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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
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Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for
Selected Airborne Chemicals

VOLUME 20

Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

Committee on Toxicology

Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology

Division on Earth and Life Studies

A Report of

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THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES PRESS
Washington, DC
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
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This activity was supported by Grant No. W81K04-11-D-0017 from the Department of Defense. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views of any organization or agency that provided support for the project.

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Suggested citation: National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
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Reports document the evidence-based consensus of an authoring committee of experts. Reports typically include findings, conclusions, and recommendations based on information gathered by the committee and committee deliberations. Reports are peer reviewed and are approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine.

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Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×

COMMITTEE ON ACUTE EXPOSURE GUIDELINE LEVELS

Members

GEORGE RUSCH (Chair), Risk Assessment and Toxicology

RICHARD A. BECKER, American Chemistry Council

ROBERTA GRANT, Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (Retired)

JACOB MCDONALD, Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute

NU-MAY RUBY REED, California Environmental Protection Agency (Retired)

Staff

ELIZABETH BOYLE, Project Director

SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer

ORIN LUKE, Program Associate

MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Manager, Technical Information Center

RADIAH ROSE-CRAWFORD, Manager, Editorial Projects

Sponsor

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×

COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY

Members

DAVID C. DORMAN (Chair), North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC

DEEPAK K. BHALLA, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI

VICTORIA A. CASSANO, Performance Medicine Consulting, Hartford, CT

DEBORAH A. CORY-SLECHTA, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY

MARY E. DAVIS, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV

B. BHASKAR GOLLAPUDI, Exponent, Inc., Midland, MI

TERRANCE J. KAVANAGH, University of Washington, Seattle, WA

JAMES E. LOCKEY, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH

MARGARET M. MACDONELL, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL

MARTIN A. PHILBERT, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI

IVAN I. RUSYN, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX

KENNETH R. STILL, Portland State University, Portland, OR

Staff

SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology

MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Manager, Technical Information Center

RADIAH ROSE-CRAWFORD, Manager, Editorial Projects

TAMARA DAWSON, Program Associate

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×

BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

Members

WILLIAM H. FARLAND (Chair), Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO

PRAVEEN AMAR, Independent Consultant, Lexington, MA

RICHARD A. BECKER, American Chemistry Council, Washington, DC

DOMINIC M. DITORO, University of Delaware, Newark, DE

DAVID C. DORMAN, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC

CHARLES T. DRISCOLL, JR., Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY

LINDA E. GREER, Natural Resources Defense Council, Washington, DC

WILLIAM E. HALPERIN, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, NJ

STEVEN P. HAMBURG, Environmental Defense Fund, New York, NY

ROBERT A. HIATT, University of California, San Francisco, CA

PHILIP K. HOPKE, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY

SAMUEL KACEW, University of Ottawa, Ontario

H. SCOTT MATTHEWS, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA

THOMAS E. MCKONE, University of California, Berkeley, CA

MARK A. RATNER, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL

JOAN B. ROSE, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI

GINA M. SOLOMON, California Environmental Protection Agency, Sacramento, CA

PETER S. THORNE, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA

JOYCE S. TSUJI, Exponent, Inc., Bellevue, WA

Senior Staff

JAMES J. REISA, Senior Director

ELLEN K. MANTUS, Scholar and Director of Risk Assessment

RAYMOND A. WASSEL, Scholar and Director of Environmental Studies

DAVID J. POLICANSKY, Scholar

SUSAN N.J. MARTEL, Senior Program Officer for Toxicology

MIRSADA KARALIC-LONCAREVIC, Manager, Technical Information Center

Page viii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×

OTHER PUBLICATIONS OF THE BOARD ON ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND TOXICOLOGY

Application of Modern Toxicology Approaches for Predicting Acute Toxicity for Chemical Defense (2015)

Review of California’s Risk-Assessment Process for Pesticides (2015)

Sustainability Concepts in Decision-Making: Tools and Approaches for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2014)

Rethinking the Components, Coordination, and Management of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Laboratories (2014)

Review of the Formaldehyde Assessment in the National Toxicology Program 12th Report on Carcinogens (2014)

Review of the Styrene Assessment in the National Toxicology Program 12th Report on Carcinogens (2014)

Review of EPA’s Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Process (2014)

Review of the Environmental Protection Agency’s State-of-the-Science Evaluation of Nonmonotonic Dose-Response Relationships as They Apply to Endocrine Disruptors (2014)

Assessing Risks to Endangered and Threatened Species from Pesticides (2013)

Science for Environmental Protection: The Road Ahead (2012)

Exposure Science in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy (2012)

A Research Strategy for Environmental, Health, and Safety Aspects of Engineered Nanomaterials (2012)

Macondo Well Deepwater Horizon Blowout: Lessons for Improving Offshore Drilling Safety (2012)

Feasibility of Using Mycoherbicides for Controlling Illicit Drug Crops (2011)

Improving Health in the United States: The Role of Health Impact Assessment (2011)

A Risk-Characterization Framework for Decision-Making at the Food and Drug

Administration (2011)

Review of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Draft IRIS Assessment of Formaldehyde (2011)

Toxicity-Pathway-Based Risk Assessment: Preparing for Paradigm Change: A Symposium Summary (2010)

The Use of Title 42 Authority at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: A Letter Report (2010)

Review of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Draft IRIS Assessment of Tetrachloroethylene (2010)

Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use (2010)

Contaminated Water Supplies at Camp Lejeune: Assessing Potential Health Effects (2009)

Review of the Federal Strategy for Nanotechnology-Related Environmental, Health, and Safety Research (2009)

Science and Decisions: Advancing Risk Assessment (2009)

Phthalates and Cumulative Risk Assessment: The Tasks Ahead (2008)

Estimating Mortality Risk Reduction and Economic Benefits from Controlling Ozone Air Pollution (2008)

Respiratory Diseases Research at NIOSH: Reviews of Research Programs of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (2008)

Evaluating Research Efficiency in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2008)

Hydrology, Ecology, and Fishes of the Klamath River Basin (2008)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×

Applications of Toxicogenomic Technologies to Predictive Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2007)

Models in Environmental Regulatory Decision Making (2007)

Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy (2007)

Sediment Dredging at Superfund Megasites: Assessing the Effectiveness (2007)

Environmental Impacts of Wind-Energy Projects (2007)

Scientific Review of the Proposed Risk Assessment Bulletin from the Office of Management and Budget (2007)

Assessing the Human Health Risks of Trichloroethylene: Key Scientific Issues (2006)

New Source Review for Stationary Sources of Air Pollution (2006)

Human Biomonitoring for Environmental Chemicals (2006)

Health Risks from Dioxin and Related Compounds: Evaluation of the EPA Reassessment (2006)

Fluoride in Drinking Water: A Scientific Review of EPA’s Standards (2006)

State and Federal Standards for Mobile-Source Emissions (2006)

Superfund and Mining Megasites: Lessons from the Coeur d’Alene River Basin (2005)

Health Implications of Perchlorate Ingestion (2005)

Air Quality Management in the United States (2004)

Endangered and Threatened Species of the Platte River (2004)

Atlantic Salmon in Maine (2004)

Endangered and Threatened Fishes in the Klamath River Basin: Causes of Decline and Strategies for Recovery (2004)

Cumulative Environmental Effects of Oil and Gas Activities on Alaska’s North Slope (2003)

Estimating the Public Health Benefits of Proposed Air Pollution Regulations (2002)

Biosolids Applied to Land: Advancing Standards and Practices (2002)

The Airliner Cabin Environment and the Health of Passengers and Crew (2002)

Arsenic in Drinking Water: 2001 Update (2001)

Evaluating Vehicle Emissions Inspection and Maintenance Programs (2001)

Compensating for Wetland Losses Under the Clean Water Act (2001)

A Risk-Management Strategy for PCB-Contaminated Sediments (2001)

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals (19 volumes, 2000-2015)

Toxicological Effects of Methylmercury (2000)

Strengthening Science at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Research-Management and Peer-Review Practices (2000)

Scientific Frontiers in Developmental Toxicology and Risk Assessment (2000)

Ecological Indicators for the Nation (2000)

Waste Incineration and Public Health (2000)

Hormonally Active Agents in the Environment (1999)

Research Priorities for Airborne Particulate Matter (four volumes, 1998-2004)

The National Research Council’s Committee on Toxicology: The First 50 Years 1947-1997 (1997)

Carcinogens and Anticarcinogens in the Human Diet: A Comparison of Naturally Occurring and Synthetic Substances (1996)

Upstream: Salmon and Society in the Pacific Northwest (1996)

Science and the Endangered Species Act (1995)

Wetlands: Characteristics and Boundaries (1995)

Biologic Markers (five volumes, 1989-1995)

Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment (1994)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×

Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children (1993)

Dolphins and the Tuna Industry (1992)

Science and the National Parks (1992)

Human Exposure Assessment for Airborne Pollutants: Advances and Opportunities (1991)

Rethinking the Ozone Problem in Urban and Regional Air Pollution (1991)

Decline of the Sea Turtles: Causes and Prevention (1990)

Copies of these publications may be ordered from the National Academies Press
(800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313
www.nap.edu

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×

OTHER PUBLICATIONS OF THE COMMITTEE ON TOXICOLOGY

Application of Modern Toxicology Approaches for Predicting Acute Toxicity for Chemical Defense (2015)

Potential Health Risks to DOD Firing-Range Personnel from Recurrent Lead Exposure (2013)

Review of Studies of Possible Toxic Effects from Past Environmental Contamination at Fort Detrick: A Letter Report (2012)

Review of Risk Assessment Work Plan for the Medical Countermeasures Test and Evaluation Facility at Fort Detrick: A Letter Report (2011)

Assistance to the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command with Preparation of a Risk Assessment for the Medical Countermeasures Test and Evaluation (MCMT&E) Facility at Fort Detrick, Maryland: A Letter Report (2011)

Review of the Department of Defense Enhanced Particulate Matter Surveillance Program Report (2010)

Evaluation of the Health and Safety Risks of the New USAMRIID High-Containment Facilities at Fort Detrick, Maryland (2010)

Combined Exposures to Hydrogen Cyanide and Carbon Monoxide in Army Operations: Final Report (2008)

Managing Health Effects of Beryllium Exposure (2008)

Review of Toxicologic and Radiologic Risks to Military Personnel from Exposures to Depleted Uranium During and After Combat (2008)

Emergency and Continuous Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Submarine Contaminants, Volume 1 (2007), Volume 2 (2008), Volume 3 (2009)

Review of the Department of Defense Research Program on Low-Level Exposures to Chemical Warfare Agents (2005)

Review of the Army’s Technical Guides on Assessing and Managing Chemical Hazards to Deployed Personnel (2004)

Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines for Selected Contaminants, Volume 1 (2004), Volume 2 (2007), Volume 3 (2008)

Toxicologic Assessment of Jet-Propulsion Fuel 8 (2003)

Review of Submarine Escape Action Levels for Selected Chemicals (2002)

Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Chemicals (2001)

Evaluating Chemical and Other Agent Exposures for Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity (2001)

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 (2000), Volume 2 (2002), Volume 3 (2003), Volume 4 (2004), Volume 5 (2007), Volume 6 (2008), Volume 7 (2009), Volume 8 (2009), Volume 9 (2010), Volume 10 (2011), Volume 11 (2012), Volume 12 (2012), Volume 13 (2012), Volume 14 (2013), Volume 15 (2013), Volume 16 (2014), Volume 17 (2014), Volume 18 (2014), Volume 19 (2015)

Review of the U.S. Navy’s Human Health Risk Assessment of the Naval Air Facility at Atsugi, Japan (2001)

Methods for Developing Spacecraft Water Exposure Guidelines (2000)

Review of the U.S. Navy Environmental Health Center’s Health-Hazard Assessment Process (2000)

Review of the U.S. Navy’s Exposure Standard for Manufactured Vitreous Fibers (2000)

Re-Evaluation of Drinking-Water Guidelines for Diisopropyl Methylphosphonate (2000)

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×

Submarine Exposure Guidance Levels for Selected Hydrofluorocarbons: HFC-236fa, HFC-23, and HFC-404a (2000)

Review of the U.S. Army’s Health Risk Assessments for Oral Exposure to Six Chemical-Warfare Agents (1999)

Toxicity of Military Smokes and Obscurants, Volume 1 (1997), Volume 2 (1999), Volume 3 (1999)

Assessment of Exposure-Response Functions for Rocket-Emission Toxicants (1998)

Toxicity of Alternatives to Chlorofluorocarbons: HFC-134a and HCFC-123 (1996)

Permissible Exposure Levels for Selected Military Fuel Vapors (1996)

Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 (1994), Volume 2 (1996), Volume 3 (1996), Volume 4 (2000), Volume 5 (2008)

Page xiii Cite
Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×

Preface

Extremely hazardous substances (EHSs)1 can be released accidentally as a result of chemical spills, industrial explosions, fires, or accidents involving railroad cars and trucks transporting EHSs. Workers and residents in communities surrounding industrial facilities where EHSs are manufactured, used, or stored and in communities along the nation’s railways and highways are potentially at risk of being exposed to airborne EHSs during accidental releases or intentional releases by terrorists. Pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified approximately 400 EHSs on the basis of acute lethality data in rodents.

As part of its efforts to develop acute exposure guideline levels for EHSs, EPA and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) in 1991 requested that the National Research Council (NRC) develop guidelines for establishing such levels. In response to that request, the NRC published Guidelines for Developing Community Emergency Exposure Levels for Hazardous Substances in 1993. Subsequently, Standing Operating Procedures for Developing Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances was published in 2001, providing updated procedures, methodologies, and other guidelines used by the National Advisory Committee (NAC) on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Hazardous Substances and the Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGLs) in developing the AEGL values.

Using the 1993 and 2001 NRC guidelines reports, the NAC—consisting of members from EPA, the Department of Defense (DOD), the Department of Energy (DOE), the Department of Transportation (DOT), other federal and state governments, the chemical industry, academia, and other organizations from the private sector—has developed AEGLs for more than 270 EHSs.

In 1998, EPA and DOD requested that the NRC independently review the AEGLs developed by NAC. In response to that request, the NRC organized within its Committee on Toxicology (COT) the Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels, which prepared nineteen volumes. This report is the twentieth volume in that series. The AEGL document for 12 chloroformates is published as an appendix in this report.

The committee’s review of the AEGL documents involved both oral and written presentations to the committee by the authors of the documents. The committee examined the draft documents and provided comments and recom-

___________________

1 As defined pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986.

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×

mendations for how they could be improved in a series of interim reports. The authors revised the draft AEGL documents based on the advice in the interim reports and presented them for reexamination by the committee as many times as necessary until the committee was satisfied that the AEGLs were scientifically justified and consistent with the 1993 and 2001 NRC guideline reports. However, during the finalization process it was discovered that the AEGL values for the chloroformates needed to be rereviewed. The Department of Defense requested that the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, convene a new committee to re-evaluate the AEGL values for the chloroformates and determine appropriate values for n-propyl chloroformate and isopropyl chloroformate.

The committee’s report has been reviewed in draft form by persons chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise in accordance with procedures approved by the National Academies’ Report Review Committee. The purpose of the independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making its published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards of objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following for their review of the report: Edward Bishop, HDR Engineering, Inc.; Glenn Millner, Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, LLC; and Neeraja Erraguntla, American Chemistry Council.

Although the reviewers listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions or recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of the report was overseen by Kenneth Still, Portland State University, he was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of the report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of the report rests entirely with the author committee and the institution.

The committee gratefully acknowledges the valuable assistance provided by Ernest Falke from EPA. The committee also acknowledges Elizabeth Boyle, the project director for her work this project. Other staff members who contributed to this effort are Susan Martel (Senior Program Officer, Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology), James J. Reisa (director of the Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology), Radiah Rose (manager of editorial projects), Mirsada Karalic-Loncarevic (manager of the Technical Information Center), and Orin Luke (program associate). Finally, I would like to thank all members of the committee for their expertise and dedicated effort throughout the development of this report.

George Rusch, Chair
Committee on Acute Exposure Guideline Levels

Suggested Citation:"Front Matter." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
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Extremely hazardous substances can be released accidentally as a result of chemical spills, industrial explosions, fires, or accidents involving railroad cars and trucks transporting EHSs. Workers and residents in communities surrounding industrial facilities where these substances are manufactured, used, or stored and in communities along the nation's railways and highways are potentially at risk of being exposed to airborne EHSs during accidental releases or intentional releases by terrorists. Pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified approximately 400 EHSs on the basis of acute lethality data in rodents.

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals, Volume 20 reviews and updates the technical support document on acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) for selected chloroformates. This update focuses on establishing AEGL-3 values for n-propyl chloroformate and isopropyl chloroformate, but will also consider whether any new data are available that would affect the proposed values for the other 10 chloroformates.

AEGLs represent threshold exposure limits (exposure levels below which adverse health effects are not likely to occur) for the general public and are applicable to emergency exposures ranging from 10 minutes (min) to 8 h. Three levels - AEGL-1, AEGL-2, and AEGL-3 - are developed for each of five exposure periods (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 4 h, and 8 h) and are distinguished by varying degrees of severity of toxic effects. This report will inform planning, response, and prevention in the community, the workplace, transportation, the military, and the remediation of Superfund sites.

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