This appendix lists brief extracts from the National Nanotechnology Coordinated Infrastructure (NNCI) National Science Foundation (NSF) award synopses.1 The list is separated into new facilities and legacy facilities.
Mid-Atlantic Nanotechnology Hub for Research, Education and Innovation
University of Pennsylvania with partner Community College of Philadelphia
Principal Investigator (PI): Mark Allen
The Mid-Atlantic Nanotechnology Hub for Research, Education and Innovation (MANTH) will enable access to leading-edge research and development (R&D) facilities and expertise for academic, government, and industry researchers conducting activities within all disciplines of nanoscale science, engineering, and technology. Examples of its capabilities include electron-beam, photo-, imprint-, and soft-lithographies; material deposition and etching; multiscale three-dimensional (3D) printing; laser micromachining; electron and scanning probe microscopy; tip-based nanofabrication; and ion and electron beam milling.
This site will allow users in the mid-Atlantic region, the nation’s fifth-largest economic area, to access the Singh Center for Nanotechnology, where they can perform nanofabrication and measurement tasks and interact with nanotechnology experts. The Singh Center is located at the University of Pennsylvania in downtown Philadelphia and is highly accessible to more than 100 regional academic institutions and the industry-rich mid-Atlantic region.
Montana Nanotechnology Facility
Montana State University with partner Carlton College
PI: David Dickensheets
The Montana Nanotechnology Facility (MONT) helps meet the growing need faced by regional and national researchers for access to nanofabrication tools and processes at the interdisciplinary frontiers, with local expertise related to microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) and micro-opto-electromechanical systems, microfluidics, nanostructured materials with unique optical, mechanical or thermal properties, ceramic materials, bio-inspired and bio-derived nanostructures, and bacteria or bacterial biofilms incorporated into micro- or nanoengineered substrates. The MONT site serves both regional users in the northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains and users from across the United States who need the specific expertise and equipment found at Montana State University. Users are pursuing diverse objectives related to advances in health-care diagnostics and surgical solutions, sources of clean energy, remediation strategies for contaminated soils, and technologies related to optical telecommunications, imaging systems, and advanced computing.
Soft and Hybrid Nanotechnology Experimental Resource
Northwestern University with partner University of Chicago
PI: Vinayak Dravid
The Soft and Hybrid Nanotechnology Experimental Resource (SHyNE) addresses emerging needs in synthesis/assembly of soft/biological structures and integration of classical clean-room capabilities with soft-biological structures, providing expertise and instrumentation related to the synthesis, purification, and characterization of peptides and peptide-based materials. SHyNE coordinates with Argonne National Laboratory facilities and leverages existing supercomputing and engineering expertise under Center for Hierarchical Materials Design and Digital Manufacturing and Design Innovation Institute, respectively.
Virginia Tech National Center for Earth and Environmental Nanotechnology Infrastructure
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
PI: Michael Hochella
The Virginia Tech National Center for Earth and Environmental Nanotechnology Infrastructure (VT NCE2NI) provides an NNCI site to specifically support researchers who work with nanoscience- and nanotechnology-related aspects of Earth and environmental sciences/engineering at local, regional, and global scales, including the land, atmospheric, water, and biological components of these fields. The national presence of VT NCE2NI is significantly enhanced by a close partnership with the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). NNCI geo- and environmental science/engineering users have access to both the Virginia Tech and EMSL/PNNL sites depending on specific technical needs and geographic considerations. VT NCE2NI consists of (1) the 15,000 sq. ft. Nanoscale Characterization and Fabrication Laboratory that houses a broad array of high-end, state-of-the-art electron-, ion-, and X-ray-based characterization tools, sample preparation laboratories, as well as meeting space and ample office space for visitors and (2) the 6,300 sq. ft. Virginia Tech Center for Sustainable Nanotechnology (VT SuN), which contains extensive nanomaterials synthesis facilities and knowhow (in aqueous, soil/solid media, and atmospheric environments), characterization tools, and experimentation/reactor systems.
North Carolina Research Triangle Nanotechnology Network
North Carolina State University with partners Duke University and University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
PI: Jacob Jones
The North Carolina Research Triangle Nanotechnology Network (RTNN) focuses on pioneering, studying, and refining innovative methods to catalyze both traditional and emerging nanotechnology research areas, including those from biology, biomedical engineering, textile engineering, environmental engineering, agriculture, soil science, forest biomaterials, and plant and microbial biology. RTNN technical capabilities span nanofabrication and nano-characterization of traditional hard, dry materials (i.e., 2D and 3D nanomaterials, metamaterials, photonics, and heterogeneous integration) and emerging soft, wet materials (i.e., tissue, textile, plant, and animal nanomaterials). Specific areas of capability include
the environmental assessment of nanotechnology, atomic layer deposition, flexible integrated systems, and fluidic systems. The RTNN will enable emerging research areas by adding additional process flows and tools throughout the project that enable new ways of integrating and interfacing the nanoscale with the human scale.
San Diego Nanotechnology Infrastructure
University of California, San Diego
PI: Yu-Hwa Lo
The San Diego Nanotechnology Infrastructure (SDNI) site will build upon the existing Nano3 user facility and leverage additional specialized resources and expertise at the University of California, San Diego. The SDNI site is committed to broadening and further diversifying its already substantial user base. The proposed strategic goals include (1) providing infrastructure that enables transformative research and education through open, affordable access to the nanofabrication and nanocharacterization tools and an expert staff capable of working with users to adapt and develop new capabilities, with emphasis in the areas of nanobiomedicine, nanophotonics, and nanomagnetism; (2) accelerating the translation of discoveries and new nanotechnologies to the marketplace; and (3) coordinating with other NNCI sites to provide uninterrupted service and creative solutions to meet evolving user needs.
Nebraska Nanoscale Facility
University of Nebraska, Lincoln
PI: David Sellmyer
The Nebraska Nanoscale Facility (NNF) will build upon the established Central Facilities of the Nebraska Center for Materials and Nanoscience to strongly galvanize research and education in nanotechnology in Nebraska and the region. The Central and Shared Laboratory Facilities include the following: nanofabrication cleanroom, nanomaterials and thin-film preparation, nanoengineered materials and structures, electron microscopy, x-ray structural characterization, scanning probe and materials characterization, low-dimensional nanostructure synthesis, and laser nanofabrication and characterization. Most of these facilities are housed in the 32,000 sq. ft. Voelte-Keegan Nanoscience Research Center that was completed in 2012 and funded by major grants from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Nebraska Foundation. The research in
NNF is bolstered by strong research groups in nanoscale electronics, magnetism, and materials and structures for energy. NNF in turn will reinforce several centers and focused research programs including the Nebraska NSF Materials Research Science and Engineering Center: Polarization and Spin Phenomena in Nanoferroic Structures, the Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Consortium on Magnetic Materials, the Semiconductor Research Corporation-NIST Center for Ferroic Devices, the NSF Center for Nanohybrid Materials, and others.
Kentucky Multi-scale Manufacturing and Nano Integration Node
University of Louisville with partner University of Kentucky
PI: Kevin Walsh
The Kentucky Multi-scale Manufacturing and Nano Integration Node (MMNIN) is to combine micro/nano fabrication processes with the latest in 3D additive manufacturing technology to allow researchers to explore nanotechnology solutions to real-life problems in health care, energy, the environment, communication, and security. The MMNIN will be the first open user facility nationwide with a focus on 3D micro/nano fabrication and true multiscale integration. Users will have access to design, simulation, and fabrication resources that span the nanometer to meter scales and the expertise to effectively integrate these processes. At the nanoscale, MMNIN will provide rapid prototyping capabilities based on election- and ion-beam induced processes and two-photon polymerization along with the expertise to convert the prototyped structures to functional devices. At the micro-scale, users will have access to a variety of unique fabrication processes, including stress engineered thin-film deposition for self-programmed 2D to 3D fabrication; 128-level grayscale lithography for rapid prototyping of complex 3D structures; micro aerosol jet 3D printing using conductive, resistive, dielectric, and biological materials; as well as a diversity of traditional semiconductor and MEMS (microelectromechanical system) fabrication processes using MMNIN’s new class 100 $30 million, 10,000 sq. ft. cleanroom facility. At the meso/macro-scale, MMNIN offers automated roll-to-roll manufacturing processes and the latest in additive manufacturing tools for 3D printing custom structures and enclosures using metals and/or polymers. MMNIN also offers a variety of characterization techniques ranging from transmission electron microscopy to squid magnetometry.
Texas Nanofabrication Facility
University of Texas, Austin
PI: Sanjay Banerjee
The Texas Nanofabrication Facility (TNF) will facilitate breakthroughs in nanoscience and technology, with applications in nanoelectronics/photonics, green energy, and health care in the Southwest and in the nation by providing state-of-the-art capability in nanodevice prototyping, metrology, and nanomanufacturing. TNF serves one of the 11 largest population areas, a large Hispanic population, and a new medical school.
Northwest Nanotechnology Infrastructure
University of Washington with partner Oregon State University
PI: Karl Bohringer
The Northwest Nanotechnology Infrastructure serves as a broad-based nanotechnology resource, although there are three principal research focus areas highlighted for which the site will provide leadership: (1) integrated photonics, which aims at enabling large-scale photonic networks, which are expected to overcome current limits in speed and bandwidth of electronic circuits; beyond information processing, the miniaturization and integration of photonics in medical devices is facilitating the development of new, minimally invasive health diagnostics; (2) advanced energy materials and devices, which aim at providing the scientific and engineering basis for clean energy solutions, including the creation of better batteries or scalable and environmentally benign materials for solar power; and (3) bio-nano interfaces and systems, which provide the infrastructure and expertise for inventing and demonstrating new devices for biomedical applications, enabling advances in protein modeling, drug delivery, sensors, bio-scaffolds, and bioelectronics. The physical infrastructure consists of the Washington Nanofabrication Facility (Seattle) and Microproducts Breakthrough Institute (Corvallis) for making and the Molecular Analysis Facility (Seattle) and Materials Synthesis and Characterization Facility (Oregon) for measuring and distributing computational resources for modeling in design and analysis.
Southeastern Nanotechnology Infrastructure Corridor
Georgia Institute of Technology with partners North Carolina A&T State University and University of North Carolina, Greensboro
PI: Oliver Brand
The Southeastern Nanotechnology Infrastructure Corridor (SENIC) will create a partnership between the Institute for Electronics and Nanotechnology at the Georgia Institute of Technology and the Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering, an academic collaboration between North Carolina A&T State University and the University of North Carolina, Greensboro. With access to more than 230 nanotechnology fabrication and characterization tools, SENIC’s goal is to provide a one-stop-shop approach, covering both top-down approaches using nanoscale patterning, as well as bottom-up approaches based on nanomaterials synthesis and additive processing. A particular strength of the partnership is the ability to connect nanomaterials and devices to full packaged systems. This helps transition nanoscale research achievements more quickly into high-impact applications in biomedical/health, energy, communication, smart transportation, textiles, and smart agriculture.
Midwest Nano Infrastructure Corridor
University of Minnesota Twin Cities with partner North Dakota State University
PI: Stephen Campbell
The Midwest Nano Infrastructure Corridor (MINIC) NNCI site at the University of Minnesota will provide access to leading edge micro and nano fabrication capabilities for the R&D of nanoscience and technology. The MINIC core facilities represent more than $50 million in laboratories and equipment as well as more than 400 man-years of staff expertise. MINIC will support a broad spectrum of nano-R&D; however, it will target researchers in two new areas: the application of 2D materials and the use of nano in biology and medicine. By partnering with North Dakota State University, MINIC will also enable the packaging of nano devices. This allows researchers to perform reliability testing and to incorporate these devices into complex electronic systems. To better recruit and serve external users, MINIC will add three new process focus areas. The first will support the deposition of a broad variety of 2D thin films, beginning with graphene and the transition metal dichalcogenides. Users will be able to build devices on top of their own substrates without the low yield and variability associated with exfoliation. MINIC will also
provide new modeling tools to support this area. The second focus area will be led by North Dakota State University’s Packaging Center, which has long-standing expertise in the area. This will enable researchers in academia and industry to economically package nanoscale devices, including difficult applications such as radio frequency devices, MEMS, power devices, and 3D multichips. MINIC’s third focus area will support external users working in bio-nanotechnology by providing all the facilities and equipment needed to form nanoparticle suspensions and perform sizing and zeta potential measurements, use them to expose cell cultures in a BSL2 environment, and characterize the result with confocal and fluorescence microscopy.
PI: Kathryn Moler
The Stanford Site will open the Stanford Nano Shared Facilities, the Stanford Nanofabrication Facility, the Mineral Analysis Facility, and the Environmental Measurement Facility more fully to external users. Open access to these facilities will not only promote the progress of science but also accelerate the commercialization of nanotechnologies that can solve a broad array of societal problems related to energy, communication, water resources, agriculture, computing, clinical medicine, and environmental remediation. Stanford will create and assemble a comprehensive online library of just-in-time educational materials that will enable users of shared nanofacilities at Stanford and elsewhere to acquire foundational knowledge independently and expeditiously before they receive personalized training from an expert staff member. The Stanford Site’s shared nanofacilities will offer a comprehensive array of advanced nanofabrication and nanocharacterization tools, including resources that are not routinely available, such as an metal-organic chemical vapour deposition laboratory that can deposit films of GaAs or GaN, a JEOL e-beam lithography tool that can inscribe 8-nm features on 200-mm wafers, a NanoSIMS, and a unique scanning SQUID microscope that detects magnetic fields with greater sensitivity than any other instrument. The facilities occupy ~30,000 sq. ft. of space, including 16,000 sq. ft. of cleanrooms, 6,000 sq. ft. of which meet stringent specifications on the control of vibration, acoustics, light, cleanliness, and electromagnetic interference. The staff members who will support external users have acquired specialized expertise in fabricating photonic crystals, lasers, photodetectors, optical MEMS, inertial sensors, optical biosensors, electronic biosensors, cantilever probles, nano-field effect transistors, new memories, batteries, and photovoltaics.
Cornell Nanoscale Science and Technology Facility
PI: Daniel Ralph
The unique nanofabrication capabilities that the Cornell Nanoscale Science and Technology Facility (CNF) will make available to the nation’s researchers include world-leading electron-beam lithography, advanced optical lithography, dedicated facilities for soft lithography, and direct-write tools for rapid prototype development, along with the flexibility to accommodate diverse projects through the ability to deposit and etch a very wide variety of materials. Under its NNCI site award, hundreds of engineers and scientists nationwide, from throughout academia, industry, and government, will utilize CNF’s unique toolset and technical staff. The new research and technology development that the CNF makes possible will transform many fields of engineering and science—spanning sensor and actuator arrays for probing how the brain works; improved photovoltaics, batteries, and fuel cells for economical renewable energy; new types of electronic devices that surmount limitations of silicon; fabrication of living tissues and organs; distributed measurement networks for geosciences; microbiome characterization and manipulation; on-chip signal processing with light; precision agriculture using new sensors; low-cost medical diagnoses; and improved quantum devices for utilizing entanglement.
Nanotechnology Collaborative Infrastructure Southwest
Arizona State University with partners Maricopa County Community College District and Science Foundation Arizona
PI: Trevor Thornton
The goals of the Nanotechnology Collaborative Infrastructure Southwest (NCI-SW) are to build a southwest regional infrastructure for nanotechnology discovery and innovation to address societal needs through education and entrepreneurship and to serve as a model site of the NNCI. The NCI-SW site will encompass six collaborative research facilities: the Arizona State University (ASU) NanoFab, the LeRoy Eyring Center for Solid State Science, the Flexible Electronics and Display Center (FEDC), the Peptide Array Core Facility, the Solar Power Laboratory (SPL), and the User Facility for the Social and Ethical Implications of Nanotechnology. The NCI-SW site will open the FEDC and SPL to the broader research community for the first time. The site will provide particular intellectual
and infrastructural strengths in the life sciences, flexible electronics, renewable energy and the societal impact of nanotechnology. ASU will collaborate with Maricopa County Community College District and Science Foundation Arizona to develop science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) materials with a nanotechnology focus for A.S. and A.A.S students in communities throughout metropolitan Phoenix and rural Arizona. NCI-SW will provide entrepreneurship training for users who wish to commercialize nanotechnology in order to benefit society. To facilitate the commercialization of research breakthroughs, the NCI-SW will support prototyping facilities and low-volume manufacturing pilot lines for solar cells, flexible electronics, and biomolecular arrays.
Center for Nanoscale Systems at Harvard University
PI: Robert Westervelt
The Center for Nanoscale Systems (CNS) provides a collaborative, multidisciplinary research environment that allows researchers from academia and industry to study and develop new structures, devices, systems, and technologies in fields ranging from biomedicine to nanoscale electronics and photonics. CNS offers tools for nanofabrication, electron microscopy, and characterization of nanoscale systems, with technical expertise and assistance provided by its staff. CNS is one of the most active nanofabrication and imaging facilities in the world with more than 1,500 users, and it is an important part of the high-technology boom in the Northeast. As part of the previous National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network, CNS developed diverse and versatile facilities including multi-length-scale optical and electron-beam lithography, focused ion beam and reactive ion etch systems to shape structures, and soft lithography expertise to enable fabrication of a wide variety of microfluidic systems. These tools allow users to push the frontiers of nanoscale electronics and photonics using nontraditional materials, and they enable the development of sensor systems for biomedicine. CNS researchers pursue advanced topics, including plasmonics, diamond photonics, nanoscale sensors, and atomic-layer devices. CNS has an outstanding suite of imaging and characterization tools including an aberration-corrected STEM, a high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, a CryoTEM, and an Atom Probe for 3D tomography, as well as scanned probe microscopes and linear and non-linear optical microscopes. Its characterization tools permit detailed analysis and assessment of materials, components, and systems, providing researchers with a comprehensive platform for nanotechnology research.