Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP SYNTHESIS 76 SubScriber categorieS Aviation â¢ Environment Helicopter Noise Information for Airports and Communities A Synthesis of Airport Practice conSultantS Vincent Mestre Landrum & Brown Irvine, California and Paul Schomer and Katherine Liu Paul Schomer and Associates, Inc. Champaign, Illinois Research Sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration 2016
AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in transportation of people and goods and in regional, national, and international commerce. They are where the nationâs aviation sys- tem connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common oper- ating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activities in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, mainte- nance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100âCentury of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary par- ticipants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant indus- try organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Association of Airport Execu- tives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consul- tants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences for- mally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organizations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibilities, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodi- cally but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research prob- lem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing cooperative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily with- out compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service providers, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP SYNTHESIS 76 Project A11-03, Topic S02-13 ISSN 1935-9187 ISBN 978-0-309-38975-4 Library of Congress Control Number 2016941221 Â© 2016 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publica- tion according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessari- ly those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
TOPIC PANEL S02-13 ROBERT GROTELL, PlaneNoise Inc., Port Jefferson, NY RHEA GUNDRY, Harris Miller Miller & Hanson Inc., Sacramento, CA JEFFREY JACQUART, Clark County (NV) Department of Aviation, Las Vegas, NV RONALD E. REEVES, Long Beach Airport, Long Beach, CA FREDRIC SCHMITZ, University of Maryland, College Park, MD JASON L. SCHWARTZ, Port of Portland, Portland, OR DON SCIMONELLI, South Capitol Street Heliport, LLC, Washington, DC KATHERINE ANDRUS, Federal Aviation Administration (Liaison) SYNTHESIS STUDIES STAFF STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies JO ALLEN GAUSE, Senior Program Officer GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer TANYA M. ZWAHLEN, Consultant DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs MICHAEL R. SALAMONE, Senior Program Officer JEFFREY OSER, Program Associate EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications ACRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 11-03 CHAIR JOSHUA D. ABRAMSON, Easterwood Airport, College Station, TX JULIE KENFIELD, Jacobsen/Daniels Associates LLC, Garden Ridge, TX MEMBERS DEBBIE K. ALKE, Montana Department of Transportation, Helena, MT GLORIA G. BENDER, TransSolutions, Fort Worth, TX DAVID K. BYERS, Quadrex Aviation, LLC, Melbourne, FL DAVID N. EDWARDS, JR., GreenvilleâSpartanburg Airport District, Greer, SC BRENDA L. ENOS, Massachusetts Port Authority, East Boston, MA LINDA HOWARD, Independent Aviation Consultant, Bastrop, Texas ARLYN PURCELL, Port Authority of New York & New Jersey, New York, NY FAA LIAISON PATRICK W. MAGNOTTA AIRCRAFT OWNERS AND PILOTS ASSOCIATION LIAISON ADAM WILLIAMS AIRPORTS CONSULTANTS COUNCIL LIAISON MATTHEW J. GRIFFIN AIRPORTS COUNCIL INTERNATIONALâNORTH AMERICA LIAISON LIYING GU TRB LIAISON CHRISTINE GERENCHER Cover figure: Helicopter over the Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C. Credit: Eric Seavey, Landrum & Brown.
FOREWORD Airport administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which informa- tion already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and practice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviating the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to the airport industry. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire airport community, the Airport Cooperative Research Program authorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing project. This project, ACRP Project 11-03, âSynthesis of Information Related to Airport Practices,â searches out and synthesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares con- cise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an ACRP report series, Synthesis of Airport Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. Helicopters produce a unique sound that is easily recognizable. While modern light- and medium-weight civil helicopters are much quieter than older helicopters and much quieter than heavy military helicopters they are still the focus of much community concern. They are com- plex machines that can land and takeoff vertically and are quite flexible in the routes they can take, which makes them useful for law enforcement, fire control, medical evacuation, media, tour operations, personnel transport, and training. Helicopters fly at much lower speeds than fixed-wing aircraft and, as a result, air traffic control separates them from fixed-wing aircraft, usually by altitude with the helicopters assigned altitudes below the fixed-wing aircraft. A review of the literature and the ten airport survey respondents generally agreed that out- reach, helicopter noise management programs, technology, and noise abatement procedures are most effective in managing helicopter noise. All ten airport survey respondents generally agreed that community outreach was the most important part of their noise management programs. These outreach programs include updated websites, educating the public and operators in person, and notifying the public of changes in helicopter routes either for temporary purposes or permanent changes (and why). Respondents agreed that simply publishing noise mitigation procedures without making oper- ators aware of them is not all that helpful. In the literature as well as from the airport survey helicopter altitude was the next most cited control measure. This is, of course, subject to air traffic control and cannot be mandated by the airport. Noise reduction with increased altitude is most effective directly under the flight track and the noise reduction diminishes to the side with increasing distance. The route structures also were commonly cited in the literature as well as in the airport survey. Vince Mestre, Landrum & Brown, Irvine, California; and Paul Schomer and Katherine Liu, Paul Schomer and Associates, Inc., Champaign, Illinois, collected and synthesized the informa- tion and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand. PREFACE By Gail R. Staba Senior Program Officer Transportation Research Board
CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 3 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 5 CHAPTER TWO UNIQUE ROLE OF HELICOPTERS, THEIR COMPLEX NOISE CHARACTERISTICS, AND THE ROLE OF STAKEHOLDERS Understanding Helicopter Noise in Comparison with Fixed-Wing Aircraft Noise, 5 Role of Stakeholders, 6 8 CHAPTER THREE COMMUNITY RESPONSE TO HELICOPTER NOISE Annoyance, 8 Direct Annoyance of Airborne Noise Created by Helicopters, 8 Annoyance Resulting from Secondary Noise Emissions, 9 Laboratory Versus Field Studies of Helicopter Annoyance, 9 Nonacoustic Contributions to Community Reaction to Helicopter Noise, 10 Complaints, 10 12 CHAPTER FOUR NOISE METRICS FOR QUANTIFYING HELICOPTER NOISE 14 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY OF FINDINGS OF LITERATURE REVIEW 16 CHAPTER SIX AIRPORT HELICOPTER NOISE SURVEY 18 CHAPTER SEVEN EFFECTIVE PRACTICES AND MITIGATION OF HELICOPTER NOISE List of Potential Strategies for Use by Airport and Heliport Operators, 18 Discussion of Noise Mitigation Strategies, 18 24 REFERENCES 27 APPENDIX A1 TECHNICAL DISCUSSION OF HELICOPTER NOISE 35 APPENDIX A2 CORRELATIONAL ANALYSIS OF HELICOPTER NOISE METRICS 40 APPENDIX A3 COMMUNITY TOLERANCE LEVEL, ACCOUNTING FOR NON-ACOUSTIC EFFECTS ON ANNOYANCE
42 APPENDIX B ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 60 APPENDIX C HAI FLY NEIGHBORLY GUIDE 95 APPENDIX D AIRPORT SURVEY QUESTIONS 110 APPENDIX E SAMPLE AIRPORT HELICOPTER BROCHURES 126 APPENDIX F EXAMPLE LETTER OF AGREEMENT 135 ENDNOTES Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.