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52 Introduction The Transit Corridor Livability Principles outlined in this Handbook provide a framework for understanding livability and help identify possible implementation strategies. Handbook goals describe preferred end-state aspirations and cover a complete spectrum of livability concerns. Consequently, this Handbookâs goals and their associated strategies should NOT be viewed as pre- scriptive, one-size-fits-all planning tools, but rather, a flexible menu of possible actions for further consideration. As such, the goals establish the framework for assessment metrics (in Step 2 âAssess the Corridorâ) and corridor visioning (in Step 3: âIdentify Goalsâ and Step 4: âDevelop a Visionâ). When evaluating a particular corridor, goals should be considered qualitatively in combination with assessment metrics to identify a corridorâs strengths and needs. This will inform strategic planning and the selection of suitable implementation strategies. This Appendix presents the goals as they are associated with the Transit Corridor Livability Principles. The goals embody essential attributes for each Principle. This section defines each goal and briefly discusses its importance. Each goal is connected to a menu of related implementation strategies. Tables A-1 through A-6 provide menus of possible strategies. To better understand strategies noted, refer to Appendix B. Goals Associated with Livability Principles The following goals define desirable end-state conditions associated with the Handbookâs six Livability Principles: â¢ High-Quality Transit, Walking, and Bicycling Opportunities â¢ Mixed-Income Housing Near Transit â¢ Transit-Accessible Economic Opportunities â¢ Accessible Social and Government Services â¢ Vibrant and Accessible Community, Cultural, and Recreational Opportunities â¢ Healthy, Safe, and Walkable Transit Corridor Neighborhoods High-Quality Transit, Walking, and Bicycling Opportunities Table A-1 provides a summary of the goals and related strategies for this Principle. Regional Access Integrate corridor transit, nonmotorized modes, and land uses to provide convenient access to regional economic, social, and other livability opportunities. A P P E N D I X A Goals and Related Strategies
Goals and Related Strategies 53 Access strategies enable residents and employees along a corridor to walk, bicycle, or ride tran- sit to destinations that offer livability opportunities. Higher jobs and housing densities enhance transit service andâtogether with the availability of local destinationsâreduce reliance on the car (Holtzclaw et al. 2002). Access strategies can also make transit investments and operations more efficient, as ridership increases and includes a wider variety of trip types, including during non- commute hours. Regional Connectivity Promote pedestrian and bicycle routes that are reasonably direct routes to regional destinations and transit stations and stops. Walking and bicycling connections enable community members to access livability opportu- nities locally and provide easier access to transit service and livability opportunities regionally and along a transit corridor. Connections must be reasonably direct (not long or circuitous) for walking to be a practical option; direct routes also encourage higher levels of bicycling. Distrib- uting traffic among multiple parallel routes, instead of widely spaced collector and arterial roads, can lower traffic volumes and encourage developers to front buildings toward major streets (Victoria Transport Policy Institute 2012). Complete and connected sidewalks, in particular, are key elements in any pedestrian network system. Demand Management Encourage travel decisions that favor alternatives to the car and optimize use of available transit capacity. Demand management policies and programs can promote alternative modes, reduce traffic impacts, relieve traffic congestion, and better allocate limited transportation resources (such as parking) by influencing personal mode choice and time-of-travel decisions. Key demand manage- ment strategies include frequent and convenient transit service, improved parking management, and effective site planning. Goals Strategies Regional Access Integrate corridor transit, nonmotorized modes, and land uses to provide convenient access to regional economic, social, and other livability opportunities. Connected network planning Circuitous route retrofits Transit frequency and reliability Last-mile shuttles Compact development Activity center master plans Jobs-housing alignment Station area profiles Regional competitiveness Regional Connectivity Promote pedestrian and bicycle routes that offer reasonably direct routes to regional destinations and transit stations/stops. Connected network planning Circuitous route retrofits Last-mile shuttles Complete streets Pedestrian and bicycle network maintenance Demand Management Encourage travel decisions that favor alternatives to the car and optimize use of available transit capacity. Alternative modes Parking management and requirements Transit pass subsidies Zoning overlay districts Table A-1. Strategies for building high-quality transit, walking, and bicycling opportunities.
54 Livable Transit Corridors: Methods, Metrics, and Strategies Mixed-Income Housing Near Transit Table A-2 provides a summary of the goals and related strategies for this Principle. Affordability Provide sufficient affordable housing that fits the needs of an areaâs workforce and disabled, elderly, and low-income residents and that offers affordable transportation options. Affordable housing provides an opportunity to people of all economic strata to live in transit corridors, and allows communities to retain a workforce serving local industries and businesses. Local governments can promote affordable housing by encouraging its production and by provid- ing direct assistance to renters and first-time homebuyers along transit corridors (U.S. Government Accountability Office 2009). Market-based housing options (housing not provided by the public sector) can also be expanded by eliminating or reforming restrictive planning and permitting procedures and stan- dards. Note that new construction can displace low-income households. Consider policies that offer low-income households the opportunity to remain in neighborhoods and the social net- works that their neighborhoods support (McConville 2013). Car-free and low-mileage housing options also promote affordability by avoiding the high costs associated with auto ownership (Center for Transit-Oriented Development 2010). Transit corridors can play a vital role in enhancing affordability by improving access, even as funds available for affordable housing stay constant (Center for Transit-Oriented Development 2009). Affordable housing near transit also benefits persons with limited mobility andâwhen paired with safe paths to local destinationsâprovides them with greater independence. Transit access also can reduce public sector costs associated with delivering services to mobility-challenged persons. Dial-a-ride and other paratransit services typically offer infrequent service and have operating costs that present a fiscal challenge to many communities. Goals Strategies Affordability Provide sufficient affordable housing that fits the needs of an areaâs workforce, disabled, elderly, and low-income residents, and that offers affordable transportation options. Location efficiency Transit pass subsidies Housing production and targets Regulatory streamlining Inclusionary housing Local housing trust funds Anti-displacement strategies Land assemblage and joint development Station area profiles (development site identification) Variety Allow and encourage diverse housing options that reflect the variety of households and housing needs along a corridor. Housing production and targets Regulatory streamlining Inclusionary housing Local housing trust funds Anti-displacement strategies Land assemblage and joint development Form-based codes (housing type flexibility) Station area profiles (development site identification) Table A-2. Strategies for encouraging equitable and affordable housing near transit.
Goals and Related Strategies 55 Variety Allow and encourage diverse housing options that reflect the variety of households and housing needs along a corridor. Communities benefit from a diverse range of housing choices. Housing variety offers a wider range of choices that reflect different household preferences and financial means, and supports people at different life stages. Diverse housing also enables the local workforce to be better aligned with an areaâs employment opportunities. Transit-Accessible Economic Opportunities Table A-3 provides a summary of the goals and related strategies for this Principle. Jobs and Housing Offer a range of employment opportunities and align jobs along the corridor that match the skills of residents who live, or may live, along the corridor. Regional economies benefit when both jobs and workforce housing cluster around transit. This arrangement yields more efficient transport costs and offers access to a larger, more diverse labor pool (Center for Transit-Oriented Development 2011). Access to quality education and training is a means to advance economic opportunities of people who live in a corridor. Jobs-housing matching can play a critical role in reducing car travel, expanding balance, and enhancing economic and social vitality (California Planning Roundtable 2013). Corridor planning can also support regional economic strategies that may exist (both adopted and informal), particu- larly around the workforce and economic development needs associated with key industry clusters. Vitality and Growth Promote economically and culturally vibrant corridor districts. Structure new growth along transit corridors and away from sensitive land. Goals Strategies Jobs and Housing Offer a range of employment opportunities and align jobs along the corridor with the skills of residents who live, or may live, along the corridor. Mix of uses Jobs-housing alignment Activity center master plans Station area profiles (to identify jobs or housing growth opportunities) Vitality and Growth Promote economically and culturally vibrant corridor districts. Structure new growth along transit corridors and away from sensitive land. Compact development Regional competitiveness Financial feasibility and incentives Land assemblage and joint development District financing and value capture Social investments Station area profiles (for economic trends and opportunities) Reuse Encourage the reuse of previously developed land that has become vacant or underutilized. Financial feasibility and incentives Land assemblage and joint development District financing and value capture Predevelopment assistance Social investments Table A-3. Strategies for encouraging transit-accessible economic opportunities.
56 Livable Transit Corridors: Methods, Metrics, and Strategies Compact growth helps to put complementary land uses within walking distance of each other and transit. At the local level, land use mix can also provide economic development benefits, much as cultural uses can affect urban revitalization. Compact growth also requires less infrastructure than more diffuse development patterns, making it more affordable to build and maintain over time (Smart Growth America 2013) and has been shown to enhance economic productivity and job creation (Kramer & Sobel 2013). Sensitive land, such as areas with valuable natural habitats, highly productive farmland, and unique scenic resources, can be more easily protected when growth is compact. Urban infill and revitalization helps to increase livability opportunities within established urban districts that have declined economically but remain accessible by transit. Infill and revitalization can help reverse economic decline, and put more housing and jobs near transit. The adoption of comprehensive and mutually reinforcing strategies may be needed, however, to encourage private investments and guide public improvements (Reconnecting America and Center for Transit- Oriented Development 2013). Strategies can âcaptureâ the value added to urban areas as infill and revitalization occur. âValue captureâ can occur by reserving the increasing tax increment to finance local improvements, and also results from growing assessments, developer dedications, and various forms of tax revenue growth (Center for Transit-Oriented Development 2009). Reuse Encourage the reuse of previously developed land that has become vacant or underutilized. The reuse of underutilized sites can complement corridors by delivering uses that may be in short supply, such as housing in job-rich corridors, jobs in bedroom communities, and retail and services needed locally. Reuse can also spin off economic benefits and serve as a catalyst for additional private investment nearby (Kramer & Sobel 2013). Reuse of large properties originally developed in an auto-oriented fashion has the potential to knit together underutilized land and adjacent properties into a coherent pedestrian-friendly fabric. Accessible Social and Government Services Table A-4 provides a summary of the goals and related strategies for this Principle. Essential Services Provide convenient transit access to health care and other essential social services. Transit access to health care, job training programs, day care, community colleges, and other community services benefit community members in terms of convenience, cost, and Goals Strategies Essential Services Provide convenient transit access to health care and other essential social services. Partnerships with service providers Accessible community services Connected network planning Last-mile shuttles Infrastructure and Government Services Promote effective and safe infrastructure and other government services, while supporting other livability goals. Compact development Efficient infrastructure and services Community safety Walk and bike safety audits CPTED Table A-4. Strategies for encouraging accessible social and government services.
Goals and Related Strategies 57 independenceâespecially for community members who cannot drive because of age, income, or disability. Corridor planning and implementation initiatives can emphasize transit-oriented health care within a corridor. Infrastructure and Government Services Promote effective and safe infrastructure and other government services, while supporting other livability goals. At all levels, government provides vital services such as public safety, infrastructure, and economic development. Limited resources require that services be provided efficiently and effectively, and be conducted in ways that leverage a full range of livability goals. Vibrant and Accessible Community, Cultural, and Recreational Opportunities Table A-5 provides a summary of the goals and related strategies for this Principle. Recreational and Community Facilities Provide small parks, other recreational and community opportunities, and schools within walking distance of most transit-oriented homes. Provide schools, post offices, and libraries as well as larger parks and recreational facilities along transit corridors, while maintaining compact walkable development near transit stations/stops. Parks and other recreational facilities provide opportunities for physical activity and support mental and social well-being. They also add economic value to communities and help stabilize declining neighborhoods (Harnik and Welle 2009). Near transit, small parks help to maintain compact walkable environments, but larger parks may not be appropriate, especially since park use is more affected by easy access than park size (Giles-Corti et al. 2013). Modest facilities can have a big impact. In many communities, small neighborhood and âpocket parksâ are more heavily used. Underutilized land can often be âreclaimedâ for recreation, Goals Strategies Recreational and Community Facilities Provide small parks, other recreational and community opportunities, and schools within walking distance of most transit-oriented homes; provide schools, post offices, and libraries as well as larger parks and recreational facilities along transit corridors, while maintaining compact walkable development near transit stations/stops. Recreation and open space Schools and community facilities Mix of uses Connected network planning Station area profiles (to identify underserved areas) Cultural Enrichment Offer opportunities for cultural enrichment. Public art Cultural destinations District revitalization Context-Sensitive Design Respect historic, scenic, and other characteristics of established districts that are important for aesthetic cohesion and community identity. Integrate historic and other cultural resources when possible. District revitalization Sense-of-place guidelines Form-based code Station area profiles (to identify cultural assets) Table A-5. Strategies for encouraging vibrant and accessible community, cultural, and recreational opportunities.
58 Livable Transit Corridors: Methods, Metrics, and Strategies such as when vacant lots become community gardens or when âparkletsâ are created along over- sized roadways. Schools, libraries, post offices, and other community facilities should be accessible by transit, bicycle, and pedestrian. Efficient urban formats help maintain compact walkable development patterns, such as when school campuses are also used for community programs and recreation (Kanters et al. 2013). Cultural Enrichment Offer opportunities for cultural enrichment. Life is enriched when residents and employees can participate in an array of cultural activi- ties, such as music, performance, art, crafts, and celebrations. Participation depends on having facilities and ongoing programs. Context-Sensitive Design Respect historic, scenic, and other characteristics of established districts that are impor- tant for aesthetic cohesion and represent community member preferences. Embrace and integrate historic and other cultural resources when possible, such as through adaptive reuse. Established districts sometimes have historic resources, scenic resources, or aesthetic quali- ties that community members care about and that help make districts distinct. Consider ways to protect valuable resources and emulate the best aspects of a specific place with the design of streets and buildings while also allowing transit-oriented intensification. Healthy, Safe, Walkable Transit Corridor Neighborhoods Table A-6 provides a summary of the goals and related strategies for this Principle. Mix of Uses Provide retail conveniences, recreation, basic services, and cultural destinations close to transit stations and stops, and within walking distance of most homes and jobs. Livability is enhanced when homes and jobs are within walking distance of local retail, com- munity facilities, amenities, and transit. Trip-chaining occurs when conveniences are available near transit and increases the rate of transit use (Cervero 2006). Community and cultural desti- nations, such as theaters, museums, and places of worship, also enhance livability. Walking and Biking Environments Provide pedestrian and bicycling paths that are safe and attractive and that support community life. Walking and bicycling environments are important public spaces (Gyorgyfalvy 2010). If designed to be welcoming and safe, walking and biking environments provide access to local destinations, offer social gathering places, promote healthful and economically stable communities (Shoup and Ewing 2013), and increase transit use (Lee 2012). Traffic calming features reduce traffic speeds and reduce pedestriansâ and bicyclistsâ exposure to injury; traffic lanes can be sized to reduce the potential for serious and fatal pedestrian injuries (Daisa 2006); and traffic lanes can sometimes be eliminated to expand pedestrian and bicycle facilities (Speck 2013).
Goals and Related Strategies 59 Street-Oriented Buildings Line streets with building facades that have generous windows, frequent entrances, and attractive features, and generally avoid parking lots or blank walls along streets. Enhance connectivity with building entrances that face streets or are connected to the circulation network via a pedestrian path. Building facades can support or deter walking and bicycle use. People walk less and there are greater incidents of crime where streets are lined by blank walls and parking lots. Streets and other pedestrian and bicycle environments are more attractive and discourage inappropriate behavior when building facades with windows and entrances are nearby (Zelinka and Brennan 2001; Loukaitou-Sideris 1999). Street-oriented buildings also encourage social interaction. Goals Strategies Mix of Uses Provide retail conveniences, recreation, basic services, and cultural destinations close to transit stations/stops and within walking distance of most homes and jobs. Compact development Form-based codes TOD and other guidelines Zoning overlay districts Cultural destinations Recreation and open space Activity center master plans Walking and Biking Environments Provide pedestrian and bicycling paths that are safe, attractive and that support community life. Complete streets Connected network planning Walk and bike safety audits Traffic calming Pedestrian and bicycle network maintenance Community safety CPTED Circuitous route retrofits Street-Oriented Buildings Line streets with building facades that have generous windows, frequent entrances, and attractive features, and generally avoid parking lots or blank walls along streets. Enhance connectivity with building entrances that face streets or are connected to the circulation network via a pedestrian path. Form-based codes TOD and other design guidelines Zoning overlay districts CPTED Table A-6. Strategies for encouraging healthy, safe, walkable transit corridor neighborhoods.