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38 CHAPTER FIVE FACILITY LIFE-CYCLE MANAGEMENT After developing its strategy to execute BIM on projects and in its operations, an organization begins the process of acquiring and implementing BIM throughout the facility life cycle. This will support its organizational goals of managing assets in ways that maximize facility life-cycle value and minimize the true cost of ownership. This chapter provides general information about facility life-cycle management with BIM. It also provides related airport experience. BACKGROUND Facility life-cycle management uses an âorganizational infrastructure of people, processes and technologyâ (Motawa and Almarshad 2013). BIM is used in facility management (FM) to increase the efficiency of operations, save money over the life of the facility, and possibly extend the facilityâs useful life (Smith and Tardif 2009). Facility management functions use an extensive amount of information generated across an organization and its programs (Patacas et al. 2015). A facility man- agement model could significantly streamline the FM process with comprehensive information about equipment warranty, routine maintenance, and estimated useful life of major building components. Additionally, the building systems controls could be integrated with the BIM to monitor the facilityâs performance. Depending on the ownerâs requirements, the FM BIM deliverable may be a design model with design intent information and as-built conditions, or it may also be the as-built model with complete construction and fabrication information. A 3D model can provide only basic, generalized informationâfor example, the quantity and size of VAV [variable air volume] boxes on a project. But BIM supports FM because it can add data to the model that is specific to each VAV box on the project (e.g., geolocation, size, flow, speed, connections, filter type, maintenance plan, supplier information). â Iron Horse Architects. (Image of above-ceiling HVAC location and maintenance space requirements) (McCuen and Pittenger 2015). Methods for Implementing a Life-Cycle Approach A life-cycle approach exists from the earliest conception to demolition of a facility (Kreider and Messner 2013). To imple- ment BIM into the life cycle, the facility owner identifies BIM uses across the life cycle, information exchange requirements
39 at each life-cycle phase, as well as stakeholders within each phase. The final phase involves managing the building and its valuable contents as financial assets. Although the existing guides and tools for general facility owners provide templates for projects, approaching life cycle from the organizationâs perspective can be facilitated with a merger of a comprehensive BIM strategy, goals, and champion. ACRP Report 139 provides some guidance for using BIM in optimizing airport operations and maintenance to facilitate a whole-systems approach (Sebesta 2015). Resources for Life-Cycle Management The capabilities enabled through smart building technologies and monitoring of building systems are resources available to improve facility life-cycle management. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Roadmap for Life-Cycle Building Information Modeling (2012) focuses on an integrated facility life-cycle management of information for infrastructure. The Engineer Research and Development Center continues to develop an integrated framework for predicting, monitoring, and controlling activities in a facility, and the resources needed to support those activities are the R&D focus for the group. As BIM becomes an integral part of the FAA enterprise information management system, models used for design will form the basis of the information source for life-cycle management activities that BIM will enhance while improving resource and cost utilization by providing the capability to â¢ Reduce travel to confirm existing site conditions â¢ Update as-built drawings to match existing conditions â¢ Facilitate coordination between disciplines and organizations â¢ Improve the accuracy of design reviews â¢ Enhance cost estimating for all project life-cycle phases â¢ Improve safety analysis â¢ Monitor OSHA/EOSH compliance â¢ Verify assets after a catastrophic event â¢ Track assets throughout their life cycle for capitalization value. â FAA (2015a) Asset Management/GIS Accurate representations of real-world property conditions modeled in BIM can help reduce the information gap between those conditions and the typical stored tabular data about the facility (Smith and Tardif 2009). Building geospatially located information enables asset management by associating the real-property location with the model for space use tracking, analy- sis, and forecasting. A geographic information system (GIS) tool provides the link between systems. Linking the facility man- agement system bidirectionally to the record maintenance model will provide the necessary information for financial decision making, short-term and long-term planning, and work-order scheduling by the facility management team. The bidirectional link between the facility management software and the record model allows for the visualization of assets in the model prior to work orders, thus potentially reducing time and cost investments (Penn State 2013). Determining Downstream Information Needs The ownerâs facility management team should first determine the model elements for which the BIM will be used and then define the level of development for each model element specified. Depending on the BIM deliverable requirement, the facil- ity management team may need personnel with skills to navigate the design or record model to view the building elements and associated information. In some instances the owner may specify both, using the as-built construction model for as-built documentation and the record model (in its native file format) to update and use for renovation throughout the facility life cycle (Penn State 2013). Ensuring Appropriate Information Exchanges The facility data, attributes, and properties of the facilityâs elements will be needed for efficient facility management. The COBie is a performance-based specification for system-to-system facility information delivery without user intervention (National Institute of Building Sciences 2014). The COBie worksheets enable information exchanges and provide a standard
40 structure for facility data (Penn State 2013). The biggest challenge for information exchange is the facility management team defining the information needed in the model at the time of handover. Defining the information exchange requirements is a multistep team process in which the exchanges between project participants are clearly defined along with the information content of the exchanges, using a process map. Based on the BIM process map, the steps to creating the information exchange requirements are as follows (Penn State 2011): 1. Identify each potential information exchange from the process map 2. Choose a model element breakdown structure for the project 3. Identify the information requirements for each exchange, in terms of output and input 4. Assign responsible parties to author the information required 5. Compare input versus output content. As a shared knowledge resource, BIM can reduce the need for re-gathering information. This can result in an increase in the speed and accuracy of transmitted information, reduction of costs associated with a lack of interoperability, automation of checking and analysis and unprecedented support of operation and maintenance activities. â GSA (2016) The primary BIM uses for Facilities Management (operate phase) are defined as follows (Penn State 2010): â¢ Maintenance Schedulingâdefined in the second chapter of this report. â¢ Asset Managementâa âprocess in which an organized management system will efficiently aid in the maintenance and operation of a facility and its assets. These assets, consisting of the physical building, systems, surrounding environ- ment, and equipment, are to be maintained, upgraded, and operated at an efficiency which will satisfy both the owner and users at the lowest appropriate cost. It assists in financial decision-making, as well as short-term and long-term planning. Asset Management utilizes the data contained in a record model to determine cost implications of changing or upgrading building assets, segregate costs of assets for financial tax purposes, and maintain a current comprehensive database that can produce the value of a companyâs assets.â â¢ Space Management/Trackingâa âprocess in which BIM is utilized to effectively allocate, manage, and track assigned workspaces and resources. A BIM model will allow the facility management team to analyze the existing use of the space and appropriately manage changes in clientele, use of space, and future changes throughout the facilityâs life cycle. Space management and tracking is an application of the record model.â â¢ Disaster Planningâa âprocess in which emergency responders would have access to critical building information in the form of model and information system. The BIM would provide critical building information to the responders, that would improve the efficiency of the response and, more importantly, minimize the safety risks. The dynamic building information would be provided by a building automation system (BAS), whereas the static building information, such as floor plans and equipment schematics, would reside in a BIM model. These two systems would be integrated through a wireless connection and emergency responders would be linked to an overall system. The BIM coupled with the BAS would be able to clearly display where the emergency was located within the building, possible routes to the area, and any other harmful locations within the building.â â¢ Building System Analysisâdefined in the second chapter of this report. Process of Converting Design/Construction Models to Facility BIM Generally, closeout as-built models generated from large capital projects require conversion through a thoughtful and thorough process (series of steps) that âcleans out the models (rids the model of no-longer-necessary elements), normalizes the naming and attributions (if needed) of the remaining elements to make them directly usefulâ to other stakeholders. For example, when design/construction models contain information that is not specifically relevant to the operations and maintenance phases (e.g., information related to preconstruction coordination, collision detection), a distinct calibration phase is required after construction to convert the models into something that the Facilities Maintenance group can use to operate and maintain the assets with better ease. Keeping all of the elements given the current state of technology may make the model âtoo heavyâ for daily use by facilities maintenance and operations. â San Francisco Airport Commission
41 AIRPORT EXPERIENCEâSURVEY RESULTS AND CASE EXAMPLES Since there is currently no standard process or guidance governing the most effective way to institutionalize BIM for asset management, BOS has found that the greatest challenge to developing a strategy stems from the fact that, unlike other parts of the life cycle, FM approaches can vary widely. For example, how does an owner determine what infor- mation to include in the record model and how to include it into its facility management processes? The answer to this question will differ among each organization. BOS is exploring three different ways of getting BIM data for FM: (1) through the architect, (2) through the commissioning agent, and (3) through other consultants. Lessons Learned: It may not be advisable for the public owner to specify inclusion of FM-related BIM data in the design model (which is often proprietary) resulting from public bidding statutes, as information (e.g., equipment make, model) may change in the course of the bidding process. BOS has taken a process-oriented approach in analyzing what the FM teamâs needs are, then identifying appropriate tech- nology solutions, versus a technology-oriented approach that tries to âfitâ available technology to an organizationâs processes. Although most of the surveyed airports specify handover of BIM from construction, as discussed in the previous chapter, only one specifies LOD 400 for BIM deliverables. A minimum LOD 300 is specified to facilitate asset manage- ment. Model elements at LOD 400 may enhance facilities management through detailing, fabrication, assembly, and installation information. LOD 300 and LOD 350 provide information about size, shape, location, quantity, and orienta- tion; these elements are not ready for fabrication. The model element information needed to achieve LOD 400 is the same detailing, fabrication, assembly, and installation information that could enhance operations and maintenance. The 300 and 350 levels align with traditional construction documents, whereas the LOD 400 is considered the equivalent of construction submittals. Only one airport utilizes the COBie standard for BIM handover from the construction phase. This finding of a low adoption rate by airports is consistent with the recently reported adoption rate of COBie by the AEC industry. COBie was created to facilitate data transfer from BIM to FM systems and has been incorporated into more than 20 different BIM software pack- ages and tools; however, it is still not well understood by facility owners (Giel et al. 2015). Four airports (50%) are using BIM to document existing facilities and conditions, which are not part of a new program or construction project. BIM supports DEN in developing a more robust and cost-effective asset management program owing to such benefits as (1) allowing the tracking of a sufficient number of (more) asset types and (2) reducing the amount of missing or invalid asset data. The process of collecting BIM data throughout the project process enhances the availability and integrity of the data. Specifically, BIM allows for the capture of location information by the designer, asset information (e.g., make, model, serial number) by the contractor, and data verification by the commissioning agent. DEN is in the process of starting a new program related to the smoother linking of BIM with its GIS and asset manage- ment programs. Essentially, DEN is replacing its recent platform with a newer, out-of-the-box software tool that provides a direct link between BIM and a CMMS that permits a bilateral exchange of information (i.e., eliminates the need to transfer data using spreadsheets) and also allows flexibility (e.g., user-defined parameters) that addresses DENâs data transfer needs. Initially, DEN considered developing a centralized database that would serve as a clearinghouse for all of the data generated from BIM, GIS, and asset management programs, allowing real-time data availability to all users. However, DEN determined that developing and maintaining this entirely custom system would be cost prohibitive. The efforts to standardize team collaboration, automate modeling processes, and utilize data standards remain fragmented across standards groups, process silos, competing software vendors, and industry organizations. Currently, the AEC industry does not have a culture that focuses on facility life cycle, well-understood collaboration, or data standards to support current technology capabilities. As an owner, MPA is forced to bring together several disparate industry initiatives in this guide to gain BIM efficiencies on projects. â Massport BIM Guide (2015) DEN is the only respondent airport that has a comprehensive FM program in place. It currently uses BIM for space man- agement/tracking, asset management, and maintenance scheduling. Table 7 provides a profile.
42 TABLE 7 DENVER INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT FACILITY LIFE-CYCLE MANAGEMENT PROFILE Survey Question Yes No Is your organization currently using BIM for operations and maintenance and/or facilities management? â Is your organizationâs computerized maintenance management system (CMMS) integrated with BIM software for data exchange? â Is your organization linking BIM with a geographic information system (GIS) for operations and maintenance? â Is your organizationâs asset management system integrated with BIM software for data exchange? â Is your organization currently using BIM data for asset management? â Does your organization use BIM data for the following asset management activities: integrated decision making, life-cycle analysis, and real property inventory? â Does your organization utilize metrics to assess the value of BIM utilization for asset management? â Has the use of BIM added value to your organizationâs asset management plan? â BIM data, based upon open standards, integrates with the Computerized Maintenance Management Systems (CMMS) and the Geographic Information Systems (GIS). This BIM, CMMS, and GIS infrastructure will hold the âground truthâ for MPA assets and provides dashboard data for a future Integrated Workplace Management System (IWMS) streamlining MPAâs analysis, consideration, and prioritization of projects. â Massport BIM Guide (2015)