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2016 T R A N S I T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 188 Research sponsored by the Federal Transit Administration in cooperation with the Transit Development Corporation Subject Areas Public Transportation Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit Sharon Feigon Colin Murphy Shared-USe Mobility Center Chicago, IL
TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 188 Project J-11, Task 21 ISSN 1073-4872 ISBN 978-0-309-37566-5 Â© 2016 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The research report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Transit Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM The nationâs growth and the need to meet mobility, environmental, and energy objectives place demands on public transit systems. Cur- rent systems, some of which are old and in need of upgrading, must expand service area, increase service frequency, and improve efficiency to serve these demands. Research is necessary to solve operating prob- lems, adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and introduce innovations into the transit industry. The Transit Coopera- tive Research Program (TCRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the transit industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for TCRP was originally identified in TRB Special Report 213âResearch for Public Transit: New Directions, published in 1987 and based on a study sponsored by the Urban Mass Transportation Administrationânow the Federal Transit Administration (FTA). A report by the American Public Transportation Association (APTA), Transportation 2000, also recognized the need for local, problem- solving research. TCRP, modeled after the successful National Coop- erative Highway Research Program (NCHRP), undertakes research and other technical activities in response to the needs of transit ser- vice providers. The scope of TCRP includes various transit research fields including planning, service configuration, equipment, facilities, operations, human resources, maintenance, policy, and administrative practices. TCRP was established under FTA sponsorship in July 1992. Proposed by the U.S. Department of Transportation, TCRP was authorized as part of the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA). On May 13, 1992, a memorandum agreement outlining TCRP operating procedures was executed by the three cooperating organi- zations: FTA; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, acting through the Transportation Research Board (TRB); and the Transit Development Corporation, Inc. (TDC), a nonprofit educational and research organization established by APTA. TDC is responsible for forming the independent governing board, designated as the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee. Research problem statements for TCRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the TOPS Committee to formulate the research program by identi- fying the highest priority projects. As part of the evaluation, the TOPS Committee defines funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. The panels prepare project statements (requests for propos- als), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, TCRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Because research cannot have the desired effect if products fail to reach the intended audience, special emphasis is placed on disseminat- ing TCRP results to the intended users of the research: transit agen- cies, service providers, and suppliers. TRB provides a series of research reports, syntheses of transit practice, and other supporting material developed by TCRP research. APTA will arrange for workshops, train- ing aids, field visits, and other activities to ensure that results are imple- mented by urban and rural transit industry practitioners. TCRP provides a forum where transit agencies can cooperatively address common operational problems. TCRP results support and complement other ongoing transit research and training programs. Published research reports of the TRANSIT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Cover image by Derek Berardi.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This study was conducted for the American Public Transportation Association (APTA) with funding provided through TCRP Project J-11, Task 21, âQuick-Response Research on Long-Term Strategic Issues.â Project J-11 is designed to fund quick response studies on behalf of the TCRP Oversight and Project Selection (TOPS) Committee, the FTA, and APTA and its committees. This report was primarily written by Colin Murphy under the direction of the Principal Investigator, Sharon Feigon, and was edited by Tim Frisbie, all of the Shared-Use Mobility Center (SUMC). SUMC is grateful to TransitCenter for a research grant that supported the extensive interview portion of this project. The interviews and transit capacity and travel time analysis were performed in partnership with Sam Schwartz Engineering, overseen by Joe Iacobucci. Additional research, analysis, and editorial input were provided by Albert Benedict, William Kaplowitz, and Jacques Kibambe Ngoie of SUMC, and Ben Norquist and Vig Krishnamurthy of Sam Schwartz Engineering. CRP STAFF FOR TCRP RESEARCH REPORT 188 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Dianne S. Schwager, Senior Program Officer Daniel J. Magnolia, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Sharon Lamberton, Editor TCRP PROJECT J-11, TASK 21 PANEL Field of Special Projects Marlene B. Connor, Marlene Connor Associates, LLC, Holyoke, MA Shyam Kannan, Washington Metropolitan Area Transportation Authority, Washington, DC Jacob Lieb, Metro, Los Angeles, CA Crystal Lyons, Crystal Fortune Lyons, LLC, Corpus Christi, TX Jonathan H. McDonald, CH2M, San Francisco, CA Carl âTexâ Morgan, VIA Metropolitan Transit, San Antonio, TX Kristina M. Quigley, Regional Transportation Commission of Southern Nevada, Las Vegas, NV Stephen E. Schlickman, Chicago, IL Carl G. Sedoryk, Monterey-Salinas Transit, Monterey, CA Aaron S. Weinstein, San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit District, Oakland, CA Gwo-Wei Torng, FTA Liaison Darnell Grisby, APTA Liaison Wendy Reuter, Canadian Urban Transit Association Liaison Katherine Kortum, TRB Liaison
TCRP Research Report 188: Shared Mobility and the Transformation of Public Transit examines the relationship of public transportation (including paratransit and demand- responsive services) to shared modes, including bikesharing, carsharing, microtransit, and ridesourcing services provided by companies such as Uber and Lyft. This report was designed to assist transit agencies to examine issues and explore opportunities and challenges as they relate to technology-enabled mobility services, including suggesting ways that transit can learn from, build upon, and interface with these new modes. The study draws on several sources of information: â¢ In-depth interviews with transportation officials; â¢ A survey of shared mobility users; â¢ Analysis of transit and ridesourcing capacity, demand, and comparative travel times; â¢ An assessment of practices and regulations relating to paratransit provision; and â¢ A compilation of current business models and public-private partnerships that build on new technologies from the emerging shared mobility sector. The surveys and interviews were conducted in seven cities: Austin, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Washington, DC. The report presents five key findings: 1. Among survey respondents, greater use of shared modes is associated with greater likelihood to use transit frequently, own fewer cars, and have reduced transportation spending; 2. Shared modes largely complement public transit, enhancing urban mobility; 3. Because shared modes are expected to continue growing in significance, public entities should identify opportunities to engage with them to ensure that benefits are widely and equitably shared; 4. The public sector and private mobility operators are eager to collaborate to improve paratransit using emerging approaches and technology; and 5. A number of business models are emerging that include new forms of public-private partnership for provision of mobility and related information services. This report concludes by presenting actions that public entitiesâtransit agencies, transporta- tion departments, and other local and regional agenciesâcan take to promote useful coop- eration between public and private mobility providers. It also suggests regulatory enhancements, institutional realignments, and forms of public-private engagement that would allow innovation to flourish while still providing mobility as safely, broadly, and equitably as possible. F O R E W O R D By Dianne S. Schwager Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
1 Summary 3 Chapter 1 Introduction 3 Definitions 3 Research Overview 3 Survey Methodology 6 Sampling Considerations 7 Chapter 2 Findings 7 Transportation and Lifestyle Choices Associated with Shared Mode and Transit Use 12 Shared Mode and Transit Usage Patterns 17 Lifestyle Clusters 17 Ridesourcing and Transit: Travel Time Trade-offs 22 Equity in an Expanding Mobility Marketplace 22 Potential for Partnerships and Collaboration to Expand Mobility Access 23 Keeping Service Innovations Fair and Accessible 26 Equity Implications and Other Complexities of Fare and Service Integration 26 Differing Use Patterns Across Incomes 28 Public-Private Collaborations to Improve Paratransit 31 Complexities of Direct Paratransit Provision by Ridesourcing Companies 32 Building on the Innovations of Shared-Use Modes for Paratransit 33 Private-Sector Providers Can Improve ADA Services 34 Emerging Mobility Business Models and Partnerships 34 Cross-Modal Trip Planning, Reservation, and Payment App Integration 35 Microtransit/Dynamic Demand-Response 36 Private Access to Public Rights-of-Way 37 Service Links and Hand-offs 38 Chapter 3 Conclusions: Suggested Opportunities 38 Change Performance Metrics 38 Extend Fare Integration and Mobile Payment 39 Make Information Widely Available 39 Cultivate Public-Private Partnerships and Targeted Investment 40 Maintain Accessibility and Equity as Priorities 40 Emphasize Mobility 41 References A-1 Appendix A Public Agency and Private Operator Interviewees B-1 Appendix B Survey Methodology and Additional Data C-1 Appendix C Survey Instrument C O N T E N T S
D-1 Appendix D Ridesourcing and Transit Travel Time Comparison E-1 Appendix E Ridesourcing Demand and Transit Capacity Calculation F-1 Appendix F Maps of Ridesourcing and Transit Demand and Capacity