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NAT IONAL COOPERAT IVE H IGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM NCHRP SYNTHESIS 495 Research Sponsored by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials in Cooperation with the Federal Highway Administration SubScriber categorieS Geotechnologyâ â¢â Highwaysâ â¢â Materialsâ â¢â Pavements Use of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement and Recycled Asphalt Shingles in Asphalt Mixtures A Synthesis of Highway Practice conSultant MaryâStroup-Gardiner GardinerâTechnicalâService Monterey,âCalifornia
NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM Systematic, well-designed research is the most effective way to solve many problems facing highway administrators and engineers. Often, highway problems are of local interest and can best be stud- ied by highway departments individually or in cooperation with their state universities and others. However, the accelerating growth of highway transportation results in increasingly complex problems of wide interest to highway authorities. These problems are best studied through a coordinated program of cooperative research. Recognizing this need, the leadership of the American Associa- tion of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) in 1962 initiated an objective national highway research program using modern scientific techniquesâthe National Cooperative Highway Research Program (NCHRP). NCHRP is supported on a continuing basis by funds from participating member states of AASHTO and receives the full cooperation and support of the Federal Highway Administration, United States Department of Transportation. The Transportation Research Board (TRB) of the National Acad- emies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine was requested by AASHTO to administer the research program because of TRBâs recognized objectivity and understanding of modern research practices. TRB is uniquely suited for this purpose for many rea- sons: TRB maintains an extensive committee structure from which authorities on any highway transportation subject may be drawn; TRB possesses avenues of communications and cooperation with federal, state, and local governmental agencies, universities, and industry; TRBâs relationship to the Academies is an insurance of objectivity; and TRB maintains a full-time staff of specialists in highway transportation matters to bring the findings of research directly to those in a position to use them. The program is developed on the basis of research needs identi- fied by chief administrators and other staff of the highway and trans- portation departments and by committees of AASHTO. Topics of the highest merit are selected by the AASHTO Standing Committee on Research (SCOR), and each year SCORâs recommendations are proposed to the AASHTO Board of Directors and the Academies. Research projects to address these topics are defined by NCHRP, and qualified research agencies are selected from submitted propos- als. Administration and surveillance of research contracts are the responsibilities of the Academies and TRB. The needs for highway research are many, and NCHRP can make significant contributions to solving highway transportation prob- lems of mutual concern to many responsible groups. The program, however, is intended to complement, rather than to substitute for or duplicate, other highway research programs. Published reports of the NATIONAL COOPERATIVE HIGHWAY RESEARCH PROGRAM are available from Transportation Research Board Business Office 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001 and can be ordered through the Internet by going to http://www.national-academies.org and then searching for TRB Printed in the United States of America NCHRP SYNTHESIS 495 Project 20-05, Topic 46-05 ISSN 0547-5570 ISBN 978-0-309-38968-6 Library of Congress Control No. 2016933711 Â© 2016 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. COPYRIGHT INFORMATION Authors herein are responsible for the authenticity of their materials and for obtaining written permissions from publishers or persons who own the copyright to any previously published or copyrighted material used herein. Cooperative Research Programs (CRP) grants permission to reproduce material in this publication for classroom and not-for-profit purposes. Permission is given with the understanding that none of the material will be used to imply TRB, AASHTO, FAA, FHWA, FMCSA, FRA, FTA, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Research and Technology, PHMSA, or TDC endorsement of a particular product, method, or practice. It is expected that those reproducing the material in this document for educational and not-for-profit uses will give appropriate acknowledgment of the source of any reprinted or reproduced material. For other uses of the material, request permission from CRP. NOTICE The report was reviewed by the technical panel and accepted for publication according to procedures established and overseen by the Transportation Research Board and approved by the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The opinions and conclusions expressed or implied in this report are those of the researchers who performed the research and are not necessari- ly those of the Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; or the program sponsors. The Transportation Research Board; the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine; and the sponsors of the National Cooperative Highway Research Program do not endorse products or manufacturers. Trade or manufacturersâ names appear herein solely because they are con- sidered essential to the object of the report.
The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by an Act of Congress, signed by President Lincoln, as a private, non- governmental institution to advise the nation on issues related to science and technology. Members are elected by their peers for outstanding contributions to research. Dr. Marcia McNutt is president. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to bring the practices of engineering to advising the nation. Members are elected by their peers for extraordinary contributions to engineering. Dr. C. D. Mote, Jr., is president. The National Academy of Medicine (formerly the Institute of Medicine) was established in 1970 under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences to advise the nation on medical and health issues. Members are elected by their peers for distinguished contributions to medicine and health. Dr. Victor J. Dzau is president. The three Academies work together as the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine to provide independent, objective analysis and advice to the nation and conduct other activities to solve complex problems and inform public policy decisions. The Academies also encourage education and research, recognize outstanding contributions to knowledge, and increase public understanding in matters of science, engineering, and medicine. Learn more about the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine at www.national-academies.org. The Transportation Research Board is one of seven major programs of the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. The mission of the Transportation Research Board is to increase the benefits that transportation contributes to society by providing leadership in transportation innovation and progress through research and information exchange, conducted within a setting that is objective, interdisciplinary, and multimodal. The Boardâs varied committees, task forces, and panels annually engage about 7,000 engineers, scientists, and other transportation researchers and practitioners from the public and private sectors and academia, all of whom contribute their expertise in the public interest. The program is supported by state transportation departments, federal agencies including the component administrations of the U.S. Department of Transportation, and other organizations and individuals interested in the development of transportation. Learn more about the Transportation Research Board at www.TRB.org.
TOPIC PANEL 46-05 MIKE ARELLANO, Texas Department of Transportation, Austin SRIKANTH BALASUBRAMANIAN, California Department of Transportation, Sacramento BENJAMIN BOWERS, Virginia Department of Transportation, Charlottesville AUDREY COPELAND, National Asphalt Pavement Association, Lanham, MD FREDERICK HEJL, Transportation Research Board LOUAY N. MOHAMMAD, Louisiana State UniversityâDepartment of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Baton Rouge GERALD H. REINKE, Mathy Construction Company, Onalaska, WI SCOTT A. SCHRAM, Iowa Department of Transportation, Ames GREGORY A. SHOLAR, Florida Department of Transportation, Gainesville JOHN BUKOWSKI, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison) NELSON H. GIBSON, Federal Highway Administration (Liaison) SYNTHESIS STUDIES STAFF STEPHEN R. GODWIN, Director for Studies and Special Programs JON M. WILLIAMS, Program Director, IDEA and Synthesis Studies JO ALLEN GAUSE, Senior Program Officer GAIL R. STABA, Senior Program Officer DONNA L. VLASAK, Senior Program Officer TANYA M. ZWAHLEN, Consultant DON TIPPMAN, Senior Editor CHERYL KEITH, Senior Program Assistant DEMISHA WILLIAMS, Senior Program Assistant DEBBIE IRVIN, Program Associate COOPERATIVE RESEARCH PROGRAMS STAFF CHRISTOPHER W. JENKS, Director, Cooperative Research Programs CHRISTOPHER HEDGES, Manager, National Cooperative Highway Research Program EILEEN P. DELANEY, Director of Publications NCHRP COMMITTEE FOR PROJECT 20-05 CHAIR BRIAN A. BLANCHARD, Florida Department of Transportation MEMBERS STUART D. ANDERSON, Texas A&M University SOCORRO âCOCOâ BRISENO, California Department of Transportation DAVID M. JARED, Georgia Department of Transportation CYNTHIA L. JONES, Ohio Department of Transportation MALCOLM T. KERLEY, NXL, Richmond, VA JOHN M. MASON, JR., Auburn University ROGER C. OLSON, Minnesota Department of Transportation (retired) BENJAMIN T. ORSBON, South Dakota Department of Transportation RANDALL R. âRANDYâ PARK, Utah Department of Transportation ROBERT L. SACK, New York State Department of Transportation FRANCINE SHAW WHITSON, Federal Highway Administration JOYCE N. TAYLOR, Maine Department of Transportation FHWA LIAISON JACK JERNIGAN TRB LIAISON STEPHEN F. MAHER Cover figure: RAP stockpiles. Credit: Mary Stroup-Gardiner
FOREWORD This synthesis summarizes current practices for the use of reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) in the design, production, and construction of asphalt mixtures. It focuses on collecting information about the use, rather than just what is allowed, of high RAP, RAS, and/or a combination of RAP and RAS. A literature review, a survey of state agencies, and case examples were used to document current knowledge and practices. Mary Stroup-Gardiner, Gardiner Technical Service, Monterey, California, collected and synthesized the information and wrote the report. The members of the topic panel are acknowledged on the preceding page. This synthesis is an immediately useful document that records the practices that were acceptable within the limitations of the knowledge available at the time of its preparation. As progress in research and practice continues, new knowledge will be added to that now at hand. Highway administrators, engineers, and researchers often face problems for which infor- mation already exists, either in documented form or as undocumented experience and prac- tice. This information may be fragmented, scattered, and unevaluated. As a consequence, full knowledge of what has been learned about a problem may not be brought to bear on its solution. Costly research findings may go unused, valuable experience may be overlooked, and due consideration may not be given to recommended practices for solving or alleviat- ing the problem. There is information on nearly every subject of concern to highway administrators and engineers. Much of it derives from research or from the work of practitioners faced with problems in their day-to-day work. To provide a systematic means for assembling and evaluating such useful information and to make it available to the entire highway commu- nity, the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officialsâthrough the mechanism of the National Cooperative Highway Research Programâauthorized the Transportation Research Board to undertake a continuing study. This study, NCHRP Proj- ect 20-5, âSynthesis of Information Related to Highway Problems,â searches out and syn- thesizes useful knowledge from all available sources and prepares concise, documented reports on specific topics. Reports from this endeavor constitute an NCHRP report series, Synthesis of Highway Practice. This synthesis series reports on current knowledge and practice, in a compact format, without the detailed directions usually found in handbooks or design manuals. Each report in the series provides a compendium of the best knowledge available on those measures found to be the most successful in resolving specific problems. PREFACE By Donna L. Vlasak Senior Program Officer Transportation Research Board
CONTENTS 1 SUMMARY 5 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 7 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Recycled Material Properties, 7 Asphalt Content, 7 Measuring Asphalt ContentâSection Summary, 8 Recycled Material Asphalt Properties, 8 New Approach to Binder Modification with RAS, 10 Recycled Material Asphalt PropertiesâSection Summary, 11 Recycled Material Aggregate Properties, 11 Aggregate Bulk Specific Gravity, 11 Recycled Material Aggregate PropertiesâSection Summary, 12 Asphalt Mix Designs with Recycled Materials, 12 Total Asphalt Content, 12 Total Asphalt ContentâSection Summary, 13 Selecting the Virgin Asphalt Grade for Recycled Material Mixtures, 14 Sample Preparation for Mix Designs, 15 Calculating Batch Weights, 15 Material Preparation, Mixing, and Compacting, 15 Sample Preparation for Mix DesignsâSection Summary, 16 Mixture Testing, 17 Volumetrics, 17 Performance Testing, 18 Dynamic Modulus (AASHTO TP79), 18 Loaded Wheel Tracking Device (AASHTO TP63), 18 Test Methods for Evaluating Cracking Potential, 18 Bending Beam Fatigue Testing (AASHTO T321), 18 Disc-Shaped Compact Tension (ASTM D7313), 19 Indirect Tension (AASHTO T322), 19 Overlay Tester (TEX-249-F), 21 Repeated Direct Tension (Texas A&M Test Method), 21 Semi-Circular Bend (AASHTO TP105), 21 Simplified Viscoelastic Continuum Damage (AASHTO TP107), 22 Thermal Stress Restrained Specimen Test and Uniaxial Thermal Stress and Strain (AASHTO TP105), 22 Examples of Performance Test Results, 23 Mixture TestingâSection Summary, 24 Asphalt Plant Practices and Equipment, 25 Stockpiling and Processing Recycled Materials, 25 Storage Areas, 25 RAP Stockpiles, 26 Processing RAP, 26 RAS Stockpiles, 28 Processing RAS, 29
Asphalt Mixture Production, 29 Feeding Recycled Materials into Asphalt Plants, 29 Types of Asphalt Plants, 30 Batch Plants, 30 Drum Mix Plants, 30 Moisture Content and Higher Plant Temperatures, 31 Storage Times, 32 Warm Mix Asphalt Used with Recycled Materials, 32 Asphalt Plant Practices and ProductionâSection Summary, 32 Stockpiling Recycled Material, 32 Asphalt Plants, 32 Pavement Performance, 33 RAP Pavement Performance, 33 Florida DOT, 33 Ohio DOT, 33 Minnesota DOT, 33 Alabama (NCAT Test Track), 33 Manitoba, Canada, 34 LTPP SPS-5 Sections, 34 RAS Pavement Performance, 36 Pooled Fund Study, 36 FHWA Memorandum, 38 Combination of RAP and RAS, 38 Texas DOT, 38 Missouri DOT, 38 Pavement PerformanceâSection Summary, 38 Economics, 39 Research in Progress, 41 43 CHAPTER THREE STATE MATERIALS ENGINEERS SURVEY Total Asphalt Content, 43 Accounting for Recycled Asphalt in Mixture, 43 Total Asphalt Content Section Summary, 44 Measuring Recycled Material Asphalt Content, 44 Sizing Recycled Materials for Testing, 45 Test Methods to Determine Asphalt Content, 45 Solvent Extraction Methods, 46 Measuring Recycled Material Asphalt ContentâSection Summary, 46 Recycled Material Asphalt Properties, 46 Recycled Material Asphalt PropertyâSection Summary, 47 Recycled Material Aggregate Properties, 47 Aggregate Test Methods, 47 Recycled Material Aggregate PropertyâSection Summary, 49 Selecting the Virgin Asphalt Grade, 49 Selecting Virgin AsphaltâSection Summary, 50 Material Properties Required for Volumetric Calculations, 50 Recycled Material Asphalt-Specific Gravities, 50 Recycled Material Aggregate-Specific Gravity, 50 Recycled Material Specific GravitiesâSection Summary, 51 Sample Preparation, 52 Sizing (Fractionating) Particles, 52 Drying Recycled Materials, 53 Heating Materials for Mixing, 54 Order of Addition to Mixing Bowl, 55 Short-Term Aging, 55 Sample Compaction, 55
Sample PreparationâSection Summary, 60 Sizing of Aggregates and Recycled Materials, 60 Drying of Recycled Materials Prior to Batching, 60 Heating (Times and Temperatures) of Materials Prior to Mixing, 60 Order of Addition to Mixing Bowl, 60 Short-Term Aging Prior to Compaction, 60 Compaction of Samples, 60 Mixture Testing, 60 Volumetrics, 60 Performance-Based Mixture Testing, 61 Long-Term Aging, 61 Performance-Based Mixture Testing, 61 Volumetric and Performance-Based Mixture TestingâSection Summary, 62 Mix Design Volumetrics, 62 Performance-Based Mixture Testing, 62 Perceived Influence of Recycled Materials on Pavement Performance, 63 Perceptions of Influence of Recycled Materials on Pavement Performanceâ Section Summary, 65 66 CHAPTER FOUR STATE CONSTRUCTION ENGINEER SURVEY Availability of Recycled Materials, 66 Recycled Materials Processing and Stockpiling Practices, 66 RAP Processing and Stockpiling, 66 RAS Processing and Stockpiling, 68 Suggested Changes to Current RAP and RAS Processing Requirements, 69 Recycled Material Processing and StockpilingâSection Summary, 70 Recycled Material Properties and Testing, 70 Recycled Material Properties and TestingâSection Summary, 71 Asphalt Mixture Production and Placement, 71 Asphalt Mixture Production and PlacementâSection Summary, 73 Volumetric Quality Control Testing, 74 Key Points for Field Inspectors, 74 76 CHAPTER FIVE CASE EXAMPLES Case Example No. 1: Georgia Department of Transportation Specification Development for High RAP Mixtures, 76 Step 1: Transfer of RAP Asphalt to Virgin Aggregate, 78 Step 2: Estimating Effective RAP Asphalt, 78 Step 3: Corrected Optimum Asphalt Content, 79 Step 4: Performance and Durability Check, 80 Case Example No. 2: Southeastern Contractorâs Working with Georgia Department of Transportation, 80 Recycled Material Properties, 81 Mix Design Samples, 82 Recycled Material Stockpiling and Processing, 84 RAP Processing, 84 RAS Processing, 84 Asphalt Mixture Production and Placement, 84 Key Points for Field Inspectors, 85 Case Example No. 3: Contractorâs View of Producing and Placing Asphalt Mixtures with Shingles (Missouri), 85 RAS Contaminates, 86 Maximum RAS Size, 86 Lift Thickness, 86
Virgin Asphalt Content, 87 Trying to Use Too High a Percentage of RAS Contributing to the Total Asphalt Content, 87 Overestimating the Measured RAS Asphalt Content, 87 Mix Design Calculations for the Optimum Asphalt Content Are Acceptable, But the Mixtures Look Dry When Produced at the Plant, 87 Virgin Asphalt PG Grade, 88 RAS Aggregate Specific Gravity, 88 RAP Moisture Content, 88 Case Example No. 4: Locating and Using County Databases for Collecting High RAP Performance Data (Minnesota), 88 Case Example No. 5: Investigating Transfer of Recycled Material Asphalt During Dry Mixing, 89 Georgia RAP Study, 89 Tennessee RAP Study, 89 Texas RAS Study, 91 Minnesota RAP Study, 92 95 CHAPTER SIX CONCLUSIONS Availability of Recycled Materials, 95 Recycled Material Properties and Testing, 95 Selecting Virgin Asphalt Grade, 95 Recycled Material Mix Designs, 96 Pavement Performance of Recycled Material Mixtures, 97 Asphalt Plant Practices and Operations, 97 Recycled Materials Stockpiling and Processing, 97 Asphalt Plant Operations and Equipment, 97 Recycled Material Placement, 98 Information for Field Inspector, 98 Suggestions for Future Research, 98 99 ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS 100 REFERENCES 104 APPENDIX A STATE MATERIALS ENGINEER SURVEY 115 APPENDIX B STATE CONSTRUCTION ENGINEER SURVEY 122 APPENDIX C RESPONDING AGENCIES Note: Photographs, figures, and tables in this report may have been converted from color to grayscale for printing. The electronic version of the report (posted on the web at www.trb.org) retains the color versions.