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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23603.
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Triennial Review of the

NATIONAL
NANOTECHNOLOGY
INITIATIVE

Committee on Triennial Review of the
National Nanotechnology Initiative

National Materials and Manufacturing Board

Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences

A Report of

images

THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23603.
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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001

This study was supported by Contract/Grant No. 1443446 with the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

International Standard Book Number-13: 978-0-309-44794-2
International Standard Book Number-10: 0-309-44794-1
Digital Object Identifier: 10.17226/23603

Cover image: “Orbital Chess, just opened in the Modern Defense.” This hypermodern opening challenges previous ideologies of old chess masters. Today, not only in chess but also in science and engineering, there are challenges to previous paradigms. Nanotechnology operates at a size range where enhanced properties are available and new achievements can be made in a modern era. Orbital chess pieces embody this with a new design using quantum mechanical shapes to modernize a centuries-old game. Art design: Erik Svedberg.

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Additional copies of this report are available for sale from the National Academies Press, 500 Fifth Street, NW, Keck 360, Washington, DC 20001; (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313; http://www.nap.edu.

Copyright 2016 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/23603.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23603.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23603.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23603.
×

COMMITTEE ON TRIENNIAL REVIEW OF THE NATIONAL NANOTECHNOLOGY INITIATIVE

CELIA I. MERZBACHER, Semiconductor Research Corporation, Chair

JAMES S. MURDAY, University of Southern California, Vice Chair

ROBERT H. AUSTIN, NAS,1 Princeton University

ANITA GOEL, Nanobiosym

DOUGLAS W. JAMISON, Harris & Harris Group, Inc.

GERHARD KLIMECK, Purdue University

MARTIN A. PHILBERT, NAM,2 University of Michigan

NELLY M. RODRIGUEZ, Catalytic Materials, LLC

BRIDGET R. ROGERS, Vanderbilt University

LOURDES SALAMANCA-RIBA, University of Maryland, College Park

BRENT M. SEGAL, Lockheed Martin Corporation

SUBHASH C. SINGHAL, NAE,3 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

RHONDA STROUD, U.S. Naval Research Laboratory

MICHAEL S. TOMCZYK, Villanova University

Staff

JAMES LANCASTER, Acting Director, National Materials Manufacturing Board

ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer, Study Director

NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate

JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant

HENRY KO, Research Assistant

HYEKYUNG (CLARISSE) KIM, Christine Mirzayan Science and Technology Policy Graduate Fellow (until April 2015)

__________________

1 National Academy of Sciences.

2 National Academy of Medicine.

3 National Academy of Engineering.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23603.
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NATIONAL MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING BOARD

CELIA I. MERZBACHER, Semiconductor Research Corporation, Chair

RODNEY C. ADKINS, NAE,1 IBM Corporate Strategy

MICHAEL I. BASKES, NAE, Bagley College of Engineering

JIM C.I. CHANG, National Cheng Kung University, North Carolina State University

LEO CHRISTODOULOU, Boeing, Inc.

JACK HU, NAE, University of Michigan

SANDRA L. HYLAND, Consultant, Falls Church, Virginia

MICHAEL F. McGRATH, McGrath Analytics, LLC

ROBERT MILLER, NAE, IBM Almaden Research Center

EDWARD MORRIS, National Center for Defense Manufacturing and Machining, America Makes: The National Additive Manufacturing Innovation Institute

NICHOLAS A. PEPPAS, NAE/NAM,2 University of Texas, Austin

TRESA POLLOCK, NAE, University of California, Santa Barbara

F. STAN SETTLES, NAE, University of Southern California

HAYDN G. WADLEY, University of Virginia

BEN WANG, Georgia Institute of Technology

STEVE ZINKLE, NAE, University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Staff

JAMES LANCASTER, Acting Director

ERIK B. SVEDBERG, Senior Program Officer

HEATHER LOZOWSKI, Financial Associate

NEERAJ P. GORKHALY, Associate Program Officer

JOSEPH PALMER, Senior Project Assistant

HENRY KO, Research Assistant

__________________

1 National Academy of Engineering.

2 National Academy of Medicine.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23603.
×

Preface

The National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) is a multiagency effort to advance nanoscale science, engineering, and technology and to capture the associated economic and societal benefits. The NNI comprises the collective activities and programs among the participating federal agencies and offices,1 which are coordinated through the efforts of the interagency Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology (NSET) Subcommittee of the National Science and Technology Council and the National Nanotechnology Coordination Office (NNCO).

In accordance with the provisions of the 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act (Section 5 of Public Law 108-153), the NNCO asked the National Research Council2 (NRC) to conduct a triennial review of the NNI. In particular, the NRC was asked to assess (1) mechanisms to advance focused areas of nanotechnology toward advanced development and commercialization and (2) the physical and human infrastructure needs for successful realization in the United States of the benefits of nanotechnology development. In response to this request, the NRC formed an ad hoc committee of experts in nanotechnology research, innovation, education, and facilities.

This report represents the consensus of the Committee on Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative, which met five times between June and

___________________

1 See Appendix C for the actual participating agencies.

2 Effective July 1, 2015, the institution is called the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. References in this report to the National Research Council are used in an historical context identifying programs prior to July 1.

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23603.
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December 2015. The committee benefited enormously from meeting with representatives from government, industry, and academia. In particular, the committee thanks the following for contributing their time and expertise:

Larry Bell, Museum of Science-Boston,

Robert Celotta, National Institute of Standards and Technology,

Teresa Clement, Raytheon Missile Systems,

Khershed Cooper, National Science Foundation,

Lance Criscuolo, Zyvex Technologies,

Dorothy Farrell, National Institutes of Health,

Lisa Friedersdorf, National Nanotechnology Coordination Office,

Frank Gayle, National Institute of Standards and Technology,

Piotr Grodzinski, National Cancer Institute,

Nancy Healy, Georgia Institute of Technology,

Lori Henderson, Nanoscale Science, Engineering, and Technology Subcommittee,

Daniel Herr, Nanomanufacturing Innovation Consortium,

Mark Hoover, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health,

Catherine Hunt, The Dow Chemical Company,

Frank Jaworski, Raytheon Vision Systems,

Alex Liddle, National Institute of Standards and Technology,

George Maracas, Department of Energy,

Scott McNeil, National Institutes of Health,

Michael McQuade, United Technologies Corporation,

Michael Meador, National Nanotechnology Coordination Office,

Richard Miller, Olin College,

Mike Molnar, National Institute of Standards and Technology,

Jeff Neaton, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,

Deb Newberry, Dakota County Technical Collage,

Ranga Pitchumani, Department of Energy,

Dan Ralph, Cornell University,

Mike Roco, National Science Foundation,

Phillip Sayre, Keller & Heckman Law Firm,

Daphne Schmidt, Math Science Innovation Center,

Russell Shilling, Department of Education,

Lew Sloter, Department of Defense,

Mark Tuominen, University of Massachusetts,

Richard Vaia, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base,

Lloyd Whitman, White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and

Stanley Williams, Hewlett Packard Labs.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23603.
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Information from and discussions with these individuals were essential to the Academies’ work.

On behalf of the committee, we express our deep appreciation to Academies staff, in particular James Lancaster, acting director of the National Materials and Manufacturing Board, and Erik Svedberg, study director of this report, who provided insight, guidance, and support throughout the study and preparation of the report.

Finally, as co-chairs of the committee, we thank the other committee members who worked diligently and gave generously of their time.

Celia I. Merzbacher, Chair
James S. Murday, Vice Chair
Committee on Triennial Review of the
National Nanotechnology Initiative

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23603.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23603.
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Acknowledgment of Reviewers

This report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report:

Dawn A. Bonnell, University of Pennsylvania,

William F. Brinkman, Princeton University,

Samuel H. Fuller, Analog Devices, Inc.,

Bertrand I. Halperin, Harvard University,

Steven M. Larson, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center,

Edwin P. Przybylowicz, Eastman Kodak Company,

David J. Srolovitz, University of Pennsylvania,

Sally Tinkle, Science and Technology Policy Institute, and

Pryia Vashishta, University of Southern California.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Triennial Review of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23603.
×

the report was overseen by Michael R. Ladisch, Purdue University, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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Nanoscale science, engineering, and technology, often referred to simply as “nanotechnology,” is the understanding, characterization, and control of matter at the scale of nanometers, the dimension of atoms and molecules. Advances in nanotechnology promise new materials and structures that are the basis of solutions, for example, for improving human health, optimizing available energy and water resources, supporting a vibrant economy, raising the standard of living, and increasing national security.

Established in 2001, the National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI) is a coordinated, multiagency effort with the mission to expedite the discovery, development, and deployment of nanoscale science and technology to serve the public good. This report is the latest triennial review of the NNI called for by the 21st Century Nanotechnology Research and Development Act of 2003. It examines and comments on the mechanisms in use by the NNI to advance focused areas of nanotechnology towards advanced development and commercialization and on the physical and human infrastructure needs for successful realization in the United States of the benefits of nanotechnology development.

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