National Academies Press: OpenBook

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20 (2016)

Chapter: Appendix B Benchmark Concentration Calculations for Selected Chloroformates

« Previous: Appendix A Biographical Information Committee on Acute Exposure Guidelines for Chloroformates
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Benchmark Concentration Calculations for Selected Chloroformates." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×

Appendix B

Benchmark Concentration Calculations for Selected Chloroformates

Benchmark Concentration Calculation for Methyl Chloroformate

The form of the probability function is:

P[response] = Background + (1-Background)*

CumNorm(Intercept+Slope*Log[Dose]),
where CumNorm(.) is the cumulative normal distribution function

Dependent variable = Mean

Independent variable = Dose

Slope parameter is not restricted

Total number of observations = 4

Total number of records with missing values = 0

Maximum number of iterations = 250

Relative Function Convergence has been set to: 1e-008

Parameter Convergence has been set to: 1e-008

User has chosen the log transformed model

Default Initial (and Specified) Parameter Values

Background = 0

Intercept = -20.4973

Slope = 5.16963

Asymptotic Correlation Matrix of Parameter Estimates

Intercept
Intercept 1

***The model parameter(s) background has been estimated at a boundary point, or has been specified by the user, and do not appear in the correlation matrix.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Benchmark Concentration Calculations for Selected Chloroformates." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×

Parameter Estimates

Variable Estimate Standard Error
Background 0 NA
Intercept 71.9357 0.449759
Slope 18 NA

NA: indicates that this parameter has hit a bound implied by some inequality constraint and thus has no standard error.

Analysis of Deviance Table

Model Log (likelihood) Deviance Test DF P-value
Full model 5.00402
Fitted model 5.00722 0.00639048 3 0.9999
Reduced model 27.5256 45.0431 3 <0.0001

AIC: 12.0144.

Goodness of Fit Scaled

Dose Estimated Probability Expected Observed Size Residual
35.0000 0.0000 0.000 0 10 1.008e-007
45.0000 0.0003 0.003 0 10 0.0564
57.0000 0.7993 7.993 8 10 0.005272
73.0000 1.0000 10.000 10 10 0.0007765

Chi-square = 0.00; DF = 3; P-value = 1.0000.

Benchmark Dose Computation

Specified effect = 0.05

Risk Type = Extra risk

Confidence level = 0.95

BMD = 49.6524

BMDL = 42.4113

Image
FIGURE B-1 Prohibit model with 0.95 confidence level.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Benchmark Concentration Calculations for Selected Chloroformates." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×

Benchmark Concentration Calculation for Allyl Chloroformate

The form of the probability function is:

P[response] = Background + (1-Background)

*CumNorm(Intercept+Slope*Log(Dose)),

where CumNorm(.) is the cumulative normal distribution function

Dependent variable = Mean

Independent variable = Dose

Slope parameter is not restricted

Total number of observations = 6

Total number of records with missing values = 0

Maximum number of iterations = 250

Relative Function Convergence has been set to: 1e-008

Parameter Convergence has been set to: 1e-008

User has chosen the log transformed model

Default Initial (and Specified) Parameter Values

Background = 0

Intercept = -7.2918

Slope = 1.72308

Asymptotic Correlation Matrix of Parameter Estimates

Intercept Slope
Intercept 1 -1
Slope -1 1

***The model parameter(s) background has been estimated at a boundary point, or has been specified by the user, and do not appear in the correlation matrix.

Parameter Estimates

Variable Estimate Standard Error
Background 0 NA
Intercept -10.3866 2.68182
Slope 2.48392 0.621724

NA: indicates that this parameter has hit a bound implied by some inequality constraint and thus has no standard error.

Analysis of Deviance Table

Model Log (likelihood) Deviance Test DF P-value
Full model 16.0896
Fitted model 17.3239 2.46858 4 0.6503
Reduced model 36.6519 41.1245 5 <0.0001

AIC: 38.6478.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Benchmark Concentration Calculations for Selected Chloroformates." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×

Goodness of Fit Scaled

Dose Estimated Probability Expected Observed Size Residual
33.7000 0.0495 0.495 0 10 0.7219
65.0000 0.4929 4.929 6 10 0.6774
77.7000 0.6648 6.648 7 10 0.236
134.5000 0.9632 9.632 9 10 1.06
175.7000 0.9929 9.929 10 10 0.2674
233.3000 0.9992 9.992 10 10 0.08938

Chi-square = 2.24; DF = 4; P-value = 0.6919.

Benchmark Dose Computation

Specified effect = 0.05

Risk Type = Extra risk

Confidence level = 0.95

BMD = 33.7621

BMDL = 21.098

Image
FIGURE B-2 Prohibit model with 0.95 confidence level.

Benchmark Concentration Calculation for Phenyl Chloroformate

The form of the probability function is:

P[response] = Background + (1-Background)

*CumNorm(Intercept+Slope*Log(Dose)),

where CumNorm(.) is the cumulative normal distribution function

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Benchmark Concentration Calculations for Selected Chloroformates." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×

Dependent variable = Mean

Independent variable = Dose

Slope parameter is not restricted

Total number of observations = 8

Total number of records with missing values = 0

Maximum number of iterations = 250

Relative Function Convergence has been set to: 1e-008

Parameter Convergence has been set to: 1e-008

User has chosen the log transformed model

Default Initial (and Specified) Parameter Values

Background = 0

Intercept = -2.32244

Slope = 0.759796

Asymptotic Correlation Matrix of Parameter Estimates

Intercept Slope
Intercept 1 0.98
Slope 1

***The model parameter(s) background has been estimated at a boundary point, or has been specified by the user, and do not appear in the correlation matrix.

Parameter Estimates

Variable Estimate Standard Error
Background 0 NA
Intercept 4.60327 1.20324
Slope 1.35407 0.307109

NA: indicates that this parameter has hit a bound implied by some inequality constraint and thus has no standard error.

Analysis of Deviance Table

Model Log (likelihood) Deviance Test DF P-value
Full model 17.6143
Fitted model 18.0291 0.829451 6 0.9913
Reduced model 47.9918 60.755 7 <0.0001

AIC: 40.0581.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Benchmark Concentration Calculations for Selected Chloroformates." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×

Goodness of Fit Scaled

Dose Estimated Probability Expected Observed Size Residual
1.7600 0.0001 0.001 0 10 0.02491
15.6000 0.1885 1.885 2 10 0.09264
44.5000 0.7040 7.040 7 10 0.02802
74.9000 0.8927 8.927 9 10 0.07446
97.0000 0.9442 9.442 9 10 0.6092
156.0000 0.9873 9.873 10 10 0.359
159.3000 0.9882 9.882 10 10 0.3459
311.0000 0.9992 9.992 10 10 0.08752

Chi-square = 0.64; DF = 6; P-value = 0.9956.

Benchmark Dose Computation

Specified effect = 0.05

Risk Type = Extra risk

Confidence level = 0.95

BMD = 8.88924

BMDL = 3.57025

Image
FIGURE B-3 Prohibit model with 0.95 confidence level.

Benchmark Concentration Calculation for 2-Ethylhexyl Chloroformate

The form of the probability function is:

P[response] = Background + (1-Background)

*CumNorm(Intercept+Slope*Log(Dose)),

where CumNorm(.) is the cumulative normal distribution function

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Benchmark Concentration Calculations for Selected Chloroformates." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×

Dependent variable = Mean

Independent variable = Dose

Slope parameter is not restricted

Total number of observations = 4

Total number of records with missing values = 0

Maximum number of iterations = 250

Relative Function Convergence has been set to: 1e-008

Parameter Convergence has been set to: 1e-008

User has chosen the log transformed model

Default Initial (and Specified) Parameter Values

Background = 0

Intercept = -15.0226

Slope = 4.37693

Asymptotic Correlation Matrix of Parameter Estimates

Intercept Slope
Intercept 1 -1
Slope -1 1

***The model parameter(s) background has been estimated at a boundary point, or has been specified by the user, and do not appear in the correlation matrix.

NA: This parameter’s variance has been estimated at zero.

Parameter Estimates

Variable Estimate Standard Error
Background 0 NA
Intercept 18.7737 5.12639
Slope 5.52218 1.51755

NA: indicates that this parameter has hit a bound implied by some inequality constraint and thus has no standard error.

Analysis of Deviance Table

Model Log (likelihood) Deviance Test DF P-value
Full model 12.8388
Fitted model 14.2231 2.76871 2 0.2505
Reduced model 27.6759 29.6742 3 <0.0001

AIC: 32.4462.

Goodness of Fit Scaled

Dose Estimated Probability Expected Observed Size Residual
22.8000 0.0659 0.659 0 10 0.8398
26.6000 0.2559 2.559 4 10 1.044
34.3000 0.7728 7.728 7 10 -0.5491
46.9000 0.9934 9.934 10 10 0.2587

Chi-square = 2.16; DF = 2; P-value = 0.3390.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Benchmark Concentration Calculations for Selected Chloroformates." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×

Benchmark Dose Computation

Specified effect = 0.05

Risk Type = Extra risk

Confidence level = 0.95

BMD = 22.2386

BMDL = 18.0971

Image
FIGURE B-4 Prohibit model with 0.95 confidence level.
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Benchmark Concentration Calculations for Selected Chloroformates." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×
Page 135
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Benchmark Concentration Calculations for Selected Chloroformates." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×
Page 136
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Benchmark Concentration Calculations for Selected Chloroformates." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×
Page 137
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Benchmark Concentration Calculations for Selected Chloroformates." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×
Page 138
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Benchmark Concentration Calculations for Selected Chloroformates." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×
Page 139
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Benchmark Concentration Calculations for Selected Chloroformates." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×
Page 140
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Benchmark Concentration Calculations for Selected Chloroformates." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×
Page 141
Suggested Citation:"Appendix B Benchmark Concentration Calculations for Selected Chloroformates." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23634.
×
Page 142
Next: Appendix C Derivation of AEGL Values for Selected Chloroformates »
Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals: Volume 20 Get This Book
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Extremely hazardous substances can be released accidentally as a result of chemical spills, industrial explosions, fires, or accidents involving railroad cars and trucks transporting EHSs. Workers and residents in communities surrounding industrial facilities where these substances are manufactured, used, or stored and in communities along the nation's railways and highways are potentially at risk of being exposed to airborne EHSs during accidental releases or intentional releases by terrorists. Pursuant to the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has identified approximately 400 EHSs on the basis of acute lethality data in rodents.

Acute Exposure Guideline Levels for Selected Airborne Chemicals, Volume 20 reviews and updates the technical support document on acute exposure guideline levels (AEGLs) for selected chloroformates. This update focuses on establishing AEGL-3 values for n-propyl chloroformate and isopropyl chloroformate, but will also consider whether any new data are available that would affect the proposed values for the other 10 chloroformates.

AEGLs represent threshold exposure limits (exposure levels below which adverse health effects are not likely to occur) for the general public and are applicable to emergency exposures ranging from 10 minutes (min) to 8 h. Three levels - AEGL-1, AEGL-2, and AEGL-3 - are developed for each of five exposure periods (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 4 h, and 8 h) and are distinguished by varying degrees of severity of toxic effects. This report will inform planning, response, and prevention in the community, the workplace, transportation, the military, and the remediation of Superfund sites.

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