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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Addressing Significant Weather Impacts on Airports: Quick Start Guide and Toolkit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23629.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Addressing Significant Weather Impacts on Airports: Quick Start Guide and Toolkit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23629.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Addressing Significant Weather Impacts on Airports: Quick Start Guide and Toolkit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23629.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Addressing Significant Weather Impacts on Airports: Quick Start Guide and Toolkit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23629.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Addressing Significant Weather Impacts on Airports: Quick Start Guide and Toolkit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23629.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Addressing Significant Weather Impacts on Airports: Quick Start Guide and Toolkit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23629.
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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Addressing Significant Weather Impacts on Airports: Quick Start Guide and Toolkit. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23629.
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A I R P O R T C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M ACRP REPORT 160 TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2016 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the Federal Aviation Administration Subscriber Categories Aviation • Energy • Environment Addressing Significant Weather Impacts on Airports: Quick Start Guide and Toolkit ICF International Fairfax, VA i n a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h Burrst, Inc. Seattle, WA KRAMER aerotek, inc. Boulder, CO a n d Steven Barrett Cambridge, MA

AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM Airports are vital national resources. They serve a key role in trans- portation of people and goods and in regional, national, and interna- tional commerce. They are where the nation’s aviation system connects with other modes of transportation and where federal responsibility for managing and regulating air traffic operations intersects with the role of state and local governments that own and operate most airports. Research is necessary to solve common operating problems, to adapt appropriate new technologies from other industries, and to introduce innovations into the airport industry. The Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) serves as one of the principal means by which the airport industry can develop innovative near-term solutions to meet demands placed on it. The need for ACRP was identified in TRB Special Report 272: Airport Research Needs: Cooperative Solutions in 2003, based on a study spon- sored by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). ACRP carries out applied research on problems that are shared by airport operating agen- cies and not being adequately addressed by existing federal research programs. ACRP is modeled after the successful National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP) and Transit Cooperative Research Program (TCRP). ACRP undertakes research and other technical activi- ties in various airport subject areas, including design, construction, legal, maintenance, operations, safety, policy, planning, human resources, and administration. ACRP provides a forum where airport operators can cooperatively address common operational problems. ACRP was authorized in December 2003 as part of the Vision 100— Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act. The primary participants in the ACRP are (1) an independent governing board, the ACRP Oversight Committee (AOC), appointed by the Secretary of the U.S. Department of Transportation with representation from airport operating agencies, other stakeholders, and relevant industry organizations such as the Airports Council International-North America (ACI-NA), the American Associa- tion of Airport Executives (AAAE), the National Association of State Aviation Officials (NASAO), Airlines for America (A4A), and the Airport Consultants Council (ACC) as vital links to the airport community; (2) TRB as program manager and secretariat for the governing board; and (3) the FAA as program sponsor. In October 2005, the FAA executed a contract with the National Academy of Sciences formally initiating the program. ACRP benefits from the cooperation and participation of airport professionals, air carriers, shippers, state and local government officials, equipment and service suppliers, other airport users, and research organi- zations. Each of these participants has different interests and responsibili- ties, and each is an integral part of this cooperative research effort. Research problem statements for ACRP are solicited periodically but may be submitted to TRB by anyone at any time. It is the responsibility of the AOC to formulate the research program by identifying the highest priority projects and defining funding levels and expected products. Once selected, each ACRP project is assigned to an expert panel appointed by TRB. Panels include experienced practitioners and research specialists; heavy emphasis is placed on including airport professionals, the intended users of the research products. The panels prepare project statements (requests for proposals), select contractors, and provide technical guidance and counsel throughout the life of the project. The process for developing research problem statements and selecting research agencies has been used by TRB in managing coop- erative research programs since 1962. As in other TRB activities, ACRP project panels serve voluntarily without compensation. Primary emphasis is placed on disseminating ACRP results to the intended users of the research: airport operating agencies, service pro- viders, and academic institutions. ACRP produces a series of research reports for use by airport operators, local agencies, the FAA, and other interested parties; industry associations may arrange for workshops, training aids, field visits, webinars, and other activities to ensure that results are implemented by airport industry practitioners. ACRP REPORT 160 Project 02-49 ISSN 1935-9802 ISBN 978-0-309-37549-8 Library of Congress Control Number 2016942202 © 2016 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the Airport Cooperative Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturers’ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report. Published reports of the AIRPORT COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America

The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Ralph J. Cicerone is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Board’s varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.

C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S AUTHOR ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The research reported herein was performed under ACRP Project 02-49 by ICF International and its subcontractors Burrst, Inc., kRAMER aerotek, inc., and Steven Barrett. Adam klauber was the Principal Investigator. The other authors of this report are Beth Rodehorst (co-principal investigator), Marybeth Riley-Gilbert, Dr. Rawlings Miller, Cassandra Bhat, John Snyder, Alexander Lataille, Cory Jemison, Matthew Lichtash, and Bikash Acharya of ICF International. The report authors would also like to thank the following individuals who provided invaluable testing and feedback throughout the toolkit development process (listed alphabetically): Chris Andres (Chandler Municipal Airport), Marco Avila (ORD), Heidi Benaman (Faith Group LLC), Debra Bentley (PHX), Carl Braley (Manchester-Boston), Jack Christine (Charlotte), Jeff Daniels (Greater Orlando Aviation Authority), Hana Galal (Edmonton International Airport), kevin Gurchak (PIT), Ray Hoffelt (ORD), Ernest Huffman (Jacobsen/Daniels), Joe Husband (Phoenix Goodyear), David Ishihara (Volpe Center), Michael Legere (Manchester-Boston), Carolyn Lin (Los Angeles World Airports), Paul Martinez (DFW), Stephanie Meyn (Port of Seattle), Scott Morrissey (DEN), Michelle Moshner (SEA-TAC), Cynthia Parker (PHX), Robbin Peach (Massport), Dan Porter (Rhode Island Airport Corporation), Phil Ralston (PDX), Christopher Rausch (PHX), Brandon Reed (SAN), Thomas Rivera (DFW), and Ryan Spicer (DFW). CRP STAFF FOR ACRP REPORT 160 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Michael R. Salamone, ACRP Manager Theresia H. Schatz, Senior Program Officer Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Hilary Freer, Senior Editor ACRP PROJECT 02-49 PANEL Field of Environment Susanne DesRoches, NYC Mayor’s Office of Recovery and Resiliency, New York, NY (Chair) Scott Ayers, City of Atlanta Department of Aviation, Atlanta, GA David J. Carlson, Parsons, San Francisco, CA Hans Hauck, American Airlines, Lewisville, TX (formerly) Soumia Ichoua, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL Michael Nonnemacher, Ft Lauderdale International Airport, Dania, FL Thomas Cuddy, FAA Liaison Paul J. Eubanks, Airports Council International—North America Liaison James W. Bryant, Jr., TRB Liaison

ACRP Report 160: Addressing Significant Weather Impacts on Airports: Quick Start Guide and Toolkit provides a toolkit that raises airport operator awareness about vulnerabilities caused by significant weather events and helps airports develop more robust contingency and recovery plans, in addition to their airport emergency plans. This toolkit focuses on events that are “rare but plausible”; that is, events that may have happened in the distant past, or in adjacent geographic areas, but are not common event types at the airport itself, and therefore may not be in the forefront of the airport managers’ minds. Development of the toolkit, Airport Weather Advanced REadiness (AWARE), is based on a review of the historical weather data and impacts, as well as best practices and lessons learned from airports’ responses to recent significant weather events. This toolkit will assist airports of various types and sizes and their stakeholders in effectively planning for, responding to, and recovering from significant weather events. The Excel-based AWARE Toolkit first helps airports identify significant weather event types that airports may wish to prepare for, drawing on historical weather data relevant to the airport’s specific location. AWARE also contains seven readiness modules that allow users to review best practices for preparing for these different weather events, assess their readiness for those events, and generate customized checklists for preparing for and recov- ering from weather events. The seven modules are Administration & Finance, Planning & Environment, Airfield Operations, Terminal Operations, Ground Transportation & Parking, Safety & Security, and a consolidated streamlined version of the full toolkit for Small Airports. The Toolkit also contains the Impacts Tracking Module—a tool to help airports track the costs and other impacts of weather events (e.g., flight delays) over time as events occur. ACRP Report 160 contains a Quick Start Guide for the Toolkit, followed by a more in- depth User Guide and then Case Studies. In recent years, significant weather events, such as tornadoes, hurricanes, severe precipi- tation, and extreme temperatures, have caused a variety of impacts to airports. A string of hurricanes in 2004 and 2005 brought widespread damage and impacts to the East Coast and Gulf region that adversely affected multiple airports and their infrastructure and opera- tions. In 2011, a tornado caused destruction in St. Louis. In 2012, Superstorm Sandy dam- aged airport infrastructure along the East Coast, and a hailstorm disrupted operations and damaged aircraft in Dallas. The intensity of significant weather impacts varies depending on the airport and loca- tion. Snow may not impact airports in northern states in the same way that it would impact airports in southern states. Conversely, extreme heat may not impact airports in southern F O R E W O R D By Theresia H. Schatz Staff Officer Transportation Research Board

states as it would in northern states. With the increase in these significant weather events, it is important for airports to better plan for, respond to, and recover from these events. Under ACRP Project 02-49, research was conducted by ICF International, in associa- tion with Burrst, Inc.; kRAMER aerotek, inc.; and Dr. Steven Barrett. The research team distributed a Significant Weather Impact Survey, which sought to understand how airports throughout North America are impacted by significant weather events as well as their readi- ness for such events. The team conducted interviews with 15 airports and developed case studies from these airports. The AWARE Toolkit, a Toolkit overview, a brochure, and other supplemental informa- tion are available on the TRB website.

QS-1 Airport Weather Advanced REadiness (AWARE) Toolkit Quick Start Guide TK-1 AWARE Toolkit User Guide TK-3 Chapter 1 Introduction TK-5 Chapter 2 Toolkit Scope Tk-5 2.1 Weather Event Types Tk-5 2.2 Airport Functional Areas TK-7 Chapter 3 Using the Toolkit Tk-7 3.1 System Requirements Tk-7 3.2 Setup Tk-8 3.3 Toolkit Instructions Tk-9 3.4 Full Toolkit Users Tk-12 3.5 Small Airport Toolkit Users Tk-13 3.6 Exposure Information Module Tk-16 3.7 Readiness Modules Tk-20 3.8 Impacts Tracking Module TK-25 Chapter 4 Methodological Information Tk-25 4.1 Exposure Information Module Tk-27 4.2 Readiness Modules Methodology Tk-28 4.3 Impacts Tracking Module TK-29 Chapter 5 Frequently Asked Questions Tk-29 5.1 Tool Functionality Questions Tk-29 5.2 Tool Content and Purpose Questions TK-32 References CS-1 Airport Case Studies CS-3 Bozeman Yellowstone International Airport CS-5 Chicago O’Hare International Airport CS-7 Columbia Metropolitan Airport CS-9 Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport CS-11 Denver International Airport CS-13 George Bush Intercontinental Airport CS-16 kahului Airport CS-18 key West International Airport CS-20 Lambert–St. Louis International Airport CS-23 Manchester–Boston Regional Airport C O N T E N T S

CS-26 Newark Liberty International Airport CS-29 Phoenix Sky Harbor International Airport CS-31 Seattle–Tacoma International Airport CS-33 Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport CS-35 Toronto Pearson International Airport CS-38 Case Study References & Bibliography

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TRB's Airport Cooperative Research Program (ACRP) Report 160: Addressing Significant Weather Impacts on Airports provides a web toolkit that raises airport operator awareness about vulnerabilities caused by significant weather events. The toolkit helps airports develop more robust contingency and recovery plans, in addition to their airport emergency plans. This toolkit focuses on events that are “rare but plausible”; that is, events that may have happened in the distant past, or in adjacent geographic areas, but are not common event types at the airport itself, and therefore may not be in the forefront of the airport managers’ minds. The Quick Start Guide provides guidance for using the toolkit.

Disclaimers: The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this material are those of the researchers who performed the research. They are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board, the Academies, or the program sponsors. Materials noted with an asterisk (*) have been edited by TRB; otherwise, materials are as supplied by the contractor.

Any digital files or software included is offered as is, without warranty or promise of support of any kind either expressed or implied. Under no circumstance will the National Academy of Sciences or the Transportation Research Board (collectively “TRB”) be liable for any loss or damage caused by the installation or operation of this product. TRB makes no representation or warranty of any kind, expressed or implied, in fact or in law, including without limitation, the warranty of merchantability or the warranty of fitness for a particular purpose, and shall not in any case be liable for any consequential or special damages.

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