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Exploring Encryption and Potential Mechanisms for Authorized Government Access to Plaintext: Proceedings of a Workshop (2016)

Chapter: Appendix D: Biographical Sketches of Invited Workshop Participants

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biographical Sketches of Invited Workshop Participants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Exploring Encryption and Potential Mechanisms for Authorized Government Access to Plaintext: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23593.
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D

Biographical Sketches of Invited Workshop Participants

JAMES BAKER is general counsel for the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Most recently, he was an associate general counsel for Bridgewater Associates, LP. After clerking for the Honorable Bernard A. Friedman at the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Michigan, Baker joined the Department of Justice (DOJ) with the Criminal Division through the Attorney General’s Honors Program in 1990 and worked as a federal prosecutor with the division’s Fraud Section. In 1996, Baker joined the former Office of Intelligence Policy and Review (OIPR), which later became part of DOJ’s National Security Division. From 2001 to 2007, he served as counsel for intelligence policy and head of OIPR. In this position, he developed, coordinated, and implemented national security policy with regard to intelligence and counterintelligence matters for the department. Moreover, he provided the attorney general, the U.S. intelligence community, and the White House with legal and policy advice on a range of national security issues and conducted oversight of the intelligence community, including the FBI, on behalf of the attorney general. In 2006, Baker received the George H.W. Bush Award for Excellence in counterterrorism—the Central Intelligence Agency’s (CIA’s) highest counterterrorism award. A year later, he received the National Security Agency’s (NSA’s) Intelligence Under Law Award; the NSA Director’s Distinguished Service Medal; and DOJ’s highest award—the Edmund J. Randolph Award. That same year, he became a fellow at the Institute of Politics at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University and a lecturer at Harvard Law School. From 2008 to 2009, Baker was assistant general counsel for national security at Verizon Business. He then returned to DOJ, and from 2009 to 2011 served as an associate deputy attorney general working on a range of national security issues, including cybersecurity. Baker holds a juris doctorate and master’s degree from the University of Michigan and is a graduate of the University of Notre Dame.

PATRICK BALL has spent 25 years designing databases and data security and conducting quantitative analysis for truth commissions, nongovernmental organizations, international criminal tribunals, and United Nations missions in El Salvador, Ethiopia, Guatemala, Haiti, South Africa, Chad, Sri Lanka, East Timor, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Kosovo, Liberia, Perú, Colombia, Iraq, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Syria. From 1993 to 2003, he worked in several capacities in the Science and Human Rights Program at the American Association for the Advancement of Science, where he began recruiting colleagues to build the Human Rights Data Analysis Group (HRDAG). From 2003 to 2013 he continued to develop HRDAG from within Benetech, a nonprofit technology company in Silicon Valley. While at Benetech, he designed Martus, a self-encrypting, self-replicating, open-source database for human rights projects. From 2013 through 2015, he was executive director of HRDAG; since December 2015, he has been

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biographical Sketches of Invited Workshop Participants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Exploring Encryption and Potential Mechanisms for Authorized Government Access to Plaintext: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23593.
×

HRDAG’s director of research. He provided testimony in two cases at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, the first in the trial of Slobodan Milošević, the former president of Serbia, and he has advised the Special Court in Sierra Leone and the International Criminal Court. In 2013, he provided expert testimony in Guatemala’s Supreme Court in the trial of General José Efraín Ríos Montt, the de-facto president of Guatemala in 1982-1983. Ríos was found guilty of genocide and crimes against humanity; it was the first time ever that a former head of state was found guilty of genocide in his own country. In September 2015, Ball provided expert testimony in the trial of former president of Chad, Hissène Habré. In June 2014, the American Statistical Association honored Ball as a fellow. In April 2005, the Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) named Ball a Pioneer of the Electronic Frontier. In June 2004, the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) gave him the Eugene Lawler Award for Humanitarian Contributions within Computer Science and Informatics, and in 2002, he received a Special Achievement Award from the Social Statistics Section of the American Statistical Association. He is a fellow at the Center for Human Rights Science at Carnegie Mellon University, at the Human Rights Center of the Boalt School of Law at the University of California, Berkeley, and in the Department of Government at Essex University, and he is on the technical advisory board of AccessNow. He has been profiled in The New York Times Magazine, Wired, Foreign Policy, Salon.com, and the Christian Science Monitor, and he has been featured in a PBS film. Ball received his B.A. degree from Columbia University and his Ph.D. from the University of Michigan.

KEVIN BANKSTON is the director of New America’s Open Technology Institute (OTI), where he works in the public interest to promote policy and regulatory reforms to strengthen communities by supporting open communications networks, platforms, and technologies. He previously served as OTI’s policy director. Prior to leading OTI’s policy team, Bankston was a senior counsel and the director of the Free Expression Project at the Center for Democracy and Technology (CDT), a Washington, D.C.-based nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting democratic values and constitutional liberties in the digital age. From that position, he spent 2 years advocating on a wide range of Internet and technology policy issues both international and domestic, most recently organizing a broad coalition of companies and civil society organizations to demand greater transparency around the U.S. government’s surveillance practices. He also has served since 2005 on the board of the First Amendment Coalition, a nonprofit public-interest organization dedicated to advancing free speech and a more open and accountable government, and previously was a nonresidential fellow at the Stanford Law School’s Center for Internet and Society. Prior to joining CDT, Bankston worked for nearly a decade at the EFF, specializing in free speech and privacy law with a focus on government surveillance, Internet privacy, and location privacy. As a senior staff attorney at EFF, he regularly litigated issues surrounding free expression and electronic surveillance and was a lead counsel in EFF’s lawsuits against the NSA and AT&T, challenging the legality of the NSA warrantless wiretapping program, first revealed in 2005. Bankston originally joined EFF as an Equal Justice Works/Bruce J. Ennis First Amendment Fellow, studying the impact of post-9/11 antiterrorism surveillance initiatives on online privacy and free expression. Before joining EFF, he litigated Internet-related free speech cases at the national office of the American Civil Liberties Union in New York City as a Justice William Brennan First Amendment Fellow. He received his J.D. at the University of Southern California Law School after receiving his B.A. at the University of Texas, Austin.

MATT BLAZE is an associate professor of computer and information science at the University of Pennsylvania. His research focuses on focuses on cryptography and its applications, trust management, human scale security, secure systems design, and networking and distributed computing. He is particularly interested in security technology with bearing on public policy issues, including cryptography policy (key escrow), wiretapping and surveillance, and the security of electronic voting systems. He was also a veteran of the first crypto wars in the 1990s. He discovered a serious flaw in the U.S. government’s Clipper encryption system in 1994, which had been proposed as a mechanism for the public to encrypt their data in a way that would still allow access by law enforcement. He edited several influential reports on encryption policy, including the 1998 study of key escrow systems that demonstrated that such systems are inherently less secure and more expensive than systems without such a feature. Blaze’s work contributed to the recent shift in U.S. encryption policy, and he is a leader in the current debate. He has testified before various committees of the U.S. Congress and European Parliament on this issue several times. He received his Ph.D. in computer science from Princeton University.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biographical Sketches of Invited Workshop Participants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Exploring Encryption and Potential Mechanisms for Authorized Government Access to Plaintext: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23593.
×

JAMES BURRELL serves as a senior federal government executive in the position of deputy assistant director at the FBI. His current responsibilities include executive leadership for agencywide research, development, and advancement of applied technologies for investigative and intelligence operations. In this position, he also directed global FBI cyber investigative and intelligence operations to counter current and emerging cyberthreats impacting the United States. He has extensive diplomatic and national policy experience as a delegate to multinational organizations and as a senior representative to interagency governmental and national security policy committees. Burrell has academic affiliations as a faculty member and research advisor for graduate-level computer science and engineering programs at public and private universities. He earned B.S., M.S., Ed.S., and Ph.D. degrees in the fields of electrical engineering and computer and information sciences. He also received professional and technical certifications in information technology, information security, and digital forensic science. He is recognized as a senior member of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), a professional member of the ACM, and an inductee to the Upsilon Pi Epsilon International Honor Society.

MARC DONNER is the engineering site director for Uber in New York City. Donner’s research career includes time at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory where he worked on planetary radar, and at IBM Research, where he worked on ultrahigh-resolution displays, real-time systems, robotics, and distributed computing. His industrial career includes work with Morgan Stanley, Union Bank of Switzerland, Google, and MSCI. Donner’s professional interests cover a broad range of technical areas, including cybersecurity, privacy, software engineering, distributed computing, quantitative finance, robotics, and system administration. He is active in the Usenix Association, IEEE, and the ACM. He contributes his time pro bono to a number of charitable, nonprofit, and public service organizations, often by serving as their webmaster. His blog may be found at nygeek.wordpress.com. He received a B.S. in electrical engineering from the California Institute of Technology and a Ph.D. in computer science (robotics) from Carnegie Mellon University.

MATT GREEN is an assistant professor at the Johns Hopkins Information Security Institute. His research includes techniques for privacy-enhanced information storage, anonymous payment systems, and bilinear map-based cryptography. He was formerly a partner in Independent Security Evaluators, a custom security evaluation and design consultancy, and he currently consults independently. Green’s research focus is in the area of applied cryptography. His recent work includes developing privacy-preserving cryptographic protocols for implementing anonymous electronic cash and identification. He has also developed protocols that allow users to access databases without revealing which data they are accessing. Additionally, Green has been working on new automation techniques to assist in the design and deployment of advanced cryptographic protocols. He also works in the area of cryptographic engineering. This work involves understanding the practical aspects of cryptographic systems, implementing cryptographic protocols, and in some cases reverse-engineering deployed systems. He also teaches an introductory course on this subject. Additionally, Green has designed several cryptographic tools, including Charm, a framework for rapidly prototyping cryptosystems, and a functional encryption library that provides implementations of several new Attribute Based Encryption schemes. From 1999 to 2003, Green served as a senior technical staff member at AT&T Laboratories/Research in Florham Park, New Jersey. He has a Ph.D. in computer science from Johns Hopkins University.

DANIEL KAHN GILLMOR is a senior staff technologist for the American Civil Liberties Union’s Speech, Privacy, and Technology project, focused on the way technical infrastructure shapes society and impacts civil liberties. As a free software developer and member of the Debian project, he contributes to fundamental tools that shape the possibilities of our information-rich environment. As a participant in the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), he fosters the creation of new generations of networking and cryptographic protocols designed and optimized for privacy and security. Gillmor is an antisurveillance advocate for privacy, justice, free speech, and data sovereignty. He is a graduate of Brown University’s computer science program.

CHRIS INGLIS retired from the Department of Defense in January 2014 following more than 41 years of federal service, including 28 years at NSA and seven and a half years as its senior civilian and deputy director. He began

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biographical Sketches of Invited Workshop Participants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Exploring Encryption and Potential Mechanisms for Authorized Government Access to Plaintext: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23593.
×

his career at NSA as a computer scientist within the National Computer Security Center, followed by tours in information assurance, policy, time-sensitive operations, and signals intelligence organizations. Promoted to NSA’s Senior Executive Service in 1997, he held a variety of senior leadership assignments and twice served away from NSA Headquarters, first as a visiting professor of computer science at the U.S. Military Academy (1991-1992) and later as the U.S. Special Liaison to the United Kingdom (2003-2006). Inglis holds advanced degrees in engineering and computer science from Columbia University (M.S.), Johns Hopkins University (M.S.), and George Washington University (professional degree). He is also a graduate of the Kellogg Business School executive development program, the U.S. Air Force (USAF) Air War College, the Air Command and Staff College, and the Squadron Officers’ School. Inglis’ military career includes over 30 years of service in the USAF—9 years on active duty and 21 years in the Air National Guard—from which he retired as a brigadier general in 2006. He holds the rating of Command Pilot and commanded units at the squadron, group, and joint force headquarters levels. Inglis’ significant awards include the Clements award as the U.S. Naval Academy’s Outstanding Military Faculty member (1984), three Presidential Rank Awards (2000, 2004, 2009), the USAF Distinguished Service Medal (2006), the Boy Scouts of America Distinguished Eagle Scout Award (2009), the Director of National Intelligence Distinguished Service Medal (2014), and the President’s National Security Medal (2014).

BRIAN LAMACCHIA is the director of the Security and Cryptography group within Microsoft Research (MSR) where his team conducts basic and applied research and advanced development. He is also a founding member of the Microsoft Cryptography Review Board and consults on security and cryptography architectures, protocols and implementations across the company. Before moving into MSR in 2009, he was the architect for cryptography in Windows Security, development lead for .NET Framework Security and program manager for core cryptography in Windows 2000. Prior to joining Microsoft, he was a member of the Public Policy Research Group at AT&T Labs—Research. In addition to his responsibilities at Microsoft, LaMacchia is an adjunct associate professor in the School of Informatics and Computing at Indiana University-Bloomington and an affiliate faculty member of the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Washington. He also currently serves as president of the board of directors of the Seattle International Film Festival, general chair of Crypto 2016, and as an ex officio member of the board of directors of the International Association for Cryptologic Research. He received S.B., S.M., and Ph.D. degrees in electrical engineering and computer science from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1990, 1991, and 1996, respectively.

BUTLER LAMPSON is a technical fellow at Microsoft Corporation and an adjunct professor of computer science and electrical engineering at MIT. He was on the faculty at Berkeley and then at the Computer Science Laboratory at Xerox PARC and at Digital’s Systems Research Center. He has worked on computer architecture, local area networks, raster printers, page description languages, operating systems, remote procedure call, programming languages and their semantics, programming in the large, fault-tolerant computing, transaction processing, computer security, WYSIWYG editors, and tablet computers. Lampson was one of the designers of the SDS 940 time-sharing system, the Alto personal distributed computing system, the Xerox 9700 laser printer, two-phase commit protocols, the Autonet LAN, the SDSI/SPKI system for network security, the Microsoft Tablet PC software, the Microsoft Palladium high-assurance stack, and several programming languages. He holds a number of patents on networks, security, raster printing, and transaction processing. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering and a fellow of the ACM and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. He received the ACM Software Systems Award in 1984 for his work on the Alto, the IEEE Computer Pioneer award in 1996, the National Computer Systems Security Award in 1998, the IEEE von Neumann Medal in 2001, the Turing Award in 1992, and the National Academy of Engineering’s Draper Prize in 2004. At Microsoft Lampson has worked on anti-piracy, security, fault-tolerance, and user interfaces. He was one of the designers of Palladium, and he spent 2 years as an architect in the Tablet PC group. Currently he is in Microsoft Research, working on security, privacy, and fault-tolerance, and kibitzing in systems, networking, and other areas. He received an A.B. from Harvard University, a Ph.D. in electrical engineering and computer science from the University of California, Berkeley, and honorary Sc.D. degrees from the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, Zurich, and the University of Bologna.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biographical Sketches of Invited Workshop Participants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Exploring Encryption and Potential Mechanisms for Authorized Government Access to Plaintext: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23593.
×

RICHARD LITTLEHALE is assistant special agent in charge of the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation’s Technical Services Unit, which includes TBI’s electronic surveillance, digital forensics, online child exploitation, and cyber investigation functions. He has testified as an expert witness in the law enforcement use of communications records in numerous homicide and violent crime trials. Littlehale is an attorney, and serves as one of TBI’s primary constitutional law and criminal procedure trainers. He has provided instruction to law enforcement officers at all levels of government in techniques for obtaining and using communications evidence in support of criminal investigations, and is active in national groups of law enforcement technical and electronic surveillance specialists, including the National Technical Investigators Association and the FBI Law Enforcement Technical Forum. He serves as a subject-matter expert on electronic surveillance for the Association of State Criminal Investigative Agencies and the International Association of Chiefs of Police. In that capacity, he represents the law enforcement community’s interest in lawful access to communications evidence at the national level before Congress and other groups. He received his bachelor’s degree in 1992 from Bowdoin College and his law degree in 1995 from Vanderbilt Law School.

ERIC RESCORLA is a fellow in the office of the chief technology officer at Mozilla, focused on developing the next generation of internet technologies for networking, security, and real-time media. Since joining Mozilla in 2013, he has been focused on advanced technologies and Mozilla’s technical strategy. He was instrumental in the development of WebRTC, which brought voice and video to the browser and worked with Cisco to start OpenH264, which allows Open Source projects to use the world’s most popular video codec for free. He also played a key role in starting Let’s Encrypt, which makes it easy for anyone to run a secure website. Rescorla’s background is in communications security, especially Transport Layer Security (TLS), the foundational security protocol for the Web. He is the former chair of the IETF TLS working group as well as the editor of the TLS and HTTPS specification. He co-designed DTLS, and he is the author of one of the standard books on TLS. He was on the Internet Architecture Board from 2002 to 2008 and in 2007 served on California Secretary of State Debra Bowen’s Top-to-Bottom Review of the voting systems certified for use in California. Rescorla holds a B.S. in chemistry from Yale University.

ANDREW SHERMAN heads the security practice at Eden Technologies, a New York City-based information technology consultancy, where he has worked with clients in financial services, health care, and local government. After starting his private-sector career at AT&T Bell Laboratories, he moved into the financial industry. For nearly 20 years, he has focused exclusively on information security, primarily in financial services. He has a strong interest in data security, data governance, and privacy as well as related identity and access management issues. A graduate of Vassar College, Sherman has a Ph.D. in physics from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and additional research experience in machine vision and pattern recognition.

GUY “BUD” TRIBBLE is vice president of software technology at Apple, Inc. Tribble began his career at Apple where, as manager of the original Macintosh software team, he helped to design the Mac OS and user interface. He joined Apple from Eazel, Inc., where he was vice president of engineering, leading development of next-generation user interface software and Internet services for Linux computers. Before that, Tribble was chief technology officer for the Sun-Netscape Alliance, responsible for guiding Internet and e-commerce software research and development. He also helped found NeXT Computer, where he was vice president of Software Engineering and a key architect of the NextStep operating system. Tribble earned a B.A. degree in physics at the University of California, San Diego, and an M.D. and a Ph.D. in biophysics and physiology at the University of Washington, Seattle.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biographical Sketches of Invited Workshop Participants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Exploring Encryption and Potential Mechanisms for Authorized Government Access to Plaintext: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23593.
×
Page 55
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biographical Sketches of Invited Workshop Participants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Exploring Encryption and Potential Mechanisms for Authorized Government Access to Plaintext: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23593.
×
Page 56
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biographical Sketches of Invited Workshop Participants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Exploring Encryption and Potential Mechanisms for Authorized Government Access to Plaintext: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23593.
×
Page 57
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biographical Sketches of Invited Workshop Participants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Exploring Encryption and Potential Mechanisms for Authorized Government Access to Plaintext: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23593.
×
Page 58
Suggested Citation:"Appendix D: Biographical Sketches of Invited Workshop Participants." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Exploring Encryption and Potential Mechanisms for Authorized Government Access to Plaintext: Proceedings of a Workshop. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23593.
×
Page 59
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In June 2016 the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine convened the Workshop on Encryption and Mechanisms for Authorized Government Access to Plaintext. Participants at this workshop discussed potential encryption strategies that would enable access to plaintext information by law enforcement or national security agencies with appropriate authority. Although the focus of the workshop was on technical issues, there was some consideration of the broader policy context, and discussion about the topics of encryption and authorized exceptional analysis frequently addressed open policy questions as well as technical issues. This publication summarizes the presentations and discussions from the workshop.

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