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105 As discussed in Section 2, each corridor type can be distinguished by its combination of people and place factors. The various combinations of these characteristics, and the degree to which these combinations are consistent with and mutually reinforce each other, help determine the quality of transit corridor livability. For ease of interpretation, these factors combine and interact along a simple continuum: low- to high-quality of transit corridor livability opportunities. The discussion of people and place interactions for High-Quality Transit, Walking, and Bicycling Opportunities Principle is provided in Section 1. Additional discussion of the people and place interactions for the remaining Transit Corridor Livability Principles are provided in this appendix. Mixed-Income Housing Near Transit Affordable housing is a combination of the amount and diversity of housing for a variety of incomes (place), and the degree to which the housing in the corridor is available to a diverse population (people). Figure E-1 illustrates how these two factors interact to create mixed-income housing opportunities near transit, with the darkest box representing the highest level of livability opportunities. Different combinations of these people and place factors create a set of four transit corridor livability categories with varying qualities of mixed-income housing and population diversity (including age, race, income, and education). Transit-Accessible Economic Opportunities While there are many important aspects of economic life, economic livability opportunities can be reduced to two essential components: employment (place) and consumer opportunities (people). Labeling these components as people and place factors may seem arbitraryâfor example, employment is arguably as much about people as it is about place. However, this distinction is useful for this typology since retail usually moves to where people live, and decisions regarding location of nonretail employment generally relate to the quality of places, for example, access to markets, suppliers, or clusters of innovation. Figure E-2 illustrates how employment and consumer opportunities interact, with the upper- right quadrant representing the highest level of livability opportunities. Varying combinations of these people and place factors create a set of four transit corridor livability categories with varying qualities of employment and consumer opportunities. A P P E N D I X E People and Place Livability Combinations
106 Livable Transit Corridors: Methods, Metrics, and Strategies Figure E-1. Mixed-income housing (place) and population diversity (people) factor combinations. Figure E-2. Employment opportunities (place) and consumer opportunities (people) factor combinations. Accessible Social and Government Services Accessible government services provide an important foundation for building a community with rich livability opportunities. Effective planning and public policies (place) that address the needs and desires of corridor residents can encourage civic-mindedness and community involvement. Accessibility to critical services (people) such as education and health care are a direct result of effective governmental policies and public involvement. Figure E-3 illustrates how
People and Place Livability Combinations 107 corridor access to government services (place), and social services (people) opportunities interact, with upper-right quadrant representing the highest level of livability opportunities. Vibrant and Accessible Community, Cultural, and Recreational Opportunities Vibrant community, cultural, and recreational opportunities are (in part) a consequence of accessibility, and accessibility in a transit corridor is highly dependent on urban form patterns. Compact urban form patterns allow for more efficient use of the resources required to build and maintain streets, sewers, and energy infrastructure, to name a few. Well-designed public works investmentsâsuch as parks and other public spacesâcreate cost-effective cultural and recreational opportunities for people to enhance their quality of life. Figure E-4 illustrates how urban form (place), and community, cultural, and recreational (people) opportunities interact, with the upper-right quadrant representing the highest level of livability opportunities. Healthy, Safe, Walkable Transit Corridor Neighborhoods Neighborhood safety is an important element of livability. In transit corridors, neighborhood design and infrastructure influence how people feel about walking and riding bicycles, thus affect- ing the physical health of the population. The combination of a pedestrian-oriented environment (place) and neighborhood safety from crimes and traffic collisions (people) can have important effects on public health and livability outcomes. These interactions are illustrated in Figure E-5 with the upper-right quadrant representing the highest level of livability opportunities. Figure E-3. Accessible social services (people) and effective government services (place) factor combinations.
108 Livable Transit Corridors: Methods, Metrics, and Strategies Figure E-4. Vibrant and accessible community, cultural, and recreational opportunities factor combinations. Figure E-5. Pedestrian-oriented environment (place) and neighborhood safety (people) factor combinations.