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Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Seeing Students Learn Science: Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23548.
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Index

A

Assessment of three-dimensional learning (see Classroom assessment; Design of tasks and assessments; Implementing assessments; Monitoring assessments; System approach)

B

Behavior of Air, 51, 52–59, 68, 73

Biodiversity in the Schoolyard, 40–46, 47, 49

C

California assessment program, 24, 72

Class discussions

air behavior activity, 51, 52–59, 68, 73

as assessment, 3–4, 20, 28, 52, 53, 54–56, 68, 69, 80, 98

changes in classroom practice, 15

cultural diversity in, 97–98

interpreting results, 58

student–teacher dialogues, 2, 55–56

water movement activity, 5, 73, 80–84, 89–90

wet corn discussion, 1–3, 4, 16, 20

Classroom assessment (see also Instruction; Scoring and evaluating work)

air behavior activity, 51, 52–59, 68, 73

biodiversity in the schoolyard, 40–46, 47, 48, 49, 73, 79

clicker technology, 81, 82, 83

connections among scientific concepts, 5, 7, 15, 101–104

diversity of students incorporated in, 15, 17–18, 26, 97–98

ecosystems, 17, 40–46, 47, 48, 49, 73, 74–80, 84–89, 98, 99

formative uses, 28, 29–30, 32, 34, 44, 57, 58, 59, 64, 68–69, 73, 80, 85–86, 87, 92, 102, 104

genetic processes example, 66

grounding assessment in instruction, 3–4, 19–20, 22–23, 30, 32, 33, 34, 38

interdisciplinary SSSNOW example, 101–104

interpreting results, 27, 29, 51, 58–65, 69, 101

key ideas, 18, 58

multiple-choice questions, 4, 81, 83, 84

multiple-component tasks, 19, 29, 48, 49, 95, 99

NGSS alignment, 4

recording results, 2, 3, 41, 51, 76

sets of tasks, 40, 48, 49, 68, 82, 95

silkworm measurement activity, 51, 58–65, 68

summative uses, 28, 44, 64, 68, 69, 73, 79, 87, 89, 92

value of, 4

variation in tasks, 19, 79, 99

Climate change, 5, 73, 74–79, 89, 98

Coherent science education system, 8–13, 23, 32

Collaborating with colleagues, 60, 65, 82, 96, 99–100, 104

Common Core State Standards, 101, 102

Crosscutting concepts

cause and effect, 7, 8, 102–104

coherence with core ideas and practices, 8–10, 12

defined, 7–8, 101

energy and matter, 8, 33, 34–38, 40, 48, 49, 51, 52–59, 67, 73, 84–90, 102–104

gradual understanding, 10, 11

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Seeing Students Learn Science: Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23548.
×

patterns, 8, 40–46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 58–65, 68, 73, 79, 84–89, 90

scale, proportion, and quantity, 8

stability and change, 8

structure and function, 8

systems and system models, 5, 8, 51, 52–59, 67, 73, 74–79, 80–90, 98

Cultural diversity considerations, 15, 16, 17–18, 26, 71, 96–98, 105

D

Design of tasks and assessments

adaptation to three-dimensional learning, 22–26

air behavior activity, 73

basic principles, 26–32

classroom practices and, 3–4, 19–20, 22–23

climate change activity, 73, 74–79, 89, 98

coherence with instruction and curriculum, 21, 23

collaborating with colleagues, 60, 65, 82, 96, 99–100, 104, 105

comparability of results, 30–31, 94

contingent activities, 81, 82

ecosystems example, 84–89

evidence-centered, 57, 67, 71, 73, 79, 82

formative, 28, 29–30, 32, 34, 44, 57, 58, 59, 64, 68–69, 73, 80, 85–86, 87, 92, 102, 104

goals, 18–19

inclusive and accessible instructions, 15, 17–18, 24–26, 31

interactive computer technology and, 79, 83–89

key ideas, 26, 83

learning progressions and, 13–14

measuring precision of, 30

for multiple purposes, 79, 89–90, 93

purpose of assessment and, 21, 29–30

reliability, 26–27, 93

scoring guides, 58–68, 69, 77

student understanding of tasks, 30

summative, 24, 28–30, 32, 44, 58, 64, 68, 69, 72, 73, 79, 87, 88, 89, 92, 93

traditional assessment compared, 23, 31, 32, 99

validity/validation, 26–27, 29, 58, 92

water movement activity, 5, 73, 80–84, 89–90

Disciplinary core ideas

biological evolution, 40–46, 47, 48, 49, 73, 79

characteristics and areas of science, 8–9

coherence with crosscutting ideas and practices, 8–10, 12

Earth and human activity, 73, 74–79, 89, 98

ecosystems, 73, 74–79, 84–89, 90, 98

gradual understanding, 10

interactions, energy, and dynamics, 73, 74–79, 84–89, 90, 98

matter and its interactions, 9, 33, 34–38, 40, 48, 49, 51, 52–59, 68, 73

structure and function, 9, 51, 58–65, 68

structure and processes, 33, 34–38, 40, 48, 49, 73

water in Earth’s surface processes, 5, 73, 80–84, 89–90, 101–104

Discussions (see Class discussions)

E

Ecosystem examples

biodiversity, 40–46, 47

climate change, 73, 74–79, 89, 98

plant–animal dependency, 38–39, 47–48

simulation-based modules on interactions, energy, and dynamics, 84–88

tree planting in cities, 17

English/Language Arts, 101–104

Examples of three-dimensional assessments

Behavior of Air, 51, 52–59, 68, 73

Biodiversity in the Schoolyard, 40–46, 47, 49

Climate Change, 5, 73, 74–79, 89, 98

Ecosystems, 84–88

Measuring Silkworms, 51, 58–65, 68

Movement of Water, 5, 73, 80–84, 89–90

Students Synthesizing Snow data in Natural Objective Ways (SSSNOW) Project, 101–104

traditional assessment compared, 38–39, 46–48

wet corn activity, 1–3, 4, 16, 20

What Is Going on Inside Me?, 33, 34–38, 40, 48, 49, 73

External assessments, 22, 91, 94

F

Fair tests, 2

Farkash, Lori, 1 n.1

H

How Do Plants and Animals Depend on Each Other?, 38–39, 47–48

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Seeing Students Learn Science: Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23548.
×

I

Implementing assessments (see also Classroom assessment; Examples of three-dimensional assessments)

adapting traditional assessments, 48–49, 71

applying new approaches, 73–83, 99–100

challenges, 22, 92

class discussions, 1–3, 54–56, 68

community resources, 99–100

cost considerations, 83, 84, 89, 90, 93, 102

district and state, 71–73

equity and fairness, 15, 17–18, 26, 71, 94, 96–99

familiar activities, 51–58

graphs, charts, and tables, 41–43, 49, 62–63

key ideas, 38, 58, 83

progress in understanding over time, 36–37, 38, 49

scoring and evaluation, 37, 38, 46, 58–67

technology, 41, 83–89

three-dimensional learning measured, 35, 38, 40–46

traditional assessment compared, 38–39, 46–48

using results, 57

writing tasks, 34, 35, 38, 49, 73, 99

Inquiry Hub, 17

Instruction (see also Classroom assessment)

anchoring in a phenomenon, 15–17

assessment grounded in, 3–4, 19–20, 22–23, 30, 32, 33, 38, 90

challenging students’ prior ideas, 11, 17, 52, 57, 65–66, 67, 81–82, 83, 89, 100, 101

changes in practices, 14–18

coherence with curriculum over time, 13

diversity incorporated in, 96–99

interactive computer-based, 5, 73, 74–79, 83–89, 91, 98

key ideas, 83

three-dimensional approach, 6–10, 32, 91

International Baccalaureate program, 94

L

Language proficiency, 16, 17, 26, 98, 101

Large-scale accountability assessments (see Monitoring assessments)

Learning progression for food ideas, 13–14

Learning progressions, 12–14, 24, 29, 65, 66, 67, 68

Learning science

assessment and, 18–26

changes in classroom practice, 14–18

coherence of instruction, curriculum, and assessment, 11–12

crosscutting concepts, 7–8, 32

disciplinary core ideas, 8–9, 32

goals (see Performance expectations)

gradual development of understanding, 5, 10, 11–14, 34, 40–46, 47, 49

integrating dimensions, 9–10

key ideas, 10, 14

learning progressions, 12–14, 24, 29, 65, 66, 67, 68

scientific and engineering practices, 5, 6–7, 32

standards, 32

terminology, scientific, 17, 26, 78, 98

three-dimensional approach, 6–10, 32

M

Maryland assessment system, 72

Measuring Silkworms, 51, 58–65, 68

Michael, Mary Jo, 1 n.1

Monitoring (large-scale) assessments

classroom assessments used for, 31, 94

design challenges, 22, 93–94

district and statewide tests, 24, 28, 71–73, 91, 92

examples, 24, 72

International Baccalaureate Program, 94

measurement and implementation issues, 27, 92

national, 91

opportunities to learn and do science, 21, 92–93

performance-based design, 93, 94

purposes, 21, 24, 28

quality control, 30, 94

quality of the instruction, 92, 105

Queensland approach, 94

scoring, 27, 94

systems approach, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 30, 31, 71, 91, 92–95, 96, 105

teacher participation in development, 94

Movement of Water, 5, 73, 80–84, 89–90

N

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 102

National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 91

New York state assessment program, 24 n.9

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Seeing Students Learn Science: Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23548.
×

Next Generation Science Standards

assessment targets, 12

classroom assessment aligned with, 4

district and state adoption, 71–73

learning progressions, 12–13

performance expectations, 12, 19

purpose, 5

three-dimensional framework, 6 n.4, 11, 71

Novak, Michael, 1 n.1

P

Performance expectations

anchoring instruction in a phenomenon and, 16

and classroom assessments, 19, 30

coherence in, 12–13

examples of students’ responses for scoring, 60–61, 65–67, 68, 69, 78

learning progressions, 12–14, 24, 29, 65, 66, 67, 68

scoring rubrics, 58–59, 60–61, 65–66, 69, 100

targets for assessment, 12, 19, 60–61, 64, 94, 95

and variation in tasks, 79

Professional development, 11, 23, 25, 29, 92–93, 100–101, 109

Purdie-Dyer, Ruth, 1 n.1

Q

Queensland system, 94

R

R+P Collaboratory, 16 n.6

Reiser, Brian, 1 n.1

S

Science literacy, 5

Scientific and engineering practices

analyzing and interpreting data, 6, 40–46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 58–65, 68, 69, 73, 74–79, 84–89, 90, 98, 102–104

aquatic plants experiment, 7

arguing from evidence, 6, 33, 34–38, 40, 48, 49, 51, 58–65, 68, 73, 101, 103

asking questions, 51, 58–65, 68

communicating information, 6, 51, 58–65, 68

constructing explanations, 5, 6, 33, 34–38, 40–46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 58–65, 68, 73, 79, 80–84, 89–90

core ideas and crosscutting concepts integrated with, 6, 9–10, 12

and development of understanding, 11

key practices, 6–7

and learning, 5, 9–10, 12

mathematics use, 6, 51, 58–65, 68, 102–104

model development and use, 5, 6, 8, 51, 52-59, 67, 69, 73, 74-79, 80-90, 98

planning and carrying out investigations, 6, 40-46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 58-65, 68, 73, 79, 84-89, 90, 102-104

Scoring and evaluating work

and design of assessments, 58, 59, 60–61, 69

examples of students’ responses to tasks used to design, 60–61, 65–67, 68, 69, 78

genetic processes rubric, 65–66, 68

grouping students into categories and, 68

informal criteria, 59, 68, 69

language proficiency and, 98

learning progressions and, 37–38, 66

for monitoring assessments, 94

performance expectations as rubrics, 58–59, 60–61, 65–66, 69, 100

red squirrel prediction rubric, 76, 77–78

silkworm measurement activity, 51, 58–65, 68

solar system/seasons example, 66–67, 68

systems approach, 94, 95

technology and, 79, 83, 84

validity and reliability, 27

Severance, Sam, 17 n.7

Students Synthesizing Snow data in Natural Objective Ways (SSSNOW) Project, 101–104

System approach

accountability policies, 5, 17, 18, 20, 22, 91, 93–95

classroom assessments, 21–22, 23–24, 92, 94, 96

collaborating with colleagues, 60, 65, 82, 96, 99–100, 104

components of integrated system, 91, 92–93, 94

diversity considerations in, 26, 92–93, 94

interdisciplinary connections, 101–104

International Baccalaureate program, 94

key ideas, 26, 96

for monitoring, 22, 23, 24, 27, 28, 30, 31, 71, 91, 92–95, 96, 105

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Seeing Students Learn Science: Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23548.
×

performance assessment, 94, 95

professional development and service opportunities, 11, 23, 25, 29, 92–93, 100–101

Queensland system, 94

reporting results, 27, 91, 95–96, 104

standardization of information collected, 23–24, 30–31, 92, 94

using results, 22, 23–24, 28–29, 91, 95

working within, 91–96

T

Technology applications

clickers, 81, 82, 83

handheld GPS, 103

interactive computer modules, 5, 73, 74–79, 83–89, 91, 98

Internet interface, 41, 47

spreadsheets, 27, 103

videoconferencing, 102

Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 91

U

Understanding science

coherence across disciplines and years, 11–12

gradual development of, 5, 10, 11–14, 34, 36–38

learning progressions and, 12–14

scientific terminology, 17, 26, 78, 98

W

Water movement activity, 5, 73, 80–84, 89–90

Wet corn activity, 1–3, 4, 16, 20

What Is Going on Inside Me? example, 33, 34–38, 40, 48, 49, 73

Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Seeing Students Learn Science: Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23548.
×
Page 119
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Seeing Students Learn Science: Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23548.
×
Page 120
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Seeing Students Learn Science: Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23548.
×
Page 121
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Seeing Students Learn Science: Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23548.
×
Page 122
Suggested Citation:"Index." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Seeing Students Learn Science: Integrating Assessment and Instruction in the Classroom. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23548.
×
Page 123
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Science educators in the United States are adapting to a new vision of how students learn science. Children are natural explorers and their observations and intuitions about the world around them are the foundation for science learning. Unfortunately, the way science has been taught in the United States has not always taken advantage of those attributes. Some students who successfully complete their K–12 science classes have not really had the chance to “do” science for themselves in ways that harness their natural curiosity and understanding of the world around them.

The introduction of the Next Generation Science Standards led many states, schools, and districts to change curricula, instruction, and professional development to align with the standards. Therefore existing assessments—whatever their purpose—cannot be used to measure the full range of activities and interactions happening in science classrooms that have adapted to these ideas because they were not designed to do so. Seeing Students Learn Science is meant to help educators improve their understanding of how students learn science and guide the adaptation of their instruction and approach to assessment. It includes examples of innovative assessment formats, ways to embed assessments in engaging classroom activities, and ideas for interpreting and using novel kinds of assessment information. It provides ideas and questions educators can use to reflect on what they can adapt right away and what they can work toward more gradually.

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