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135 1. Note that these nonacoustic influences are most productively addressed at the community rather than individual level. As described in the paper on Community Tolerance Level (CTL) (Fidell 2011), communities form unique attitudes about noise. Decades of efforts (e.g., Job 1988; Fields 1993) to quantify individual differences in sensitivity to aircraft noise have produced little infor- mation useful for prediction of annoyance prevalence rates or for regulation of aviation noise. 2. The ISO 1996-1 revision was, at the time of this writing, in the final publication stages at ISO after having been approved by the ISO committee and was pending publication. 3. In contrast, horizontally mounted objects (e.g., bric-a-brac on shelves or crockery in cupboards) must overcome gravity before they can rattle; in other words, rattle can only occur when the surface they are on accelerates at greater than 1 G. 4. FAAâs endorsement of A-weighted noise measurements for assessment of community noise impacts is in large part based on limitations of field-portable, analog-era sound level meters. Lacking the capacity for combining one-third octave band sound level measurements and identi- fying tonal signal components, it was not possible decades ago to directly measure PNL(T) values in the field. 5. Readers interested in additional detail about these frequency-weighting networks and noise met- rics are referred to Mestre et al. (2011). 6. Idealized conditions include a stable and still atmosphere, close adherence to published flight paths and procedures, and ideal pilot technique. Because relatively few helicopter operations are likely to occur under all of these conditions, and because of the great sensitivity of helicopter noise emissions to minor changes in operating conditions, actual noise emissions in the vicinity of helipads may diverge considerably from predicted noise emissions. EndnotEs
Abbreviations and acronyms used without definitions in TRB publications: A4A Airlines for America AAAE American Association of Airport Executives AASHO American Association of State Highway Officials AASHTO American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials ACIâNA Airports Council InternationalâNorth America ACRP Airport Cooperative Research Program ADA Americans with Disabilities Act APTA American Public Transportation Association ASCE American Society of Civil Engineers ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers ASTM American Society for Testing and Materials ATA American Trucking Associations CTAA Community Transportation Association of America CTBSSP Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program DHS Department of Homeland Security DOE Department of Energy EPA Environmental Protection Agency FAA Federal Aviation Administration FAST Fixing Americaâs Surface Transportation Act (2015) FHWA Federal Highway Administration FMCSA Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration FRA Federal Railroad Administration FTA Federal Transit Administration HMCRP Hazardous Materials Cooperative Research Program IEEE Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers ISTEA Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 ITE Institute of Transportation Engineers MAP-21 Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (2012) NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration NASAO National Association of State Aviation Officials NCFRP National Cooperative Freight Research Program NCHRP National Cooperative Highway Research Program NHTSA National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NTSB National Transportation Safety Board PHMSA Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration RITA Research and Innovative Technology Administration SAE Society of Automotive Engineers SAFETEA-LU Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users (2005) TCRP Transit Cooperative Research Program TDC Transit Development Corporation TEA-21 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (1998) TRB Transportation Research Board TSA Transportation Security Administration U.S.DOT United States Department of Transportation
NO N-PRO FIT O RG . U.S. PO STAG E PA ID CO LUM BIA, M D PER M IT NO . 88 TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH BOARD 5 0 0 F ifth S tre e t, N W W a s h in g to n , D C 2 0 0 0 1 A D D R ESS SER VICE R EQ UESTED ACRP Synthesis 76 TRB Helicopter Noise Inform ation for Airports and Com m unities ISBN 978-0-309-38975-4 9 7 8 0 3 0 9 3 8 9 7 5 4 9 0 0 0 0