP (contract) language and BIM Guide. LAWA has specified in its RFP language the way that it expects information (e.g., asset location, make, model, serial number) to be made available at the end of the project (closeout data delivery requirements). Additionally, LAWA requires the information to be consolidated into the record models, which are defined per LAWA standards. Asset data are to be structured in a way that is useful to LAWA and to its CMMS. This enhances efficiency in the information transfer process. The data are also required to be verified during the commissioning process, enhancing the accuracy of the information. An example of one of LAWAâs Project Requirement Documents (PRâ20), for Virtual Design & Construction (VDC), Building Information Model (BIM) is located in Appendix D. Lessons Learned: Language about the definition of the required design model needs to be clear in procurement. For example, LAWA has a standard that the design must be composed in a specified BIM author- ing tool. Airports require different LODs for BIM deliverables at project handover. Most of the airports require LOD 300 or LOD 350, whereas one airport (which uses COBie) requires LOD 400 and one does not specify LOD requirements. Although the airport that requires LOD 400 is at the beginner level of expertise and at a light level of implementation, indications are that the airportâs BIM strategy is to utilize it for robust operations and asset management. Model elements at LOD 400 are ready for fabrication and are modeled as specific systems, objects, or assemblies in size, shape, location, quantity, and orientation with detailing, fabrication, assembly, and installation information. Anchorage International Airport is currently evaluating the optimal amount of detail to include in its BIMs. The initial thought was to model all facility elements to include complete graphical and properties data. However, the high-density scans contain a lot of detail; converting them to BIM (from point clouds to parametric objects) is resource intensive. A more gradual approach may be better if tools continue to be developed that can convert raw scan data into usable visual images. Eighty-five percent of the airports stated that they have a requirement for file compatibility, since data exchange between software requires a common language. Of the three airports where tenants are involved in BIM, only DEN requires a tenant BIM model (minimum LOD 350); however, it does not require an energy analysis (energy modeling). Table 6 shows the relationship between an airport respondentâs BIM activity level and the group that is managing its BIM activities. The obvious trend is that the airports that have more BIM activity have a dedicated BIM staff or the facilities management group manage that activity. As the other airports expand their BIM activity into the facilities management/operations phase, how they manage the additional BIM activity may need to be considered.
37 Tenant BIM at Denver International Airport Recently, Concourse C was expanded and new tenants were added at DEN. Although not contractually obligated to do so, the consultant designed the project in BIM according to DEN standards. DEN was able to get tenant BIM data and leverage the experience to develop/troubleshoot its Tenant BIM Guidelines to be implemented on future projects. It is important to demonstrate the business case for BIM to airline tenants, since these stakeholders are DENâs customers. The airline tenants have exhibited buy-in to the concept of BIM. The obvious BIM-related benefit accrued to these stakeholders is in the enhanced ability to shift from corrective maintenance practices to preventive maintenance practices, which are less costly and result in better gate availability and fewer construction disruptions. However, buy-in is mixed with regard to actual implementation; some have adopted BIM companywide while others resist owing to stated reasons of higher initial project costs due to BIM. There is a different dynamic with nonairline tenant buy-in because there is really no benefit to these stakeholders (therefore, no buy-in, although some of the DEN tenants see the value of BIM). The benefit of tenant BIM is realized by facility owners. Tenants are resistant, but DEN contractually requires it. Lessons Learned: DEN BIM Managers must be prepared to spend a lot of time assisting tenants (and consultants) in applying DEN BIM Guidelines (e.g., teaching them how to get on shared coordinates, how to use a linked model). â Denver International Airport TABLE 6 AIRPORTSâ BIM ACTIVITY MANAGEMENT GROUP AND BIM ACTIVITY LEVEL Group That Handles Airportâs BIM BIM Activity Level Very high High Medium Low Dedicated BIM staff 1 1 Facilities staff 1 Outsourced to consultants/other stakeholders 1 Other: (1) CAD staff; (2) Design and construction; 2 2 (3) Engineering data; (4) Engineering staff