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N A T I O N A L C O O P E R A T I V E H I G H W A Y R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M NCHRP REPORT 825 Planning and Preliminary Engineering Applications Guide to the Highway Capacity Manual Richard Dowling Paul Ryus Bastian Schroeder Kittelson & AssociAtes, inc. Portland, Oregon Michael Kyte University of idAho Moscow, Idaho F. Thomas Creasey stAntec Lexington, Kentucky Nagui Rouphail Ali Hajbabaie itre At n.c. stAte University Raleigh, North Carolina Danica Rhoades Write rhetoric Boise, Idaho Subscriber Categories Planning and Forecasting TRANSPORTAT ION RESEARCH BOARD WASHINGTON, D.C. 2016 www.TRB.org Research sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be studied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation results in increasingly complex problems of wide inter- est to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 ini- tiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniquesâthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRBâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many reasons: TRB maintains an extensive com- mittee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, univer- sities, and industry; TRBâs relationship to the Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of specialists in high- way transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identified by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and transporta- tion departments and by committees of AASHTO. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Standing Committee on Research (SCOR), and each year SCORâs recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Directors and the Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted proposals. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the Acad- emies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation problems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP REPORT 825 Project 07-22 ISSN 0077-5614 ISBN 978-0-309-37565-8 Library of Congress Control Number 2016950446 Â© 2016 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessarily those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are considered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
C O O P E R A T I V E R E S E A R C H P R O G R A M S CRP STAFF FOR NCHRP REPORT 825 Christopher W. Jenks, Director, Cooperative Research Programs Christopher Hedges, Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program B. Ray Derr, Senior Program Officer Charlotte Thomas, Senior Program Assistant Eileen P. Delaney, Director of Publications Maria Sabin Crawford, Editor NCHRP PROJECT 07-22 PANEL Field of TrafficâArea of Traffic Planning Dirk B. Gross, Ohio DOT, Delaware, OH (Chair) Douglas S. McLeod, Florida DOT, Tallahassee, FL Robert W. Bryson, Milwaukee, WI Brian G. Dunn, Oregon DOT, Salem, OR Jessie X. Jones, Arkansas SHTD, Little Rock, AR Subrat Mahapatra, Maryland State Highway Administration, Baltimore, MD Erik O. Ruehr, VRPA Technologies, Inc., San Diego, CA Tyrone Anthony Scorsone, Cambridge Systematics, Inc., Tallahassee, FL F. Andrew Wolfe, SUNY IT, Utica, NY Jeremy Raw, FHWA Liaison Matthew Hardy, AASHTO Liaison Richard A. Cunard, TRB Liaison
This guide will help planners apply the methodologies of the Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) 2016 Major Update to common planning and preliminary engineering analyses (including scenario planning and system performance monitoring). It shows how the HCM can interact with travel demand forecasting, mobile source emission, and simulation mod- els and its application to multimodal analyses and oversaturated conditions. Three case studies (freeway master plan, arterial bus rapid transit analysis, and long-range transporta- tion plan analysis) illustrate the techniques presented in the guide. In addition to providing a cost-effective and reliable approach to analysis, the guide provides a practical introduction to the detailed methodologies of the HCM. NCHRP Synthesis 427: Extent of Highway Capacity Manual Use in Planning recommended the development of an applications guide to address the use of HCM procedures in planning and preliminary engineering applications such as corridor studies, roadway widening projects, and traffic impact analyses. Survey respondents for that synthesis study thought that an applications guide could increase the accuracy and reliability of planning study results. It would also enhance the value of the resources used in the development of the HCM by allowing its broader use. Under NCHRP Project 07-22, Kittelson & Associates, Inc., analyzed each chapter of the HCM to identify material that could be profitably applied to planning and preliminary engi- neering analyses. They also conducted focus groups to build upon NCHRP Synthesis 427 regarding the use of the HCM and other tools in planning and preliminary engineering applications. The research team then wrote the guide and refined it through workshops with public agencies. When the NCHRP project began, the intent was to base the guide upon the 2010 HCM. NCHRP Project 03-115 was subsequently funded to provide a major update to the HCM, and this guide is based upon that update, released in 2016. F O R E W O R D By B. Ray Derr Staff Officer Transportation Research Board
C O N T E N T S P A R T 1 Overview 3 A. Introduction 3 1. Overview 3 2. Scope of the Guide 5 3. Target Audience 5 4. How to Use the Guide 6 5. The Hierarchy of Analysis Methods 8 B. Medium-Level (Facility-Specific) Analyses 8 1. Overview 8 2. Project Traffic and Environmental Impact Studies 10 3. Applications of Default Values 10 4. References 11 C. High-Level Analyses 11 1. Overview 11 2. Screening and Scoping Studies 12 3. Long- and Short-Range Areawide Transportation Planning 13 4. System Performance Monitoring 14 5. References 15 D. Working with Traffic Demand Data 15 1. Overview 15 2. Selecting an Analysis Hour 15 3. Converting Daily Volumes to Shorter Timeframes 18 4. Seasonal Adjustments to Traffic Volumes 18 5. Rounding Traffic Volumes 19 6. Differences Between Observed Volumes and Actual Demand 19 7. Constraining Demand for Upstream Bottleneck Metering 21 8. Generating Turning-Movement Volume Estimates from Link Volumes 28 9. References 29 E. Predicting Intersection Traffic Control 29 1. Overview 29 2. Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices 30 3. Graphical Method 32 4. References
33 F. Default Values to Reduce Data Needs 33 1. Overview 33 2. When to Consider Default Values 34 3. Sources of Default Values 34 4. Developing Local Default Values 35 5. References 36 G. Service Volume Tables to Reduce Analysis Effort 36 1. Overview 36 2. Description 36 3. When to Consider Service Volume Tables 37 4. Sources of Generalized Service Volume Tables 39 5. References P A R T 2 Medium-Level Analysis Methods 43 H. Freeway Analyses 43 1. Overview 43 2. Applications 44 3. Analysis Methods Overview 45 4. Scoping and Screening Method 47 5. Employing the HCM with Defaults 47 6. Simplified HCM Facility Method 56 7. Reliability 58 8. Adaptations for Advanced Freeway Management Practices 59 9. Multimodal Level of Service 59 10. Example 60 11. References 61 I. Multilane Highways 61 1. Overview 61 2. Applications 61 3. Analysis Methods Overview 62 4. Scoping and Screening Method 64 5. Section Analysis Using HCM with Defaults 65 6. Multilane Facility Analysis Method 68 7. Reliability 69 8. Multimodal LOS 69 9. Example 69 10. References 70 J. Two-Lane Highways 70 1. Overview 70 2. Applications 70 3. Analysis Methods Overview 71 4. Scoping and Screening 73 5. Section Analysis Using HCM with Defaults 75 6. Two-Lane Facility Analysis Method 79 7. Reliability 80 8. Multimodal LOS 80 9. Example 80 10. Reference
81 K. Urban Streets 81 1. Overview 81 2. Applications 82 3. Analysis Methods Overview 83 4. Scoping and Screening 86 5. Employing the HCM Method with Defaults 86 6. Simplified HCM Segment Analysis Method 97 7. Reliability Analysis 97 8. Multimodal LOS 97 9. Example 98 10. References 99 L. Signalized Intersections 99 1. Overview 99 2. Applications 99 3. Analysis Methods Overview 101 4. Simplified Method, Part 1: Volume-to-Capacity Ratio Calculation 108 5. Simplified Method, Part 2: Delay, LOS, and Queue Calculation 112 6. Worksheets 112 7. Reliability Analysis 114 8. Multimodal LOS 114 9. Example 114 10. Reference 115 M. Stop-controlled Intersections 115 1. Overview 115 2. Applications 115 3. Analysis Methods Overview 116 4. Simplified HCM Method for All-Way Stop-controlled Intersections 118 5. Simplified HCM Method for Two-Way Stop-controlled Intersections 124 6. Level of Service Analysis (AWSC and TWSC) 125 7. Queuing Analysis (AWSC and TWSC) 125 8. Worksheets 127 9. Reliability Analysis 127 10. Multimodal LOS 127 11. Example 127 12. Reference 128 N. Roundabouts 128 1. Overview 128 2. Applications 128 3. Analysis Methods Overview 128 4. Simplified HCM Method 134 5. Worksheets 134 6. Reliability Analysis 136 7. Multimodal LOS 136 8. Example 136 9. Reference 137 O. Pedestrians, Bicyclists, and Public Transit 137 1. Overview 137 2. Freeways 138 3. Multilane and Two-Lane Highways
139 4. Urban Streets 158 5. Signalized Intersections 160 6. Stop-controlled Intersections 162 7. Roundabouts 162 8. Off-Street Pathways 165 9. References 166 P. Truck Level of Service 166 1. Overview 166 2. Truck Level of Service Index 168 3. Estimating Probability of On-Time Arrival from TTI 168 4. A Service-TTI Lookup Table for Truck LOS 170 5. References P A R T 3 High-Level Analyses 173 Q. Corridor Quick Estimation Screenline Analysis 173 1. Overview 173 2. Screening for Capacity and Multimodal LOS Hot Spots 174 3. Screening Alternatives for Capacity Impacts 176 R. Areas and Systems 176 1. Overview 176 2. Computational Tools 176 3. Data Needs 177 4. Estimation of Demand Model Inputs 183 5. Performance Measure Estimation 187 6. References 188 S. Roadway System Monitoring 188 1. Overview 188 2. Travel Time Datasets 188 3. Identification of Problem Spots Through the Travel Time Index 190 4. Identification of Multimodal Problem Spots 190 5. Diagnosis of Causes of Mobility Problems 191 6. References P A R T 4 Case Studies 195 T. Case Study 1: Freeway Master Plan 195 1. Overview 196 2. Example 1: Focusing the StudyâScreening for Service Volume Problems 201 3. Example 2: Forecasting v/c Hot Spots 207 4. Example 3: Estimating Speed and Travel Time 210 5. Example 4: Predicting Unacceptable Motorized Vehicle LOS Hot Spots 211 6. Example 5: Estimating Queues 214 7. Example 6: Predicting Reliability Problems 217 8. Example 7: Comparison of Overcongested Alternatives 221 9. Reference
222 U. Case Study 2: Arterial BRT Analysis 222 1. Overview 223 2. Example 1: Preliminary Screening with Service Volume Tables 225 3. Example 2: Computing Critical Intersection Volume-to-Capacity Ratios 230 4. Example 3: Calculation of Intersection v/c Ratio for Permitted Left Turns 234 5. Example 4: Estimating Auto and BRT Speeds 241 6. Example 5: Predicting Queue Hot Spots 242 7. Example 6: Pedestrian, Bicycle, and Transit LOS 251 8. References 252 V. Case Study 3: Long-Range Transportation Plan Analysis 252 1. Overview 253 2. Example 1: Estimating Free-Flow Speeds and Capacities for Model Input 255 3. Example 2: HCM-based VolumeâDelay Functions for Model Input 257 4. Example 3: Predicting Density, Queues, and Delay 258 5. Example 4: Predicting Reliability 259 6. Reference Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.