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Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report (2017)

Chapter: Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Appendix A

Acronyms and Abbreviations

αTOC

α-tocopherol

µg

microgram or micrograms

AAP

American Academy of Pediatrics

ACC

American College of Cardiology

ADA

American Diabetes Association

AHA

American Heart Association

AHRQ

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

AI

Adequate Intake

AMDR

acceptable macronutrient distribution range

AND

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics

ARA

arachidonic acid

ARS

Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

BF

breastfeeding/breastfed

BLS

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics

BLUP

best linear unbiased predictor

BMI

body mass index

c

cup or cups

CACFP

Child and Adult Care Food Program

CCRP

California Cancer Research Program

CDC

U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

CDHS

California Department of Health Services

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

C.F.R.

Code of Federal Regulations

CG

comparison group

CNPP

Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion, U.S. Department of Agriculture

COU

calorie for other uses

CPI

Consumer Price Index

CPS

Current Population Survey

CVD

cardiovascular disease

CVV

cash value voucher

d

day or days

DASH

Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension

DE

design effect

DFE

dietary folate equivalent

DGA

Dietary Guidelines for Americans

DGAC

Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee

DGV

dark green vegetables

DHA

docosahexaenoic acid

DRI

Dietary Reference Intake

EAR

Estimated Average Requirement

EBT

electronic benefit transfer

ECLS-B

Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort

EER

Estimated Energy Requirement

EFNEP

Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program

EPA

eicosapentaenoic acid

EPA

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

eq

equivalent

ERS

Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

FAFH

food away from home

FAH

food at home

FDA

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

FE

fixed effect

FF

formula fed

FITS

Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study

fl oz

fluid ounce or ounces

FNB

full nutrition benefit

FNS

Food and Nutrition Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

FoodAPS

National Household Food Acquisition and Purchasing Survey

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

FP

food package

FPED

Food Patterns Equivalent Database

FPID

Food Patterns Ingredients Database

FY

fiscal year

g

gram or grams

GAO

U.S. Government Accountability Office

GDM

gestational diabetes mellitus

GI

glycemic index

HBW

high birth weight

HCP

health care provider

HEI

Healthy Eating Index

HHS

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

HMD

Health and Medicine Division, The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine

IFPS II

Infant Feeding Practices Study II

IOM

Institute of Medicine

IRI

Information Resources, Inc.

ISU

Iowa State University

ITO

Indian Tribal Organization

IU

international unit

IV

instrumental variable

kcal

kilocalorie or kilocalories

kg

kilogram or kilograms

KQ

key question

lb

pound or pounds

LBW

low birth weight

LGA

large-for-gestational age

LVL

local vendor liaison

mg

milligram or milligrams

MIS

Management Information System

MMA

maximum monthly allowance

mo

month or months

MUFA

monounsaturated fatty acid

MULO

Total Multi-Outlet

N

sample size

NA

not applicable

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

NASS

National Agricultural Statistical Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture

NATFAN

National Food and Nutrition Survey

NBDQ

Nutrient-Based Diet Quality

NCGS

non-celiac gluten sensitivity

NCI

National Cancer Institute, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

NDB

National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

NHANES

National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

NHIS

National Health Interview Survey

NIH

National Institutes of Health

NIS

National Immunization Survey

NPNL

nonpregnant, nonlactating

NR

no recommendation or not redeemed

NSA

nutrition services and administrative

NSLP

National School Lunch Program

NSWP

National Survey of WIC Participants

NUPC

national Universal Product Code database

nutr

nutrients

oz

ounce or ounces

P

pregnant

PC

peer counselor

PC-SIDE

PC Software for Intake Distribution Estimation

PedNSS

Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System

PIH

pregnancy-induced hypertension

PIM

perceived insufficient milk

PIR

poverty-to-income ratio

PNSS

Pregnancy Nutrition Surveillance System

PP

postpartum

PRAMS

Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System

PUFA

polyunsaturated fatty acid

qt

quart or quarts

RACC

reference amount customarily consumed

RAE

retinol activity equivalent

RD

regression discontinuity

RDA

Recommended Dietary Allowance

Red-Or

red and orange vegetables

RIA

regulatory impact analysis

RTE

ready-to-eat

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

RTF

ready-to-feed

RWJF

Robert Wood Johnson Foundation

SAS

Statistical Analysis System

SE

standard error

SFA

saturated fatty acid

SGA

small-for-gestational age

SNAP

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program

SNAP-Ed

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education

SPADE

Statistical Program for Age-adjusted Dietary Assessment

SSI

Supplemental Security Income

TANF

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families

tbsp

tablespoon or tablespoons

tsp

teaspoon or teaspoons

UI

unemployment insurance

UL

Tolerable Upper Intake Level

UPC

Universal Product Code

USDA

U.S. Department of Agriculture

USDA-CNP

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service, Child Nutrition Programs

USDA-FNS

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Service

veg/fr

vegetables and fruits

WG

whole grain or whole grain-rich

WHO

World Health Organization

WIC

Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children

WIC-AI

WIC availability index

wk

week or weeks

WP

white potatoes

WWEIA

What We Eat in America (NHANES)

y

year or years

Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Page 465
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Page 466
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Page 467
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Page 468
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Page 469
Suggested Citation:"Appendix A: Acronyms and Abbreviations." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Page 470
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The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) began 40 years ago as a pilot program and has since grown to serve over 8 million pregnant women, and mothers of and their infants and young children. Today the program serves more than a quarter of the pregnant women and half of the infants in the United States, at an annual cost of about $6.2 billion. Through its contribution to the nutritional needs of pregnant, breastfeeding, and post-partum women; infants; and children under 5 years of age; this federally supported nutrition assistance program is integral to meeting national nutrition policy goals for a significant portion of the U.S. population.

To assure the continued success of the WIC, Congress mandated that the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reevaluate the program's food packages every 10 years. In 2014, the USDA asked the Institute of Medicine to undertake this reevaluation to ensure continued alignment with the goals of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. In this third report, the committee provides its final analyses, recommendations, and the supporting rationale.

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