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Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report (2017)

Chapter: Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results

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Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Appendix J

Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results

This appendix presents the methodology and detailed results for the analyses of nutrient and food group intakes and diet quality of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) participants and WIC-eligible subgroups using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).The WIC subgroup was defined as the subgroup of individuals reporting participation in WIC regardless of income level. Eligible non-WIC was defined as the subgroup of individuals with incomes less than or equal to 185 percent of the federal poverty level who did not report participation in WIC. Results presented in this appendix and summarized in Chapter 4 of this report update the methods and results that were presented in the phase I interim report. The tables presented in this appendix and the corresponding page numbers are listed below. These data, generated by Iowa State University, were checked by the committee members as well as by the staff. Data were also compared to the phase I results and to nationally representative data for reasonability.

TABLES

TABLE J-1a Dietary Reference Intakes Used for Assessing Nutrient Intakes of WIC-Eligible Subgroups

TABLE J-1b Dietary Reference Intakes Used for Assessing Nutrient Intakes of WIC-Eligible Subgroups

TABLE J-1c Macronutrient Intake Recommendations for WIC-Eligible Subgroups

TABLE J-2 Nutrients Selected for Intake Analysis

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-3 Food Groups for Analyses Based on Food Pattern Components in FPID and FPED

TABLE J-4 USDA Food Pattern Food Groups, Definitions, and Example Foods

TABLE J-5 Limitations to the NHANES Datasets Relevant to the Task and Resulting Subgroup Modification

TABLE J-6 NHANES Survey Years Applied for Each Analytical Subgroup

TABLE J-7 Sample Sizes for Subgroups of Women in the Combined NHANES 2005–2012 Dataset

TABLE J-8 NHANES Sample Sizes of Population Subgroups Selected for Nutrient and Food Intake Analyses: Phases I and II

TABLE J-9 Design Effects for Usual Intake of Specific Nutrients

TABLE J-10 Tasks Related to Infant Formula Requirements in the Food Packages and the Approach

TABLE J-11 Usual Intake Distributions of Energy Intake for Women Ages 19 to 50 Years

TABLE J-12 Usual Intake Distributions of Energy Intake for Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 12 Months

TABLE J-13 Usual Intake Distributions of Energy Intake for Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years

TABLE J-14 Usual Intake Distributions of Energy Intake for Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years

TABLE J-15 Distributions of Estimated Energy Requirements for Wome Ages 19 to 50 Years

TABLE J-16 Distributions of Estimated Energy Requirements for Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 12 Months

TABLE J-17 Distributions of Estimated Energy Requirements for Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years

TABLE J-18 Distributions of Estimated Energy Requirements for Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years

TABLE J-19 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Pregnant WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

TABLE J-20 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Pregnant Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

TABLE J-21 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Breastfeeding WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

TABLE J-22 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Postpartum WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2007–2012

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-23 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Nonpregnant, Postpartum, or Breastfeeding Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

TABLE J-24 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for WIC-Participating Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 6 Months, NHANES 2005–2008

TABLE J-25 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 6 Months, NHANES 2005–2008

TABLE J-26 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for WIC-Participating Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 6 Months, NHANES 2011–2012

TABLE J-27 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 6 Months, NHANES 2011–2012

TABLE J-28 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for WIC-Participating Infants Ages 6 to Less Than 12 Months, NHANES 2005–2008

TABLE J-29 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Infants Ages 6 to Less Than 12 Months, NHANES 2005–2008

TABLE J-30 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for WIC-Participating Infants Ages 6 to Less Than 12 Months, NHANES 2011–2012

TABLE J-31 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Infants Ages 6 to Less Than 12 Months, NHANES 2011–2012

TABLE J-32 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

TABLE J-33 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

TABLE J-34 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

TABLE J-35 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

TABLE J-36 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-37 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, 2005–2008

TABLE J-38 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

TABLE J-39 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, 2011–2012

TABLE J-40 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Pregnant WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

TABLE J-41 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Pregnant Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

TABLE J-42 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Breastfeeding WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

TABLE J-43 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Postpartum WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2007–2012

TABLE J-44 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Nonpregnant, Postpartum, or Breastfeeding Non-WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

TABLE J-45 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for WIC-Participating Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 6 Months, NHANES 2005–2008

TABLE J-46 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 6 Months, NHANES 2005–2008

TABLE J-47 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for WIC-Participating Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 6 Months, NHANES 2011–2012

TABLE J-48 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 6 Months, NHANES 2011–2012

TABLE J-49 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for WIC-Participating Infants Ages 6 to Less Than 12 Months, NHANES 2005–2008

TABLE J-50 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Infants Ages 6 to Less Than 12 Months, NHANES 2005–2008

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-51 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for WIC-Participating Infants Ages 6 to Less Than 12 Months, NHANES 2011–2012

TABLE J-52 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Infants Ages 6 to Less Than 12 Months, NHANES 2011–2012

TABLE J-53 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

TABLE J-54 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

TABLE J-55 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

TABLE J-56 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

TABLE J-57 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

TABLE J-58 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

TABLE J-59 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

TABLE J-60 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

TABLE J-61 Distributions of Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D of WIC Participants, NHANES 2005–2006

TABLE J-62 Food Group Intake Distributions of Pregnant WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

TABLE J-63 Food Group Intake Distributions of Pregnant, Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

TABLE J-64 Food Group Intake Distributions of Breastfeeding, WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

TABLE J-65 Food Group Intake Distributions of Postpartum, WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-66 Food Group Intake Distributions of Nonpregnant, Postpartum, or Breastfeeding Non-WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

TABLE J-67 Food Group Intake Distributions of WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

TABLE J-68 Food Group Intake Distributions of Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

TABLE J-69 Food Group Intake Distributions of WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

TABLE J-70 Food Group Intake Distributions of Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

TABLE J-71 Food Group Intake Distributions of WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

TABLE J-72 Food Group Intake Distributions of Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

TABLE J-73 Food Group Intake Distributions of WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

TABLE J-74 Food Group Intake Distributions of Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

TABLE J-75 HEI–2010 Components and Scoring System

TABLE J-76 Summary of Mean HEI–2010 Scores for Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

TABLE J-77 Summary of Mean HEI–2010 Scores for Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

USING THE DIETARY REFERENCE INTAKES TO ASSESS NUTRIENT ADEQUACY

The committee used the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) (defined in Box J-1 and presented in Tables J-1a through J-1c) to assess nutrient adequacy, which involved examining both inadequate and excessive intakes of nutrients. The methods applied in this report are generally the same as those used in the 2006 Institute of Medicine (IOM) report WIC Food Packages: Time for a Change and originally designed by Nusser et al. (1996) and Carriquiry (1999) (see Appendix C of IOM, 2006). Brief descriptions of the approaches are provided here, with modifications noted as appropriate. Nutrients analyzed for this report are listed in Table J-2.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

Estimating Usual Intake Distributions

Assessing nutrient adequacy involves, first, estimating distributions of usual intake. The Iowa State University (ISU) method proposed by Nusser et al. (1996) and applied in the 2006 IOM report is generally accepted in the nutrition community, and several software packages are now available to generate the mean and variance of usual intake as well as percentiles of intake of the user’s choosing. For this report, PC Software for Intake

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-1a Dietary Reference Intakes Used for Assessing Nutrient Intakes of WIC-Eligible Subgroups

Population Subgroup and Type of DRI Nutrient
Calcium (mg/d) Copper (µg/d) Iron (mg/d) Magnesium (mg/d) Phosphorus (mg/d) Selenium (µg/d) Zinc (mg/d) Potassium (mg/d) Sodium (mg/d)
Infants 0–6 mo
EAR/AI 200* 200* 0.27* 30* 100* 15* 2* 400* 120*
UL 1,000 ND 40 ND ND 45 4 NA ND
Infants 6–12 mo
EAR/AI 260* 220* 6.9 75* 275* 20* 2.5 700* 370*
UL 1,500 ND 40 ND ND 60 5 NA ND
Children 1–3 y
EAR/AI 500 260 3 65 380 17 2.5 3,000* 1,000*
UL 2,500 1,000 40 65 3,000 90 7 NA 1,500
Children 4–8 y
EAR/AI 800 340 4.1 110 405 23 4 3,800* 1,200*
UL 2,500 3,000 40 110 3,000 150 12 NA 1,900
Females 19–30 y
EAR/AI 800 700 8.1 255 580 45 6.8 4,700* 1,500*
UL 2,500 10,000 45 350 4,000 400 40 NA 2,300
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Females 31–50 y
EAR/AI 800 700 8.1 265 580 45 6.8 4,700* 1,300*
UL 2,500 10,000 45 350 4,000 400 40 NA 2,300
Pregnancy 19–30 y
EAR/AI 800 800 22 290 580 49 9.5 4,700* 1,500*
UL 2,500 10,000 45 350 3,500 400 40 NA 2,300
Pregnancy 31–50 y
EAR/AI 800 800 22 300 580 49 9.5 4,700* 1,500*
UL 2,500 10,000 45 350 3,500 400 40 NA 2,300
Lactation 19–30 y
EAR/AI 800 1,000 6.5 255 580 59 10.4 5,100* 1,500*
UL 2,500 10,000 45 350 4,000 400 40 NA 2,300
Lactation 31–50 y
EAR/AI 800 1,000 6.5 265 580 59 10.4 5,100* 1,500*
UL 2,500 10,000 45 350 4,000 400 40 NA 2,300

NOTES: AI = Adequate Intake, used when necessary, followed by an asterisk (*); EAR = Estimated Average Requirement, used when available; NA = not applicable; ND = not determined due to lack of data; UL = Tolerable Upper Intake Level. The UL for magnesium represents intake from pharmacological agents only and does not include intake from food. The AIs for calcium for infants are based on the calcium content of human milk. The UL values for phosphorous and sodium in this table were corrected to mg units from the values in the originally posted prepublication, which were in g units.

SOURCES: Data sources for Table J-1a to J-1c are listed after Table J-1c.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-1b Dietary Reference Intakes Used for Assessing Nutrient Intakes of WIC-Eligible Subgroups

Population Subgroup and Type of DRI Nutrient
Vitamin A (µg/d) Vitamin D (IU/d) Vitamin E (mg/d) Vitamin C (mg/d) Thiamin (mg/d) Riboflavin (mg/d) Niacin (mg/d) Vitamin B6 (mg/d) Folate (µg DFE/d) Vitamin B12 (mg/d) Choline (mg/d)
Infants 0–6 mo
EAR/AI 400* 400* 4* 40* 0.2* 0.3* 2* 0.1* 65* 0.4* 125*
UL 600 1,000 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
Infants 6–12 mo
EAR/AI 500* 400* 5* 50* 0.3* 0.4* 4* 0.3* 80* 0.5* 150*
UL 600 1,500 ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND ND
Children 1–3 y
EAR/AI 210 400 5 13 0.4 0.4 5 0.4 120 0.7 200*
UL 600 2,500 200 400 ND ND 10 30 300 ND 1,000
Children 4–8 y
EAR/AI 275 400 6 22 0.5 0.5 6 0.5 160 1.0 250*
UL 900 3,000 300 650 ND ND 15 40 400 ND 1,000
Females 19–30 y
EAR/AI 500 400 12 60 0.9 0.9 11 1.1 320 2.0 425*
UL 3,000 4,000 1,000 2,000 ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND 3,500
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Females 31–50 y
EAR/AI 500 400 12 60 0.9 0.9 11 1.1 320 2.0 425*
UL 3,000 4,000 1,000 2,000 ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND 3,500
Pregnancy 19–30 y
EAR/AI 550 400 12 70 1.2 1.2 14 1.6 520 2.2 450*
UL 3,000 4,000 1,000 2,000 ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND 3,500
Pregnancy 31–50 y
EAR/AI 550 400 12 70 1.2 1.2 14 1.6 520 2.2 450*
UL 3,000 4,000 1,000 2,000 ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND 3,500
Lactation 19–30 y
EAR/AI 900 400 16 100 1.2 1.3 13 1.7 450 2.4 550*
UL 3,000 4,000 1,000 2,000 ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND 3,500
Lactation 31–50 y
EAR/AI 900 400 16 100 1.2 1.3 13 1.7 450 2.4 550*
UL 3,000 4,000 1,000 2,000 ND ND 35 100 1,000 ND 3,500

NOTES: AI = Adequate Intake, used when necessary, followed by an asterisk (*); EAR = Estimated Average Requirement, used when available; ND = not determined due to lack of data; UL = Tolerable Upper Intake Level.

The UL for vitamin A refers to preformed vitamin A only.

The UL for vitamin E applies to synthetic forms obtained from dietary supplements, and fortified foods, not from vitamin E naturally occurring in foods.

SOURCES: Data sources for Table J-1a to J-1c are listed after Table J-1c.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-1c Macronutrient Intake Recommendations for WIC-Eligible Subgroups

Macronutrient Recommended Intake
Infants 0 to Less Than 6 Months Infants 6 to Less Than 12 Months Children 1–3 Years Children and Adolescents 4–18 Years Adults
Carbohydrate (% of kcal AMDR)a 60 g/d 95 g/d 45–65 45–65 45–65
Protein (% of kcal AMDR) ND ND 5–20 10–30 10–35
Protein (g/kg/d EAR)b 1.52 (AI) 1.0 1.1 0.95 0.88

NOTES: AI = Adequate Intake; AMDR = acceptable macronutrient distribution range; EAR = Estimated Average Requirement. Because the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans do not indicate a recommended amount of total fat, intake of this nutrient was not analyzed for this report; ND = not determined.

a Units are percent of kcal except where noted.

b Values are EAR except where noted.

SOURCES: IOM, 1997, 1998, 2000a, 2001, 2002/2005, 2005, 2011b.

Distribution (PC-SIDE) was used to implement the ISU method (nutrients). To estimate the distribution of dietary components consumed episodically (food groups and subgroups), the Statistical Program for Age-adjusted Dietary Assessment (SPADE), a method similar to the National Cancer Institute method was implemented (Dekkers et al., 2014). These software packages are specifically designed for estimating the usual intake distributions of populations, and are not appropriate for application to individuals (IOM, 2000b).

Assessing the Prevalence of Inadequate Nutrient Intake with EARs

In all of the statistical analyses, intake data were weighted to population values by using survey weights associated with survey participants. Fractional jackknife replicate weights were used to estimate standard errors of estimated percentiles (Fuller, 2009). Usual nutrient intake distributions were estimated using methods that account for the statistical properties of the data (intra-individual variation and reported data that are not normally distributed (Nusser et al., 1996; IOM, 2000b). Beaton (1994) and Carriquiry (1999) suggested that the prevalence of inadequate intakes in the group can be estimated by the proportion of persons in the group whose usual intakes do not reach the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for the nutrient. This approach is known as the EAR cut-point method. To estimate the prevalence of inadequacy in a group that includes persons from

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-2 Nutrients Selected for Intake Analysis

Nutrients Available in WWEIA Include in Analyses Rationale for Exclusion in Current Report
Food energy (kcal) images
Protein (g) images
Carbohydrate (g) images
Fat, total (g) No DGA recommendation
Dietary fiber, total (g) images
Saturated fatty acids, total (g) images
Monounsaturated fatty acids, total (g) No DRI
Polyunsaturated fatty acids, total (g) No DRI
Cholesterol (mg) No DRI or DGA recommendation
Linoleic 18:2 (g) Used USDA food pattern “oils” as a proxy
Linolenic 18:3 (g) Used USDA food pattern “oils” as a proxy
EPA 20:5 (g) No DRI, seafood intake as proxy
DHA 22:6 (g) No DRI, seafood intake as proxy
Vitamin A as RAE (µg) images
Retinol (µg) images
Vitamin E as alpha-tocopherol (mg) images
Vitamin D (D2 + D3) (µg) images
Vitamin D, 25-Hydroxy (nmol/dL) images Data not available for infants
Vitamin K as phylloquinone (µg) Inadequacy is extremely rare
Vitamin C (mg) images
Thiamin (mg) images
Riboflavin (mg) images
Niacin (mg) images
Vitamin B6 (mg) images
Folate as DFE (µg) images
Folic acid (µg) images
Vitamin B12 (µg) images
Calcium (mg) images
Iron (mg) images
Magnesium (mg) images
Phosphorus (mg) images
Potassium (mg) images
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Nutrients Available in WWEIA Include in Analyses Rationale for Exclusion in Current Report
Sodium (mg) images
Zinc (mg) images
Copper (mg) images
Selenium (µg) images
Choline (mg) images

NOTES: DGA = 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans; DRI = Dietary Reference Intake; USDA = U.S. Department of Agriculture; WWEIA = What We Eat in America.

subgroups that have different EARs, an approach proposed previously is used (IOM, 2000b). This approach consists of rescaling daily intakes for one of the population subgroups so they can be compared to the EAR of the other group (a similar rescaling was used in IOM, 2006). This approach was applied to two of the population subgroups of interest in this work: children ages 2 to less than 5 years (which requires DRIs for ages 1 to 3 years and ages 4 to 8 years), and women ages 19 to 50 years (which requires DRIs for ages 19 to 30 years and ages 31 to 50 years). The EAR cut-point method cannot be used to estimate the prevalence of iron inadequacy for women because requirements are not normally distributed, mostly because of menstrual losses of iron. However, because most of the women in the NHANES analytic sample were pregnant or breastfeeding, and the analytic sample was small, the cut-point method was implemented nonetheless.

Interpretation of intake differs for nutrients with Adequate Intakes (AIs) in that only limited inferences can be made about the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy. If a mean intake level is equal to or exceeds the AI, it is likely that the prevalence of inadequacy is low, but no conclusion can be drawn about the prevalence of inadequacy for a mean intake level that falls below the AI (IOM, 2000b). For this reason, in this report, means and usual intake distributions were determined for nutrients with an AI, but the prevalence of inadequacy could only be evaluated as low (the mean was above the AI) or unknown (the mean was below the AI). Because only AIs are available for infants ages 0 to less than 6 months, only this limited evaluation of inadequacy was possible for this age group.

Assessing the Prevalence of Excessive Intakes

Excessive intakes of micronutrients were assessed by comparing estimated usual nutrient intake distributions to the Tolerable Upper Intake

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

Level (UL) for that nutrient, as described in the 2006 IOM report. Not all nutrients have ULs and, for four nutrients (folate, vitamin E, niacin, and magnesium), the UL is based on intake of supplements, fortificants, or pharmacological agents only (IOM, 1997, 1998, 2000a), not all of which were evaluated for this report. Thus, the prevalence of intakes exceeding the UL was determined only for retinol, vitamin C, vitamin B6, calcium, iron, phosphorous, zinc, copper, selenium, choline, and sodium in this report. Excess zinc intake was not considered of concern for formula-fed infants or children age 1 to less than 2 years because the method used to set the UL resulted in a narrow margin between the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and the UL (IOM, 2001). For other age groups, there exists no evidence for adverse effects from zinc naturally occurring in food (IOM, 2001), and the committee considers infant formula (and zinc provided therein) to be tightly regulated for safety by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Excess retinol intake was not considered of concern because of a similarly narrow margin between the UL and the RDA (IOM, 2001). Toxicity from excess consumption of retinol rarely occurs without supplemental intake (IOM, 2001). Finally, excess copper and selenium intake in children was not considered of concern because the UL is extrapolated down from adults (IOM, 2001). In addition, adult intakes of up to 12 mg of copper per day from food have not resulted in adverse effects (IOM, 2001).

Assessing the Prevalence of Inadequate and Excessive Consumption of Macronutrients

Acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges (AMDRs) for protein, fat, and carbohydrate intakes are expressed in terms of percent of total calories contributed by these macronutrients. However, for this report, protein intakes were evaluated relative to protein requirements in grams per kilogram of body weight per day (g/kg/d), rather than relative to the AMDR, as this assessment was considered more accurate when evaluating the adequacy of intakes of the WIC populations. Although the proportions of carbohydrate intakes above and below the AMDR were estimated, carbohydrate intakes below the AMDR are not considered of concern given lack of evidence for harm. Because the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) emphasize saturated and not total fat (USDA/HHS, 2016), intakes of total fat relative to the AMDR were also not evaluated in this report. Added sugars and saturated fat do not have AMDRs, but as indicated in the DGA, the committee applied the guideline of not more than 10 percent of energy from each. Therefore, the upper limit for these nutrients varies depending on the overall kcal level that is appropriate for the individual (USDA/HHS, 2016).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Inadequacy or Excess: The Basis for Concern

The committee was tasked with developing nutrient intake adequacy estimates referenced to the DRIs. On a population level, inadequate or excessive intake of any nutrient is usually considered to be of concern when present in 2.5 percent or more of the population of interest (IOM, 2003). This percent should translate to an equivalent prevalence of impaired function or adverse effect. For example, a 5 percent prevalence of dietary iron inadequacy should translate to a 5 percent prevalence of low iron stores. For this report, a 5 percent threshold was applied (as in IOM, 2011a).This is a slightly relaxed standard, which accounts for some of the uncertainty in setting the EARs, as well as some of the generally accepted errors associated with dietary assessment. The same threshold was applied to proportions of the population with intakes above the UL. For nutrients with an AI, an assessment of adequacy cannot be made. Rather, it can only be stated that the mean usual intakes above the AI imply a low prevalence of inadequacy (IOM, 2000b). To be conservative, mean intakes below the AI were considered potentially indicative of inadequacy in this report. For saturated fat and added sugars, the percent of individuals with intakes exceeding 10 percent of energy were determined (as well as the distribution of intakes in gram amounts).

Special Case: Vitamin D

Evaluation of Vitamin D Adequacy

Both dietary intake and sun exposure contribute to an individual’s vitamin D status. It is generally agreed that dietary intake of vitamin D is of limited value in the evaluation of vitamin D adequacy because the relationship between the two is nonlinear (IOM, 2011b). Further, the current U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food and Nutrient Composition Database does not separate vitamin D from 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in foods. This results in an underestimate of the bioequivalent vitamin D in foods because 25(OH)D is four to five times more bioequivalent than is the parent form of vitamin D (Cashman, 2012; Cashman et al., 2012).

In contrast, serum 25(OH)D captures both total dietary intake of parent vitamin D and 25(OH)D and sun exposure and has been validated as a biomarker for assessing vitamin D adequacy (IOM, 2011b; Taylor et al., 2013). Data on adults ages 19 to 70 from NHANES 2005–2006 indicate that approximately 71 percent of the U.S. population consumes less than the EAR for dietary vitamin D, but the prevalence of inadequacy assessed by 25(OH)D is only about 19 percent (Taylor et al., 2013).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

Vitamin D intake data are presented only for infants ages 0 to less than 12 months in this report because serum 25(OH)D data are not available for this group. Data on serum 25(OH)D were available for individuals ages 1 year and older for NHANES survey years 2005–2006. Current food package content of vitamin D is presented in this report to serve as a reference point for food package changes.

Evaluation of Serum Vitamin D Using NHANES

Estimation of usual serum vitamin D requires two observations. For some individuals only one observation was available. In these cases, the within-person variance in serum 25(OH)D from an earlier NHANES (2001–2002) was applied. By using this external estimate of the within-person variance, the serum 25(OH)D distribution could be adjusted as described in Jahns et al. (2005). Because there is no second day to permit estimation of the within-person variability for children, a value computed for the 2001–2002 NHANES (15 percent) was used to adjust the values. The EAR for serum 25(OH)D is 40 nmol/L for all groups.

Assessing Vitamin D Intake of Individuals Less Than 1 Year of Age

Vitamin D intake data are available for NHANES 2007–2012. Intake data are expressed in µg/d, but the EAR is given in international units (IU). The EAR in IUs was converted to µg by multiplying the amount in IUs by 0.025. For an EAR of 400 IU, the corresponding value in µg is 10.

Estimated Energy Requirements

Some of the analyses in this report used Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs) for the various WIC subgroups. A 2002 IOM committee developed equations to derive EERs that balance total energy expenditure at a level of physical activity consistent with health and support growth rates in children that are compatible with a healthy body size and composition (IOM, 2002/2005). In children, the EER was calculated based on an individual’s age, body weight, height, and activity level. For adults, the EER was calculated based on age, gender, body weight, height, and physical activity level. The EER calculations applied in this report assumed a low physical activity level for women and children ages 2 to 5 years. The EER for pregnant and breastfeeding women also includes energy needs associated with the deposition of tissue or the secretion of milk. For pregnant women, the second trimester of pregnancy was assumed to cover all

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

stages of pregnancy. For breastfeeding women, the EER assumed the first 6 months postpartum. Recent research suggested that the IOM (2002/2005) formula may overestimate energy needs for children (Butte et al., 2014), although this finding is yet to be validated broadly. Interpretations of data in this report were considered in light of these recent findings.

Evaluation of Food Group Intakes

Food group intakes can be compared to recommended food patterns for a specific energy level. Food patterns provided as part of the DGA represent a range of energy needs (USDA/HHS, 2016). For women, the food patterns selected were based on the EER (as described above) of WIC-participating subgroups, rounded to the nearest 100 kcal/d. For pregnant and breastfeeding women, this was 2,600 kcal; for postpartum women, this was 2,300 kcal. For women who were income eligible, but not pregnant, breastfeeding, or postpartum, this was 2,200 kcal. For children ages 2 to less than 5 years, the median EER was 1,517 kcals. A food pattern of 1,300 kcal was selected for this age group because (1) 1,500 kcal/d may reflect recent increases in body weights for young children and was considered too high for normal weight children in this age group, particularly in light of efforts to reduce and/or contain the prevalence of childhood obesity; and (2) the 1,300-kcal pattern was applied in both the previous WIC food package review (IOM, 2006) and the Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) report (IOM, 2011a) and should similarly be appropriate for current WIC-participating children of the same ages. Although the 2,300-kcal patterns applied to postpartum women in the current report are somewhat higher than the EERs calculated for the IOM (2006) report (2,163), the patterns selected for this report correspond to the CACFP assumption of 2,400 kcal for women ages 19 to 29 years and 2,300 kcal for women ages 30 to 49 years. The calculated EERs for pregnant and breastfeeding women were approximately 2,600 kcal/d, which corresponds to an additional 300 kcal/d needed by these women relative to nonlactating postpartum women.

Because the food patterns are designed to ensure nutrient intakes that meet almost all of the RDAs, it would be ideal if almost everyone in a population reported usual diets that conformed to the food patterns. However, this goal is almost never achieved, so the committee chose a less restrictive approach in selecting foods group intakes that should be improved: If 50 percent or more of the population fell below the recommended level, then improving intake was considered a priority.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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Datasets and Analytical Subgroups

The What We Eat in America Dataset

The primary source of data on food and nutrient intake of the U.S. population is the What We Eat in America (WWEIA) component of NHANES (USDA/ARS, 2005–2012). The WWEIA data used for this report were dietary intake data (foods and nutrients from food sources only, not dietary supplements) collected using the Automated Multiple-Pass Method (AMPM),1 and demographic information, including age, gender, and physiological status (e.g., pregnant, breastfeeding, or postpartum women [0–1 year after delivery]2). The only filter applied to create the analytic datasets was the indicator DR1DRSTZ (or DR2DRSTZ for day 2) that identified complete and reliable records. No outliers were removed. By and large, the published NHANES databases have few missing values, in particular for nutrient intake. The population survey weights were applied to all analyses, generating estimated intake values representative of the U.S. population, including by income categories. However, participation in programs such as WIC is not considered in the survey design (USDA/FNS, 2014). In addition, pregnant, breastfeeding, or postpartum women are not oversampled in most survey years (USDA/FNS, 2014), which results in small sample sizes for these physiological states, especially when narrowed to low-income participants.

Food intake data for each survey respondent were translated to USDA food group equivalent values using the Food Patterns Equivalent Database (FPED), a file that identifies the food group and subgroup categories associated with the DGA recommendations (USDA/ARS, 2014). A reasonability check was conducted to compare the output for this report to the nationally representative WWEIA data. Table J-3 presents the FPED component categories that are matched to the main components of the USDA food patterns. Table J-4 presents the definition of the food groups that make up the USDA food patterns, and lists example foods.

Utility of NHANES Datasets in WWEIA for Addressing the Task

The committee was tasked with assessing the nutrient and food group intakes of the WIC-eligible population, as well as low-income women who

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1 The AMPM is a computerized method for collecting interviewer-administered 24-hour dietary recalls. In NHANES it is applied in person for the first day and by telephone for the second day of data collection.

2 Women were selected from NHANES if coded as pregnant, breastfeeding, or if not breastfeeding, coded as 0 to less than 6 months postpartum. Some women reporting WIC participation did not report being pregnant, breastfeeding, or postpartum.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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TABLE J-3 Food Groups for Analyses Based on Food Pattern Components in FPID and FPED

Main Components FPID/FPED Components (2011–2012)
Fruit Total fruit
Vegetables Total vegetables
Dark green vegetables
Red and orange vegetables
Starchy vegetables
Other vegetables
Beans and peas computed as vegetables
Grains Total grains
Whole grains
Refined grains
Protein foods Total protein foods
Meat, poultry, and seafood
Meat, poultry, and eggs (not seafood)
Seafood
Nuts, seeds, soy (nuts and seeds and soybean products)
Dairy Total dairy (milk, yogurt, cheese, whey)
Oils Oils
Solid fats Solid fats
Added sugars Added sugars

NOTES: FPED = Food Patterns Equivalents Database; FPID = Food Patterns Ingredients Database.

SOURCE: USDA/ARS, 2014.

did not report being pregnant, breastfeeding, or postpartum. USDA’s Food and Nutrition Service (USDA/FNS) also requested an evaluation of intakes before and after the 2009 food package changes, and an evaluation of WIC participants separate from eligible non-WIC participants.

USDA-FNS required full implementation of the 2007 (Interim Rule) food package changes by October 2009, and most states implemented the changes at some point between issuance of the 2007 Interim Rule and the October deadline (USDA/FNS, 2012). Given the complications

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-4 USDA Food Pattern Food Groups, Definitions, and Example Foods*

Food Group Definition and Unit Examples of 1 Serving Equivalent
Fruits Total intact fruits (whole or cut) and fruit juices (c-eq) 1 c raw or cooked fruit; 1 c fruit juice
Vegetables Total dark green, red and orange, starchy, and other vegetables; excludes legumes (c-eq) 1 c raw or cooked vegetables
Dark green vegetables Dark green vegetables (c-eq) 1 c raw or cooked dark green vegetables
Red/orange vegetables Total red and orange vegetables (tomatoes and tomato products + other red and orange vegetables) (c-eq) 1 c raw or cooked red/orange vegetables
Dry beans and peas Beans and peas (legumes) computed as vegetables (c-eq) 175 g cooked beans; 175 g cooked peas
Starchy vegetables Total starchy vegetables (white potatoes + other starchy vegetables) (c-eq) 155 g boiled or canned potatoes; 245 g cooked, frozen, or canned pumpkins
Other vegetables Other vegetables not in the vegetable components listed above (c-eq) 100 g raw cauliflower, 80 g raw eggplant
Grains Total whole and refined grains (oz-eq) 1/2 c cooked rice, pasta; 1 slice bread
Whole grains Grains defined as whole grains and contain the entire grain kernel—the bran, germ, and endosperm (oz-eq) 1/2 c cooked whole grain rice, pasta; 1 slice whole grain bread
Protein foods Total meat, poultry, organ meat, cured meat, seafood, eggs, soy, and nuts and seeds; excludes legumes (oz-eq) 1 egg
Meat, poultry, eggs Total of meat, poultry, organ meat, and cured meat (oz-eq) 28.35 g cooked, lean meat or poultry
Seafood Seafood (finfish, shellfish, and other seafood) (oz-eq) 28.35 g cooked fish or shellfish
Nuts, seeds, soy Peanuts, tree nuts, and seeds; excludes coconut; soy products, excluding calcium fortified soy milk (soymilk) and mature soybeans (oz-eq) 1/2 oz of nuts; 1/2 oz of seeds; 1 tbsp of peanut butter; 1/4 c roasted soybeans
Dairy Total milk, yogurt, cheese, and whey. For some foods, the total dairy values could be higher than the sum of D_MILK, D_YOGURT, and D_CHEESE because the Miscellaneous Dairy component composed of whey is not included in FPED as a separate variable (c-eq) 1 c milk; 1–2 oz cheese
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Food Group Definition and Unit Examples of 1 Serving Equivalent
Oils Fats naturally present in nuts, seeds, and seafood; unhydrogenated vegetable oils, except palm oil, palm kernel oil, and coconut oils; fat present in avocado and olives above the allowable amount; 50% of fat present in stick and tub margarines and margarine spreads (grams) 1.5 g per 100 g in olives and avocados; 100 g per 100 g in vegetable oil; 60 g per 100 g in tub margarine
Solid fats Fats naturally present in meat, poultry, eggs, and dairy (lard, tallow, and butter); fully or partially hydrogenated oils; shortening; palm, palm kernel and coconut oils; fats naturally present in coconut meat and cocoa butter; and 50% of fat present in stick and tub margarines and margarine spreads (grams) 100 g per 100 g in coconut or palm oil; 81.1 g of 100 g in butter
Added sugars Foods defined as added sugars: honey, corn syrup, white sugar, brown sugar, fructose (tsp-eq) 1 tsp-eq of added sugars = 4 g of added sugars as honey, corn syrup, etc.

NOTES: c-eq = cup equivalents; oz-eq = ounce equivalents; Tbsp = tablespoon; tsp-eq = tsp equivalents.

* As applied in the 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

SOURCES: USDA/ARS, 2014; USDA/HHS, 2016.

with dividing the NHANES 2009–2010 dataset,3 the committee estimated prepackage-change intakes using NHANES 2005–2008, and postpackagechange intakes using NHANES 2011–2012, as sample sizes allowed.

The committee evaluated the population sizes to determine which combinations of individuals relevant to the task would allow adequately robust sample sizes. Oversampling of some NHANES population subsets has been discontinued (CDC, 2014), which was a concern for several of the WIC subgroups of interest because small subgroup sizes may result in statistically unreliable population-level estimates. The committee’s initial goal was to

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3 NHANES respondents are assigned weights specific to the 2-year datasets. Separation of a 2-year dataset requires recomputation of population weights, which was beyond the scope of this study. It also required knowledge of the location of the participant and the dates of the interviews. Both of these variables are unpublished to preserve privacy of participants.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-5 Limitations to the NHANES Datasets Relevant to the Task and Resulting Subgroup Modification

NHANES Dataset Limitation Related to the Task Modification Implemented
Women ages 14 to 18 years were not identified as participating in WIC in the public use versions of the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 datasets* Analyses of these data were limited to women ages 19 to 50 years
NHANES discontinued the oversampling of pregnant women after 2006, which limited the number of pregnant low-income and WIC women surveyed The survey years 2005–2012 were combined; women were then grouped by physiological state: subgroups of nonparticipating breastfeeding and postpartum women were too small to generate reliable data
No postpartum variable is available in NHANES 2005–2006 For postpartum women, the data span was NHANES 2007–2012
The sample size for eligible non-WIC breastfeeding women across the 2005–2012 survey years was 16 Data for this group were not generated
The sample size for eligible non-WIC postpartum women across the 2005–2012 survey years was 4 Data for this group were not generated
Breastmilk intakes were not quantified for breastfed infants Only iron and zinc nutrient adequacy were evaluated for infants ages 6 months and older because breastmilk is not a major source of these nutrients
Vitamin D intake data were available for survey years 2007–2008, 2009–2010, and 2011–2012 only; vitamin D intake is not considered a reliable estimate of status Vitamin D intake was analyzed, but serum data were considered a better indicator of status
Serum 25(OH)D data were available for 2005–2006 survey years only and for individuals ages 1 year and older 25(OH)D status was estimated for this survey period and subgroups ages 1 year and older only

NOTES: NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; non-WIC = WIC-eligible nonparticipants; WIC = individuals participating in WIC.

* The typical age distribution for WIC participation is 18–34 years (USDA/FNS, 2013).

analyze WIC participants4 and WIC-eligible nonparticipants in subgroups of women (ages 14 to 50 years, eligible by being pregnant, breastfeeding

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4 Capturing WIC participation is dependent upon accurate reporting in NHANES. The committee’s comparison of the weighted total number of recipients reporting WIC as well as extensive experience with reporting of programs like WIC suggest that WIC use is underreported. There is also a challenge in identifying the low-income group as eligible; the concept of income reported in NHANES does not correspond to state-level income requirements for eligibility. Some individuals may be income ineligible but may still legitimately participate in the program if adjunctively or automatically eligible due to participation in Medicaid, Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), or the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-6 NHANES Survey Years Applied for Each Analytical Subgroup

Subgroup Survey Years Analyzed Rationale
Women 2005–2012 Survey years were combined to increase sample size and allow for separation by physiological state; no postpartum variable is available in NHANES 2005–2006, so for these women, the data span NHANES 2007–2012
Formula-fed infants 2005–2008; 2011–2012 Sample size allows for examination of pre- and post-2009 food package changes
Breastfed infants 2009–2012* Survey years were combined to increase sample size; the starting year of 2009 was chosen because sometime during this year, states issued jarred infant food meats
Children 2005–2008; 2011–2012 Sample size allows for examination of pre- and post-2009 food package changes

NOTES: NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

* This group includes some WIC participants receiving the pre-2009 food package because the committee was unable to divide the 2009–2010 NHANES survey dataset. As a result, the 2009–2010 NHANES release was included in the post-2009 food package change analysis to ensure adequacy of sample sizes.

or postpartum), infants (formula fed or breastfed), and children (ages 1 to less than 2 years, and ages 2 to less than 5 years). These subgroups allow for comparison of nutrient and food intake of all individuals who participate in WIC as well as individuals who qualify but do not participate in the program. A third subgroup of women was included in the analyses: those who were low-income, but not WIC-eligible because they were not pregnant, breastfeeding, or postpartum. Inspection of the data in the survey years of interest (2005 through 2012) indicated that modification of these initially outlined population subgroups was required. Table J-5 details the limitations of NHANES for developing these initially designed population subsets and the modifications made to accommodate the limitations. Table J-6 details the survey years that were ultimately applied.

The committee first examined the subgroup sizes for women to determine the final analytical subgroups, as these were likely to be small. As shown in Table J-7, the sample sizes for eligible non-WIC-participating women that were breastfeeding or postpartum were 16 and 4, respectively. Therefore, these groups were not further examined.

Following careful consideration of these limitations and sample sizes, the committee designed the final population subgroups that would be analyzed for this report (see Table J-8). Subgroups identified as eligible, but non-WIC-participating reported incomes less than or equal to 185 percent of the poverty-to-income ratio (PIR) (based on PIR guidelines in HHS,

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-7 Sample Sizes for Subgroups of Women in the Combined NHANES 2005–2012 Dataset

Subgroup N
1a WIC, Pb 165
2 a WIC, any BF 27
3 a WIC, PP 62
4 WIC, not 1, 2, or 3c 90
5 a Non-WIC, Pd 87
6 Non-WIC, any BF 16
7 Non-WIC, PP 4
8 a Non-WIC, not 5, 6, or 7 2,611

NOTES: BF = breastfeeding (intensity unknown); N = sample size; P = pregnant; PP = postpartum.

a Analyses were carried out only for these subgroups.

b WIC subgroups included individuals of any income level that self-reported as WIC participants.

c Women in this subgroup self-reported as participating in WIC, but were not P, BF, or PP.

d Non-WIC indicates women who were at or below 185 percent of the federal poverty level, but did not identify as WIC participants.

2015 and USDA/FNS, 2015). The WIC subgroups include only individuals reported as being on WIC in the NHANES survey (these individuals may or may not have a PIR less than or equal to 185 percent). There are two reasons for inclusion of any income level in the WIC group: (1) income could change within the certification period, but the individual remains in the program at the new income level, and (2) the objective is primarily to evaluate the effect of the food package, not the effect of income. Table J-8 also includes sample sizes for the 2005–2008 analysis, for which results are also presented later in this appendix.

Challenges with Dietary Intake Assessment of Breastfeeding Women

Inasmuch as NHANES samples women and children separately, no dyadic data are available for breastfeeding women and their infants. NHANES is able to identify which women are breastfeeding but not the intensity of their breastfeeding or, more directly, the amount of milk they are producing. The DRIs for breastfeeding women are for those who are exclusively breastfeeding. Therefore, when women produce less milk than exclusively breastfeeding women at that same duration of breastfeeding, their caloric needs will be overestimated. For this report, intakes of women coded as “breastfeeding” in NHANES were compared to the DRIs for

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-8 NHANES Sample Sizes of Population Subgroups Selected for Nutrient and Food Intake Analyses: Phases I and II

Population Subgroup Sample Sizes
NHANES 2005–2008 NHANES 2011–2012 NHANES 2005–2012a
Nutrients Foods Nutrients Foods Nutrients Foods
WIC
Women, pregnant 165 139
Women, breastfeeding 27 25
Women, postpartum 62 54
Infants, FF, 0 to less than 6 months 204 b 93
Infants, FF, 6 to less than 12 months 252 b 98
Infants, BF, 6 to less than 12 months 39c 39 39
Children, 1 to less than 2 years 311 263 96 81
Children, 2 to less than 5 years 474 402 263 228
Eligible, Non-WICd
Women, pregnant 87 58
Infants, FF, 0 to less than 6 months 21 19 15
Infants, FF, 6 to less than 12 months 35 31 16
Infants, BF, 6 to less than 12 months 68c 8 8
Children, 1 to less than 2 years 106 82 41 25
Children, 2 to less than 5 years 397 329 217 148
Low-Income, Ineligiblee
Women, not pregnant, BF, or postpartum 2,611 1,983

NOTES: — = data not analyzed except where indicated; BF = breastfed/breastfeeding; FF = formula-fed; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Food intake was not analyzed for infants because there exist only intake recommendations for specific types of foods and consumption of formula complicates assessment of intake. Non-WIC breastfeeding and postpartum women were not analyzed due to small sample sizes. Sample sizes differ between the nutrient and food intake analyses because at least 2 days of intake data are required to estimate usual intakes for food.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

a Except for BF infants, for which NHANES survey years are 2009–2012.

b Data are available in the phase I report (NASEM, 2016), but are not included in this appendix.

c Intake of meat only was evaluated for these infants. Data are presented in Chapter 4.

d Eligible, non-WIC indicates individuals who reported income at or below 185 percent of the federal poverty level but did not identify as WIC participants in the NHANES survey.

e Women were categorized as ineligible if they reported income below 185 percent of the federal poverty level but did not meet the WIC physiological requirements.

SOURCE: USDA/ARS, 2005–2012.

breastfeeding women, and to a 2,600-kcal food pattern (which may be high for a woman who is minimally breastfeeding). Therefore, the proportion of breastfeeding women whose intakes are inadequate and the proportion with food-group intakes below that recommended will also be overestimated.

Limitations of Small Sample Sizes

As indicated in Table J-8 some of the sample sizes were small. The committee determined that means for subgroups other than women were adequately precise, despite sample sizes as small as 19. For example, to estimate mean usual intake of calcium for infants ages 0 to less than 6

TABLE J-9 Design Effects for Usual Intake of Specific Nutrients

Population Subgroup Design Effect
Energy Calcium Fiber Potassium Vitamin B12 Vitamin A Protein
Pregnant, WIC 4.58 1.43 4.07 2.85 1.62 2.47 1.78
Breastfeeding, WIC 2.54 3.72 2.03 3.53 1.69 2.58 2.51
Postpartum, WIC 1.30 1.37 0.85 0.82 1.06 1.00 1.08
Nonpregnant, nonlactating, WIC 1.68 1.12 2.59 1.98 1.41 1.01 1.69
Pregnant, eligible non-WIC 1.80 1.96 1.53 1.40 1.79 1.77 1.58
Ineligible 2.14 2.11 3.04 1.30 0.95 1.53 1.29

NOTES: “Eligible” indicates women with household incomes below 185 percent of the poverty-to-income ratio that are pregnant, breastfeeding, or postpartum. “Ineligible” indicates women with household incomes in this category that are not eligible by physiological state.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

months, a minimum sample size of about 20 infants is required to obtain an estimate that is no more than 20 mg below or above the true mean with 95 percent certainty. For zinc, a minimum of 12 infants is required to estimate the mean usual intake within 0.2 mg of the true value. This is because the estimated variance of usual intake tends to be small, in particular for infants and the design effect (DE) for infants is also small (below 2 for most nutrients). For quantities (i.e., “% Inadequacy”) other than means, the required sample sizes are significantly larger.

For women, some samples remained small and the variance of usual intakes tend to be large. Furthermore, in the case of women, estimated DEs tended to be larger than for children, especially in some of the subdomains. Table J-9 shows estimated DEs for seven nutrients, by subdomain. Note that the DE can be larger than 4 in some specific cases, but in general is between 1.8 and 2.5. To generate more robust nutrient intake estimates of the ratio of the within- to the between-person variance in intake, the method of Jahns et al. (2005) was applied. In this method, the variance ratio estimated from the subgroup intake data is combined with a ratio estimate obtained from the group of all women. To do this, an estimate of within-person variance (external variance) is generated using PC-SIDE to assess intake information of all low-income, pregnant, lactating, or postpartum women in all survey years. An internal ratio estimate is obtained separately for each subgroup. A new within- to between-person variance ratio is then computed as a weighted average of the external and internal variance ratio estimates. On average, the external variance was weighted by 100, and the internal variance was weighted by the number of women in the subgroup who provided 2 days of information. When this number is small (as in the case of pregnant or lactating women in 2011–2012), the external variance plays a larger role in the combined estimate. The resulting estimates are less subject to the large degree of variability in the within-person variance estimate that can be introduced by a small sample size. Both means and the “% Inadequacy” have improved reliability.

For the analysis of episodically consumed foods, small samples add enormous challenges. Neither the National Cancer Institute (NCI) method (Dekkers et al., 2014) nor SPADE (used here and described below) results in reliable estimates of distributions of usual food intake when the sample size is small and the proportion of zero consumption is large. In many cases, the programs fail to converge, and no estimation beyond the usual intake mean is possible. Further, neither of the two approaches (NCI or SPADE) permit combining an external and an internal within-person variance estimate when estimating the intake distribution, so the approach followed for nutrients (described above) cannot be implemented for foods. Consequently, with the small sample sizes that were available for women, and the large proportion of zero intakes observed for many of the food

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

subgroups, estimates of the proportion of usual intakes of foods below recommendations are less reliable. Estimates of mean food intake are, however, considered precise with the sample sizes available for this report (Dekkers et al., 2014).

Methods for Evaluation of Food Group and Subgroup Intakes

Food group and subgroup intakes among WIC participating women, infants, and children were evaluated relative to the DGA recommended intakes or other dietary guidance as appropriate. To estimate the distribution of dietary components consumed episodically (food groups and subgroups), SPADE, a method similar to NCI, was implemented. Estimation of usual intake requires two observations; therefore, sample sizes are smaller for food intake compared to nutrient analyses. One consequence of the small sample sizes is that the standard error values are large.

Rationale for Not Conducting Statistical Comparisons

As stated previously, data generated include the subcategories of WIC participants and non-WIC participants as well as pre-2009 and post-2009. WIC participants were not statistically compared to nonparticipants because interpretation of any differences is complicated by the potential for underlying differences between the two groups or selection bias. These comparisons could also be affected by challenges with correct identification of survey respondents as participating in WIC.

Similarly, statistical comparisons of pre- to post-2009 intake data were considered inappropriate. For women and breastfed infants, small sample sizes required the committee to collapse multiple survey years (see Table J-6); therefore, presented results do not uniquely represent pre- or post-2009 intake data. For other subgroups, any detected differences before and after 2009 cannot necessarily be attributed to changes in the food packages.5 Additionally, the NHANES design is a repeated cross-sectional survey that does not allow for longitudinal analysis at any level (i.e., individual, state, or locality).

__________________

5 For example, as discussed in more depth in Chapter 2, adoption of the new food package in 2009 took place at the end of a recession and at a time when families were facing the worst labor market since the recession of the early 1980s. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided the funds necessary to increase the maximum benefit level of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) by about 15 percent (EOPUS, 2014). Because SNAP recipients that meet age and physiological state requirements for WIC are automatically income eligible for WIC and, therefore, many WIC participants also receive SNAP benefits, food expenditures and consumption may have changed among those who were receiving both benefits.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

Tasks Specific to Infant Formulas

In addition to the science supporting functional ingredients in infant formulas, the IOM committee was asked to evaluate three additional aspects of infant formulas in the food packages: energy concentration, iron concentration, and volume provided. The three tasks and the evaluation approach are outlined in Table J-10.

Results of the Nutrient and Food Group Intake Analyses

In the tables that follow, results of the nutrient intake and food group intake analyses that were conducted for all analytical subgroups are presented.

TABLE J-10 Tasks Related to Infant Formula Requirements in the Food Packages and the Approach

Aspect for Evaluation Information Collection Strategy Information in Phase I* Information in This Report
The current required minimum energy level of 20 kcal/ 100 milliliters Literature review Summary of evidence Summary of literature review; summary of evidence; findings and conclusions (see Appendix Q)
The current WIC minimum iron requirement of 1.5 mg per 100 kcal formula Current FDA requirements for infant formula; iron DRI for infants; iron intake of infants; EER for infants Comparison of iron intake with requirements and anticipated iron intake given the EER of WIC-participating infants from NHANES 2005–2008 Comparison of iron intake with requirements and anticipated iron intake given the EER of WIC-participating infants from NHANES 2011–2012 (see Chapter 4, Appendix Q)
The current maximum allowances of infant formula in the food packages EER calculations for the relevant infant population in NHANES EER results for WIC infants from NHANES 2005–2008 and comparison to current infant food package energy content EER results for WIC-participating infants from NHANES 2011–2012 and comparison to current infant food package energy content (see Chapter 4, Appendix Q)

NOTES: DRI = Dietary Reference Intake; EER = Estimated Energy Requirement; NHANES = National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

* NASEM, 2016.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-11 Usual Intake Distributions of Energy Intake for Women Ages 19 to 50 Years

Participant Category N Kcal (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
WIC, Pregnant, 2005–2012 165 1,677 (109) 1,980 (80) 2,333 (67) 2,360 (43) 2,710 (92) 3,079 (142)
WIC, Breastfeeding, 2005–2012 27 1,551 (209) 1,790 (164) 2,088 (143) 2,129 (92) 2,423 (208) 2,760 (328)
WIC, Postpartum, 2007–2012 62 1,242 (135) 1,483 (107) 1,788 (95) 1,832 (62) 2,133 (138) 2,480 (218)
Eligible Non-WIC, Pregnant, 2005–2012 87 1,558 (129) 1,839 (106) 2,212 (98) 2,298 (69) 2,662 (154) 3,147 (263)
Nonpregnant Postpartum or Breastfeeding Non-WIC, 2005–2012 2,611 1,279 (23) 1,536 (18) 1,849 (16) 1,893 (10) 2,202 (22) 2,563 (36)

NOTES: See additional notes following Table J-18.

TABLE J-12 Usual Intake Distributions of Energy Intake for Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 12 Months

Participant Category N Kcal (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
0 to Less Than 6 months: WIC, 2005–2008 204 501 (27) 592 (18) 693 (15) 705 (12) 804 (22) 922 (38)
0 to Less Than 6 Months: Eligible Non-WIC, 2005–2008 21 492 (44) 548 (38) 629 (37) 659 (34) 738 (66) 865 (124)
0 to Less Than 6 Months: WIC, 2011–2012 93 492 (32) 574 (25) 677 (21) 6920 (17) 794 (31) 911 (50)
0 to Less Than 6 Months: Eligible Non-WIC, 2011–2012 15 563 (91) 640 (60) 724 (43) 722 (32) 805 (57) 877 (83)
6 to Less Than 12 Months: WIC, 2005–2008 252 672 (30) 792 (21) 941 (20) 978 (17) 1,128 (33) 1,337 (56)
6 to Less Than 12 Months: Eligible Non-WIC, 2005–2008 35 689 (65) 786 (52) 914 (48) 941 (37) 1,066 (75) 1,228 (125)
6 to Less Than 12 Months: WIC, 2011–2012 98 660 (48) 771 (38) 910 (34) 928 (22) 1,066 (48) 1,222 (74)
6 to Less Than 12 Months: Eligible Non-WIC, 2011–2012 16 644 (72) 714 (66) 827 (71) 884 (60) 993 (140) 1,199 (279)

NOTES: See additional notes following Table J-18.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-13 Usual Intake Distributions of Energy Intake for Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years

Participant Category N Kcal (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
WIC, 2005–2008 311 951 (35) 1,098 (28) 1,284 (26) 1,314 (17) 1,498 (37) 1,716 (59)
Eligible Non-WIC, 2005–2008 106 978 (71) 1,152 (56) 1,367 (49) 1,395 (33) 1,608 (70) 1,848 (110)
WIC, 2011–2012 96 878 (63) 1,032 (49) 1,221 (42) 1,243 (30) 1,430 (60) 1,637 (93)
Eligible Non-WIC, 2011–2012 41 869 (107) 1,011 (80) 1,181 (66) 1,196 (41) 1,365 (94) 1,544 (145)

NOTES: See additional notes following Table J-18.

TABLE J-14 Usual Intake Distributions of Energy Intake for Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years

Participant Category N Kcal (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
WIC, 2005–2008 474 1,108 (35) 1,281 (27) 1,495 (24) 1,534 (17) 1,743 (35) 2,007 (60)
Eligible Non-WIC, 2005–2008 397 1,093 (38) 1,267 (28) 1,471 (23) 1,493 (17) 1,695 (33) 1,921 (54)
WIC, 2011–2012 263 1,114 (45) 1,282 (32) 1,479 (28) 1,509 (21) 1,702 (41) 1,939 (70)
Eligible Non-WIC, 2011–2012 217 1,247 (56) 1,407 (42) 1,599 (36) 1,614 (20) 1,804 (49) 2,001 (73)

NOTES: See additional notes following Table J-18.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-15 Distributions of Estimated Energy Requirements for Women Ages 19 to 50 Years

Participant Category N Kcal (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
WIC, Pregnant, 2005–2012 165 2,353 (24) 2,464 (22) 2,612 (22) 2,679 (24) 2,849 (42) 3,095 (80)
WIC, Any Breastfeeding, 2005–2012 27 2,339 (55) 2,420 (42) 2,530 (36) 2,557 (38) 2,670 (63) 2,820 (111)
WIC, Postpartum, 2007–2012 62 2,059 (35) 2,156 (27) 2,350 (23) 2,379 (33) 2,602 (44) 2,765 (111)
Eligible Non-WIC, Pregnant, 2005–2012 87 2,305 (40) 2,417 (30) 2,556 (24) 2,576 (24) 2,716 (38) 2,876 (63)
Nonpregnant Postpartum or Breastfeeding Non-WIC, 2005–2012 2,611 1,956 (7) 2,063 (5) 2,203 (5) 2,245 (5) 2,379 (8) 2,586 (16)

NOTES: See additional notes following Table J-18.

TABLE J-16 Distributions of Estimated Energy Requirements for Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 12 Months

Participant Category N* Kcal (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
0 to Less Than 6 Months: WIC, 2005–2008 298 435 (13) 502 (9) 581 (7) 594 (8.6) 665 (10) 743 (16)
0 to Less Than 6 Months: Eligible Non-WIC, 2005–2008 70 383 (29) 456 (21) 542 (16) 547 (32.7) 633 (23) 720 (37)
0 to Less Than 6 Months: WIC, 2011–2012 93 508 (18) 557 (13) 617 (10) 623 (10) 682 (16) 747 (26)
0 to Less Than 6 Months: Eligible Non-WIC, 2011–2012 15 504 (49) 545 (30) 584 (18) 577 (14) 615 (20) 639 (26)
6 to Less Than 12 Months: WIC, 2005–2008 306 593 (12) 658 (9) 733 (7) 744 (7.2) 811 (9) 885 (15)
6 to Less Than 12 Months: Eligible Non-WIC, 2005–2008 59 578 (26) 638 (18) 708 (14) 713 (15) 781 (20) 850 (32)
6 to Less Than 12 Months: WIC, 2011–2012 98 616 (18) 666 (13) 727 (10) 734 (10) 794 (16) 860 (25)
6 to Less Than 12 Months: Eligible Non-WIC, 2011–2012 16 586 (65) 640 (43) 699 (30) 698 (22) 757 (42) 809 (62)

NOTES: See additional notes following Table J-18.

* Sample sizes for 2005–2008 are higher than those presented in Table J-8 because individuals with missing or incomplete food intake information can still be included in the estimation of EER for which only age and weight are required.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-17 Distributions of Estimated Energy Requirements for Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years

Participant Category N* Kcal (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
WIC, 2005–2008 316 745 (16) 825 (10) 906 (7) 925 (8.8) 996 (12) 1,106 (25)
Eligible Non-WIC, 2005–2008 134 745 (20) 815 (15) 901 (12) 945 (14.3) 996 (18) 1,092 (30)
WIC, 2011–2012 96 819 (24) 886 (17) 962 (12) 966 (12) 1,033 (17) 1,110 (33)
Eligible Non-WIC, 2011–2012 41 865 (43) 921 (22) 971 (15) 977 (16) 1,025 (26) 1,096 (58)

NOTES: See additional notes following Table J-18.

* Sample sizes for 2005–2008 are higher than those presented in Table J-8 because individuals with missing or incomplete food intake information can still be included in the estimation of EER for which only age, height, weight and physical activity level are required.

TABLE J-18 Distributions of Estimated Energy Requirements for Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years

Participant Category N* kcal (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
WIC, 2005–2008 528 1,068 (21) 1,181 (11) 1,306 (8) 1,295 (8) 1,422 (9) 1,506 (15)
Eligible Non-WIC, 2005–2008 479 1,058 (25) 1,210 (15) 1,349 (8) 1,326 (10) 1,444 (9) 1,543 (19)
WIC, 2011–2012 263 1,362 (13) 1,428 (10) 1,517 (9) 1,532 (9) 1,620 (14) 1,723 (23)
Eligible Non-WIC, 2011–2012 217 1,376 (21) 1,473 (15) 1,569 (9) 1,569 (10) 1,651 (13) 1,743 (25)

NOTES: See additional notes following this table.

* Sample sizes for 2005–2008 are higher than those presented in Table J-8 because individuals with missing or incomplete food intake information can still be included in the estimation of EER for which only age, height, weight and physical activity level are required.

NOTES for Tables J-11 through J-18: kcal = kilocalories; N = sample size; SE = standard error. Sample sizes for calculation of EER are larger than for other analyses because a report of food intake is not required.

SOURCES: USDA/ARS, 2005–2012. EERs were calculated using the Dietary Reference Intake report method (IOM, 2002/2005).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-19 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Pregnant WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Means (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 46.5 (1.36) 49.8 (0.96) 53.4 (0.75) 53.3 (0.41) 56.9 (0.93) 60.1 (1.29)
Fiber (g/d) 11.4 (1.00) 14.3 (0.77) 18.0 (0.70) 18.9 (0.52) 22.5 (1.12) 27.5 (2.02)
Total fat (% of kcal) 27.3 (0.98) 29.8 (0.72) 32.5 (0.58) 32.6 (0.32) 35.3 (0.75) 37.9 (1.06)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 9.0 (0.44) 10.0 (0.32) 11.1 (0.26) 11.1 (0.13) 12.3 (0.33) 13.3 (0.47)
Saturated fat (g/d) 20.4 (1.5) 24.5 (1.2) 29.4 (1.0) 30.1 (0.6) 34.9 (1.5) 40.6 (2.4)
Protein (g/kg/d) 0.8 (0.05) 0.9 (0.04) 1.1 (0.04) 1.1 (0.03) 1.3 (0.06) 1.6 (0.09)

NOTES: N = 165. See additional notes following Table J-39.

TABLE J-20 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Pregnant Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 46.1 (1.68) 49.3 (1.21) 52.9 (0.97) 53.0 (0.58) 56.6 (1.26) 60.0 (1.82)
Fiber (g/d) 11.1 (1.09) 13.4 (0.88) 16.5 (0.80) 17.0 (0.54) 20.0 (1.20) 23.7 (1.96)
Total fat (% of kcal) 27.8 (1.46) 30.6 (1.05) 33.6 (0.81) 33.5 (0.46) 36.6 (0.97) 39.0 (1.24)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 9.0 (0.46) 9.9 (0.34) 11.0 (0.28) 11.0 (0.17) 12.1 (0.38) 13.1 (0.57)
Saturated fat (g/d) 17.8 (1.9) 22.0 (1.6) 27.5 (1.5) 28.7 (1.0) 34.1 (2.3) 41.1 (3.9)
Protein (g/kg/d) 0.8 (0.08) 0.9 (0.07) 1.2 (0.06) 1.2 (0.04) 1.4 (0.10) 1.7 (0.16)

NOTES: N = 87. See additional notes following Table J-39.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-21 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Breastfeeding WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 41.9 (3.39) 45.5 (2.41) 49.7 (1.89) 49.8 (1.21) 54.0 (2.55) 58.0 (3.79)
Fiber (g/d) 11.3 (1.96) 13.4 (1.45) 16.0 (1.18) 16.2 (0.76) 18.7 (1.67) 21.4 (2.58)
Total fat (% of kcal) 26.7 (2.73) 29.5 (1.87) 32.7 (1.40) 32.7 (0.90) 35.8 (1.87) 38.7 (2.73)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 8.9 (1.21) 10.2 (0.83) 11.6 (0.63) 11.6 (0.39) 13.0 (0.77) 14.2 (1.05)
Saturated fat (g/d) 17.3 (3.7) 21.7 (3.1) 27.5 (2.9) 28.6 (1.8) 34.3 (4.3) 41.3 (6.9)
Protein (g/kg/d) 0.8 (0.13) 0.9 (0.10) 1.1 (0.08) 1.1 (0.05) 1.3 (0.13) 1.5 (0.20)

NOTES: N = 27. See additional notes following Table J-39.

TABLE J-22 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Postpartum WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2007–2012

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 44.1 (2.91) 48.7 (1.93) 53.6 (1.51) 53.9 (1.03) 58.8 (2.13) 64.2 (3.54)
Fiber (g/d) 6.3 (1.26) 8.6 (1.05) 11.7 (0.97) 12.2 (0.63) 15.2 (1.43) 18.8 (2.28)
Total fat (% of kcal) 24.1 (2.37) 27.8 (1.62) 31.7 (1.21) 31.4 (0.71) 35.3 (1.43) 38.4 (1.91)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 7.2 (0.80) 8.5 (0.58) 10.0 (0.47) 9.9 (0.28) 11.5 (0.61) 12.9 (0.86)
Saturated fat (g/d) 11.9 (1.9) 15.3 (1.6) 19.8 (1.5) 20.5 (0.9) 24.9 (2.1) 30.1 (3.3)
Protein (g/kg/d) 0.5 (0.07) 0.6 (0.06) 0.8 (0.05) 0.8 (0.03) 1.0 (0.08) 1.2 (0.13)

NOTES: N = 62. See additional notes following Table J-39.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-23 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Nonpregnant, Postpartum, or Breastfeeding Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 44.3 (0.40) 48.0 (0.28) 52.1 (0.22) 52.1 (0.12) 56.2 (0.29) 60.0 (0.42)
Fiber (g/d) 7.5 (0.20) 9.9 (0.17) 13.1 (0.16) 14.0 (0.11) 17.1 (0.26) 21.6 (0.45)
Total fat (% of kcal) 26.1 (0.32) 28.9 (0.23) 32.0 (0.18) 32.0 (0.09) 35.0 (0.23) 37.8 (0.32)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 8.0 (0.12) 9.1 (0.09) 10.4 (0.08) 10.5 (0.04) 11.8 (0.10) 13.0 (0.14)
Saturated fat (g/d) 13.4 (0.4) 17.1 (0.3) 21.9 (0.3) 22.9 (0.2) 27.6 (0.4) 33.7 (0.7)
Protein (g/kg/d) 0.6 (0.01) 0.7 (0.01) 0.9 (0.01) 1.0 (0.01) 1.2 (0.02) 1.4 (0.03)

NOTES: N = 2,611. See additional notes following Table J-39.

TABLE J-24 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for WIC-Participating Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 6 Months, NHANES 2005–2008

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 42.0 (0.25) 43.2 (0.26) 45.4 (0.34) 46.8 (0.35) 49.0 (0.70) 53.6 (1.33)
Total fat (% of kcal) 38.3 (1.24) 42.4 (0.64) 45.6 (0.33) 44.5 (0.32) 47.8 (0.29) 49.1 (0.29)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 14.5 (0.50) 16.1 (0.23) 17.5 (0.21) 17.6 (0.19) 19.3 (0.30) 20.7 (0.25)
Protein (g/kg/d) 1.6 (0.10) 2.0 (0.07) 2.4 (0.06) 2.4 (0.05) 2.8 (0.09) 3.3 (0.15)

NOTES: N = 204. See additional notes following Table J-39.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-25 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 6 Months, NHANES 2005–2008

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 42.2 (1.48) 43.5 (1.26) 45.4 (1.25) 45.8 (0.69) 47.6 (2.03) 50.1 (3.40)
Total fat (% of kcal) 40.0 (3.70) 43.1 (2.01) 45.7 (1.19) 45.1 (0.85) 47.8 (1.27) 49.5 (1.73)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 15.3 (1.36) 16.6 (0.90) 17.8 (0.65) 17.7 (0.40) 19.0 (0.77) 20.0 (1.03)
Protein (g/kg/d) 1.8 (0.25) 2.0 (0.16) 2.3 (0.14) 2.5 (0.19) 2.8 (0.31) 3.5 (0.79)

NOTES: N = 21. See additional notes following Table J-39.

TABLE J-26 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for WIC-Participating Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 6 Months, NHANES 2011–2012

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 42.3 (0.39) 43.3 (0.33) 44.8 (0.35) 45.5 (0.33) 47.0 (0.67) 49.7 (1.32)
Total fat (% of kcal) 41.3 (1.42) 44.1 (0.71) 46.3 (0.36) 45.6 (0.34) 47.8 (0.34) 48.9 (0.43)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 15.0 (0.74) 16.7 (0.39) 18.4 (0.39) 19.0 (0.38) 20.7 (0.57) 23.4 (1.67)
Protein (g/kg/d) 1.5 (0.12) 1.9 (0.10) 2.3 (0.09) 2.4 (0.08) 2.8 (0.15) 3.4 (0.25)

NOTES: N = 93. See additional notes following Table J-39.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-27 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 6 Months, NHANES 2011–2012

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 41.6 (2.12) 43.4 (1.49) 45.6 (1.15) 45.8 (0.87) 47.9 (1.68) 50.1 (2.65)
Total fat (% of kcal) 41.5 (2.59) 43.5 (1.27) 45.1 (0.73) 44.9 (0.70) 46.5 (1.07) 48.0 (2.03)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 16.8 (0.81) 17.5 (0.55) 18.3 (0.41) 18.3 (0.31) 19.1 (0.59) 19.8 (0.90)
Protein (g/kg/d) 2.1 (0.19) 2.3 (0.16) 2.6 (0.15) 2.6 (0.12) 2.9 (0.27) 3.3 (0.51)

NOTES: N = 204. See additional notes following Table J-39.

TABLE J-28 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for WIC-Participating Infants Ages 6 to Less Than 12 Months, NHANES 2005–2008

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 45.3 (0.94) 48.9 (0.63) 52.8 (0.48) 52.8 (0.38) 56.7 (0.64) 60.4 (1.00)
Fiber (g/d) 1.9 (0.24) 3.0 (0.21) 4.6 (0.22) 5.1 (0.19) 6.6 (0.37) 9.0 (0.68)
Total fat (% of kcal) 30.4 (0.88) 33.8 (0.58) 37.3 (0.42) 37.0 (0.32) 40.6 (0.50) 43.3 (0.67)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 11.4 (0.4) 13.1 (0.3) 14.9 (0.2) 14.7 (0.2) 16.8 (0.3) 18.4 (0.4)
Protein (g/kg/d) 1.6 (0.09) 2.1 (0.08) 2.7 (0.09) 2.9 (0.08) 3.6 (0.17) 4.7 (0.28)

NOTES: N = 252. See additional notes following Table J-39.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-29 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Infants Ages 6 to Less Than 12 Months, NHANES 2005–2008

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 45.2 (2.08) 48.3 (1.55) 52.2 (1.30) 52.6 (1.02) 56.3 (1.87) 60.5 (2.92)
Fiber (g/d) 1.8 (0.51) 2.7 (0.47) 4.0 (0.49) 4.5 (0.43) 5.8 (0.85) 7.9 (1.55)
Total fat (% of kcal) 30.3 (2.13) 33.2 (1.37) 36.2 (0.93) 35.9 (0.71) 38.9 (1.07) 41.0 (1.40)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 11.9 (0.7) 13.3 (0.5) 14.9 (0.4) 15.1 (0.48) 16.5 (0.5) 18.0 (0.8)
Protein (g/kg/d) 1.6 (0.26) 2.1 (0.24) 2.8 (0.25) 3.2 (0.28) 3.9 (0.49) 5.3 (1.01)

NOTES: N = 35. See additional notes following Table J-39.

TABLE J-30 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for WIC-Participating Infants Ages 6 to Less Than 12 Months, NHANES 2011–2012

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 47.4 (1.14) 50.1 (0.82) 53.2 (0.65) 53.2 (0.46) 56.3 (0.84) 59.1 (1.21)
Fiber (g/d) 1.9 (0.42) 3.0 (0.38) 4.7 (0.37) 5.1 (0.29) 6.8 (0.60) 9.0 (1.00)
Total fat (% of kcal) 30.3 (1.34) 33.5 (0.90) 36.8 (0.66) 36.6 (0.49) 40.0 (0.79) 42.7 (1.07)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 11.7 (0.57) 13.1 (0.42) 14.6 (0.35) 14.7 (0.24) 16.3 (0.46) 17.8 (0.68)
Protein (g/kg/d) 1.7 (0.14) 2.0 (0.12) 2.6 (0.13) 2.8 (0.11) 3.4 (0.22) 4.3 (0.42)

NOTES: N = 98. See additional notes following Table J-39.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-31 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Infants Ages 6 to Less Than 12 Months, NHANES 2011–2012

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 47.7 (3.24) 50.4 (2.12) 53.3 (1.49) 53.1 (1.05) 56.0 (1.93) 58.4 (2.76)
Fiber (g/d) 2.8 (1.00) 3.7 (0.79) 4.9 (0.69) 5.1 (0.48) 6.3 (1.05) 7.7 (1.72)
Total fat (% of kcal) 30.2 (4.75) 33.7 (2.12) 36.1 (1.04) 35.5 (1.05) 37.9 (1.39) 40.0 (2.74)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 11.6 (1.44) 12.9 (1.05) 14.4 (0.84) 14.5 (0.58) 16.0 (1.19) 17.5 (1.83)
Protein (g/kg/d) 1.7 (0.26) 2.0 (0.28) 2.5 (0.35) 3.0 (0.39) 3.5 (0.86) 4.8 (2.1)

NOTES: N = 16. See additional notes following Table J-39.

TABLE J-32 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 45.8 (0.93) 49.1 (0.68) 52.8 (0.55) 52.9 (0.32) 56.6 (0.71) 60.1 (1.01)
Fiber (g/d) 4.8 (0.30) 6.0 (0.23) 7.5 (0.21) 7.8 (0.14) 9.2 (0.31) 11.0 (0.51)
Total fat (% of kcal) 26.7 (0.85) 29.7 (0.59) 33.0 (0.45) 32.9 (0.27) 36.1 (0.54) 38.8 (0.73)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 11.4 (0.4) 13.1 (0.3) 14.9 (0.2) 13.6 (0.16) 16.8 (0.3) 18.4 (0.4)
Protein (g/kg/d) 3.1 (0.14) 3.6 (0.11) 4.4 (0.10) 4.5 (0.07) 5.2 (0.14) 6.0 (0.22)

NOTES: N = 311. See additional notes following Table J-39.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-33 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 48.0 (1.35) 50.5 (0.97) 53.4 (0.78) 53.5 (0.42) 56.4 (1.02) 59.1 (1.48)
Fiber (g/d) 5.3 (0.73) 6.9 (0.55) 8.9 (0.49) 9.2 (0.33) 11.2 (0.74) 13.6 (1.27)
Total fat (% of kcal) 26.5 (1.32) 29.5 (0.93) 32.9 (0.73) 33.0 (0.49) 36.4 (0.95) 39.5 (1.37)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 11.9 (0.7) 13.3 (0.5) 14.9 (0.4) 13.2 (0.28) 16.5 (0.5) 18.0 (0.8)
Protein (g/kg/d) 3.0 (0.25) 3.6 (0.20) 4.3 (0.17) 4.4 (0.11) 5.1 (0.25) 5.9 (0.38)

NOTES: N = 106. See additional notes following Table J-39.

TABLE J-34 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 45.1 (1.57) 48.3 (1.16) 52.1 (0.96) 52.3 (0.58) 56.0 (1.28) 59.7 (1.88)
Fiber (g/d) 4.4 (0.69) 6.1 (0.53) 8.3 (0.44) 8.5 (0.33) 10.6 (0.62) 12.8 (0.93)
Total fat (% of kcal) 27.1 (1.48) 30.2 (1.03) 33.5 (0.79) 33.4 (0.49) 36.7 (0.96) 39.5 (1.33)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 10.1 (0.69) 11.6 (0.51) 13.4 (0.41) 13.5 (0.27) 15.3 (0.53) 17.0 (0.77)
Protein (g/kg/d) 2.8 (0.23) 3.4 (0.18) 4.0 (0.15) 4.1 (0.10) 4.7 (0.21) 5.4 (0.32)

NOTES: N = 96. See additional notes following Table J-39.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-35 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 42.7 (2.58) 46.0 (1.75) 49.6 (1.30) 49.5 (0.82) 53.1 (1.65) 56.2 (2.35)
Fiber (g/d) 4.6 (1.03) 6.1 (0.83) 8.0 (0.72) 8.2 (0.47) 10.1 (1.07) 12.2 (1.71)
Total fat (% of kcal) 29.7 (1.97) 32.2 (1.40) 34.9 (1.09) 35.0 (0.66) 37.8 (1.48) 40.5 (2.22)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 10.2 (1.11) 11.7 (0.78) 13.4 (0.61) 13.4 (0.39) 15.1 (0.81) 16.7 (1.19)
Protein (g/kg/d) 2.9 (0.38) 3.4 (0.28) 4.0 (0.23) 4.1 (0.15) 4.7 (0.32) 5.3 (0.49)

NOTES: N = 41. See additional notes following Table J-39.

TABLE J-36 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 49.0 (0.70) 51.9 (0.51) 55.3 (0.41) 55.3 (0.23) 58.6 (0.52) 61.7 (0.73)
Fiber (g/d) 6.2 (0.31) 7.8 (0.25) 10.0 (0.24) 10.5 (0.18) 12.6 (0.37) 15.5 (0.65)
Total fat (% of kcal) 26.4 (0.58) 29.0 (0.41) 31.8 (0.33) 31.8 (0.19) 34.6 (0.41) 37.1 (0.57)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 9.7 (0.2) 10.7 (0.2) 12.0 (0.1) 11.7 (0.09) 13.2 (0.2) 14.4 (0.2)
Protein (g/kg/d) 2.3 (0.09) 2.8 (0.07) 3.4 (0.07) 3.5 (0.04) 4.1 (0.09) 4.8 (0.15)

NOTES: N = 474. See additional notes following Table J-39.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-37 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 48.6 (0.76) 51.3 (0.54) 54.3 (0.43) 54.3 (0.23) 57.3 (0.57) 60.2 (0.83)
Fiber (g/d) 5.9 (0.32) 7.5 (0.25) 9.5 (0.23) 9.8 (0.17) 11.8 (0.34) 14.2 (0.57)
Total fat (% of kcal) 27.8 (0.65) 30.1 (0.46) 32.6 (0.36) 32.6 (0.18) 35.1 (0.45) 37.3 (0.62)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 9.0 (0.3) 10.0 (0.2) 11.1 (0.2) 12.1 (0.08) 12.3 (0.2) 13.4 (0.3)
Protein (g/kg/d) 2.3 (0.10) 2.7 (0.07) 3.3 (0.06) 3.4 (0.05) 3.9 (0.10) 4.6 (0.17)

NOTES: N = 397. See additional notes following Table J-39.

TABLE J-38 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 50.4 (0.90) 52.7 (0.64) 55.2 (0.50) 55.1 (0.23) 57.6 (0.62) 59.8 (0.86)
Fiber (g/d) 7.9 (0.46) 9.5 (0.37) 11.7 (0.34) 12.0 (0.21) 14.1 (0.49) 16.6 (0.76)
Total fat (% of kcal) 26.7 (0.75) 29.0 (0.54) 31.6 (0.43) 31.6 (0.24) 34.2 (0.55) 36.6 (0.77)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 8.9 (0.31) 9.8 (0.23) 10.8 (0.19) 10.9 (0.10) 12.0 (0.25) 13.0 (0.36)
Saturated fat (g/d) 11.9 (0.7) 14.5 (0.6) 18.0 (0.5) 18.6 (0.4) 22.0 (0.8) 26.2 (1.2)
Protein (g/kg/d) 2.3 (0.12) 2.8 (0.09) 3.4 (0.08) 3.5 (0.06) 4.0 (0.12) 4.7 (0.21)

NOTES: N = 263. See additional notes following Table J-39.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-39 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Macronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

Nutrient and Reported Units Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Carbohydrates (% of kcal) 51.0 (1.02) 53.2 (0.72) 55.6 (0.57) 55.7 (0.26) 58.2 (0.77) 60.6 (1.18)
Fiber (g/d) 7.7 (0.48) 9.3 (0.38) 11.2 (0.34) 11.4 (0.21) 13.3 (0.48) 15.4 (0.75)
Total fat (% of kcal) 28.1 (0.83) 30.0 (0.57) 32.2 (0.45) 32.2 (0.22) 34.3 (0.59) 36.4 (0.85)
Saturated fat (% of kcal) 9.3 (0.40) 10.3 (0.29) 11.5 (0.24) 11.6 (0.12) 12.7 (0.32) 13.9 (0.48)
Saturated fat (g/d) 14.8 (0.9) 17.2 (0.7) 20.4 (0.7) 21.0 (0.4) 24.2 (1.0) 28.1 (1.6)
Protein (g/kg/d) 2.4 (0.14) 2.8 (0.10) 3.2 (0.09) 3.3 (0.05) 3.8 (0.13) 4.3 (0.19)

NOTES: N = 217. See additional notes following this table.

NOTES for Tables J-19 through J-39: g/d = grams per day; g/kg/d = grams per kilogram per day; kcal = kilocalories; SE = standard error.

SOURCE: USDA/ARS, 2005–2012.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-40 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Pregnant WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean
Calcium (mg/d) 871 (67) 1,043 (51) 1,247 (42) 1,260 (24)
Copper (mg/d) 1.1 (0.06) 1.2 (0.05) 1.4 (0.05) 1.4 (0.02)
Iron (mg/d) 12.6 (0.84) 14.7 (0.70) 17.4 (0.66) 17.9 (0.28)
Magnesium (mg/d) 241 (13.7) 227 (10.8) 312 (9.5) 326 (5.4)
Phosphorus (mg/d) 1,157 (65) 1,321 (49) 1,514 (41) 1,526 (23)
Selenium (µg/d) 97 (5.7) 109 (4.4) 122 (3.8) 123 (1.6)
Zinc (mg/d) 8.5 (0.58) 10.0 (0.46) 11.8 (0.41) 12.0 (0.23)
Potassium (mg/d) 2,176 (133) 2,525 (104) 2,952 (90) 2,997 (52)
Sodium (mg/d) 2,666 (163) 3,072 (124) 3,556 (106) 3,603 (59)
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 480 (41) 577 (32) 700 (30) 729 (17)
Retinol (µg/d) 357 (37) 445 (28) 558 (26) 587 (16)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 4.8 (0.39) 5.9 (0.33) 7.2 (0.37) 7.5 (0.18)
Vitamin C (mg/d) 58 (8.0) 81 (7.3) 116 (7.6) 126 (4.8)
Thiamin (mg/d) 1.3 (0.09) 1.5 (0.07) 1.8 (0.06) 1.8 (0.03)
Riboflavin (mg/d) 1.7 (0.11) 2.0 (0.09) 2.4 (0.07) 2.4 (0.04)
Niacin (mg/d) 17.4 (1.2) 20.6 (0.96) 24.4 (0.83) 24.7 (0.45)
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 1.5 (0.10) 1.8 (0.08) 2.2 (0.07) 2.2 (0.04)
Folate (µg DFE/d) 454 (32.3) 531 (25.8) 631 (24.8) 651 (13.1)
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 3.8 (0.36) 4.7 (0.34) 6.1 (0.38) 6.7 (0.23)
Choline (mg/d) 289 (16) 320 (12) 358 (11) 362.4 (4.7)

NOTES: N = 165. See additional notes following Table J-44.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
75th 90th EAR or AI* (NPNL/P/BF) % Inadeq (SE) UL % > UL (SE)
1,462 (57) 1,665 (84) 800 6.1 (5.5) 2,500 <0.01 (<0.01)
1.6 (0.07) 1.8 (0.13) 0.7/0.8/1.0 0.2 (0.8) 10 0
20.7 (0.99) 24.1 (1.62) 8.1/22.0/6.5 82.0 (8.6) 45 0
370 (13.3) 418 (20.3) 255/290/255 32.2 (6.7) 580 NE
1,743 (58) 1,911 (80) 580 0 4,000 0
137 (5.2) 151 (7.7) 45/49/59 0 400 0
13.8 (0.57) 15.9 (0.87) 6.8/9.5/10.4 19.5 (8.0) 40 0
3,423 (125) 3,877 (189) 4,700/4,700/5,100* NA ND
4,083 (147) 4,599 (225) 1,500* NA 2,300 96.9 (4.0)
847 (46) 1,013 (83) 500/550/900 20.1 (9.0) NA
695 (41) 852 (75) NA NA 3,000 0
8.8 (0.48) 10.5 (0.78) 12/12/2016 95.8 (4.9) 1000 NE
160 (12.3) 210 (21.4) 60/70/100 17.1 (7.1) 2,000 0
2.1 (0.08) 2.3 (0.12) 0.9/1.2/1.2 4.7 (5.9) ND
2.7 (0.11) 3.1 (0.15) 0.9/1.2/1.2 0.4 (1.0) ND
28.5 (1.1) 32.5 (1.7) 11/14/2013 2.2 (3.2) 35 NE
2.6 (0.11) 3.0 (0.17) 1.1/1.6/1.7 12.2 (6.7) 100 0
752 (37.6) 878 (59) 320/520/450 22.4 (8.9) 1,000 NE
8.0 (0.63) 10.4 (1.2) 2.0/2.2/2.4 0.3 (0.8) ND
400 (16) 442 (24) 425/450/550 3,500 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-41 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Pregnant Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean
Calcium (mg/d) 699 (71) 828 (56) 992 (50) 1,016 (28)
Copper (mg/d) 0.91 (0.09) 1.1 (0.06) 1.3 (0.06) 1.3 (0.04)
Iron (mg/d) 11.8 (1.0) 13.7 (0.87) 16.2 (0.84) 16.9 (0.48)
Magnesium (mg/d) 207 (17) 241 (14) 286 (13) 296 (8.3)
Phosphorus (mg/d) 978 (85) 1,139 (68) 1,346 (61) 1,383 (36)
Selenium (µg/d) 82 (8.0) 96 (6.3) 113 (5.6) 115 (3.0)
Zinc (mg/d) 8.1 (0.68) 9.4 (0.57) 11.2 (0.53) 11.5 (0.32)
Potassium (mg/d) 1,877 (159) 2,189 (127) 2,591 (113) 2,664 (71)
Sodium (mg/d) 2,548 (257) 3,016 (199) 3,591 (172) 3,655 (96)
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 433 (57) 535 (47) 673 (45) 721 (29)
Retinol (µg/d) 269 (44) 351 (37) 463 (35) 488 (20)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 4.7 (0.55) 5.8 (0.46) 7.2 (0.43) 7.5 (0.26)
Vitamin C (mg/d) 45 (10.1) 65 (9.3) 95 (9.7) 105 (5.9)
Thiamin (mg/d) 1.2 (0.11) 1.4 (0.09) 1.7 (0.08) 1.7 (0.04)
Riboflavin (mg/d) 1.4 (0.13) 1.7 (0.11) 1.9 (0.09) 2.0 (0.05)
Niacin (mg/d) 16 (1.7) 20 (1.4) 24 (1.3) 24 (0.72)
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 1.3 (0.11) 1.6 (0.09) 1.9 (0.09) 1.9 (0.05)
Folate (µg DFE/d) 454 (32) 531 (26) 631 (25) 651 (13)
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 3.2 (0.41) 3.9 (0.35) 4.9 (0.33) 2.7 (0.17)
Choline (mg/d) 218 (20) 257 (17) 308 (15) 318 (9.1)

NOTES: N = 87. See additional notes following Table J-44.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
75th 90th EAR or AI* (NPNL/P/BF) % Inadeq (SE) UL % > UL (SE)
1,178 (73) 1,366 (116) 800 21.1 (11.3) 2,500 0
1.5 (0.11) 1.9 (0.22) 0.7/0.8/1.0 4.1 (6.0) 10 0
19.3 (1.3) 22.8 (2.3) 8.1/22.0/6.5 87.5 (11.5) 45 0
341 (21) 399 (35) 255/290/255 52.1 (7.3) 350 NE
1,587 (93) 1,837 (151) 580 0 3,500 0
133 (8.1) 152 (12.7) 45/49/59 0.1 (0.5) 400 0
13.0 (0.78) 15.5 (1.4) 6.8/9.5/10.4 26.0 (10.4) 40 0
3,058 (172) 3,588 (284) 4,700/4,700/5,100* NA ND
4,224 (243) 4,845 (373) 1,500* 0.2 (0.7) 2,300 94.8 (7.3)
852 (77) 1,065 (148) 500/550/900 27.6 (11.0) NA
597 (55) 740 (91) NA NA 3,000 0
8.9 (0.67) 10.7 (1.1) 12/12/2016 99.6 (1.3) 1000 NE
134 (16.1) 178 (25.2) 60/70/100 29.2 (10.1) 2,000 0
2.0 (0.13) 2.3 (0.29) 0.9/1.2/1.2 8.3 (0.1) ND
2.4 (0.14) 2.7 (0.23) 0.9/1.2/1.2 2.4 (4.6) ND
28 (1.9) 33 (3.0) 11/14/2013 3.0 (5.6) 35 NE
2.2 (0.14) 2.6 (0.27) 1.1/1.6/1.7 26.8 (10.4) 100 0
752 (37) 878 (59) 320/520/450 29.5 (11.7) 1,000 NE
6.0 (0.51) 7.3 (0.85) 2.0/2.2/2.4 0.89 (2.82) ND
368 (23) 431 (38) 425/450/550 NA 3,500 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-42 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Breastfeeding WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean
Calcium (mg/d) 783 (138) 879 (113) 1,066 (104) 1,106 (61)
Copper (mg/d) 0.89 (0.14) 1.0 (0.11) 1.2 (0.09) 1.2 (0.05)
Iron (mg/d) 11.8 (1.6) 13.3 (1.41) 15.6 (1.3) 16.1 (0.77)
Magnesium (mg/d) 199 (32.4) 231 (26) 274 (23.4) 284 (14.2)
Phosphorus (mg/d) 1,041 (158) 1,200 (126) 1,405 (113) 1,443 (66)
Selenium (µg/d) 83 (9.7) 93 (7.4) 105 (6.3) 105 (3.5)
Zinc (mg/d) 8.0 (1.5) 9.4 (1.1) 11.1 (0.91) 11.2 (0.49)
Potassium (mg/d) 2,045 (364) 2,408 (277) 2,846 (235) 2,885 (130)
Sodium (mg/d) 2,5085 (289) 2,805 (237) 3,191 (222) 3,266 (124)
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 459 (105) 573 (93) 726 (88) 746 (44)
Retinol (µg/d) 297 (78.7) 379 (66) 488 (62) 512 (35)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 4.9 (0.81) 5.8 (0.73) 7.0 (0.76) 7.4 (0.45)
Vitamin C (mg/d) 65 (22.8) 89 (21.1) 124 (22.2) 135 (12.4)
Thiamin (mg/d) 1.2 (0.23) 1.4 (0.18) 1.7 (0.16) 1.7 (0.08)
Riboflavin (mg/d) 1.6 (0.29) 1.9 (0.23) 2.3 (0.21) 2.4 (0.12)
Niacin (mg/d) 15.0 (2.8) 17.7 (2.1) 21.1 (1.9) 21.4 (0.99)
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 1.3 (0.27) 1.6 (0.24) 2.0 (0.23) 2.1 (0.14)
Folate (µg DFE/d) 360 (72) 441 (69) 568 (80) 635 (54)
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 3.3 (0.85) 4.2 (0.75) 5.5 (0.75) 5.8 (0.45)
Choline (mg/d) 289 (32) 320 (23) 355 (18) 355.6 (10.1)

NOTES: N = 27. See additional notes following Table J-44.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
75th 90th EAR or AI* (NPNL/P/BF) % Inadeq (SE) UL % > UL (SE)
1,289 (162) 1,527 (273) 800 15.8 (19.9) 2,500 0
1.4 (0.14) 1.6 (0.22) 0.7/0.8/1.0 21.8 (19.9) 10 0
18.4 (2.0) 21.4 (3.4) 8.1/22.0/6.5 0 45 0
326 (37.9) 381 (66) 255/290/255 38.7 (15.4) 350 NE
1,645 (172) 1,894 (285) 580 0 3,500 0
117 (8.7) 130 (13.2) 45/49/59 0.1 (0.9) 400 0
12.9 (1.2) 14.5 (1.7) 6.8/9.5/10.4 38.5 (15.9) 40 0
3,319 (325) 3,775 (492) 4,700/4,700/5,100* NA ND
3,644 (330) 4,120 (534) 1,500* NA 2,300 96.1 (11.5)
900 (121) 1,064 (166) 500/550/900 75.0 (19.7) NA
619 (95) 758 (156) NA NA 3,000 0
8.7 (1.2) 10.5 (2.2) 12/12/2016 99.4 (3.4) 1000 NE
170 (35.5) 221 (61) 60/70/100 32.8 (18.5) 2,000 0
2.0 (0.22) 2.3 (0.33) 0.9/1.2/1.2 9.8 (17.7) ND
2.8 (0.32) 3.3 (0.53) 0.9/1.2/1.2 1.4 (6.0) ND
24.7 (2.5) 28.2 (3.8) 11/14/2013 4.1 (11.7) 35 NE
2.5 (0.38) 3.1 (0.67) 1.1/1.6/1.7 29.7 (18.3) 100 0
753 (149) 990 (294) 320/520/450 26.8 (19.4) 1,000 NE
7.1 (1.21) 8.9 (2.11) 2.0/2.2/2.4 2.0 (7.6) ND
391 (24) 423 (34) 425/450/550 NA 3,500 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-43 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Postpartum WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2007–2012

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean
Calcium (mg/d) 496 (82) 624 (68) 789 (69) 816 (34)
Copper (mg/d) 0.52 (0.08) 0.65 (0.06) 0.82 (0.06) 0.84 (0.03)
Iron (mg/d) 7.6 (1.3) 9.7 (1.1) 12.6 (1.1) 13.5 (0.68)
Magnesium (mg/d) 139 (20.6) 172 (16.4) 213 (14.6) 218 (8.3)
Phosphorus (mg/d) 756 (103) 914 (80) 1,106 (69) 1,123 (37)
Selenium (µg/d) 59 (7.9) 71 (6.1) 85 (5.2) 86 (2.8)
Zinc (mg/d) 5.1 (0.84) 6.4 (0.70) 8.2 (0.65) 8.5 (0.37)
Potassium (mg/d) 1,252 (184) 1,541 (145) 1,898 (128) 1,940 (71)
Sodium (mg/d) 2,033 (218) 2,370 (174) 2,793 (157) 2,855 (87)
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 184 (48) 266 (44) 386 (46) 426 (28)
Retinol (µg/d) 139 (37) 203 (34) 298 (35) 326 (21)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 3.1 (0.56) 4.0 (0.46) 5.2 (0.42) 5.4 (0.23)
Vitamin C (mg/d) 30 (9.3) 47 (9.7) 74 (11.2) 85 (6.6)
Thiamin (mg/d) 0.76 (0.12) 0.95 (0.10) 1.2 (0.09) 1.2 (0.05)
Riboflavin (mg/d) 0.88 (0.16) 1.1 (0.13) 1.4 (0.12) 1.5 (0.07)
Niacin (mg/d) 12.0 (1.7) 14.7 (1.3) 18.0 (1.1) 18.3 (0.64)
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 0.94 (0.14) 1.2 (0.11) 1.46 (0.10) 1.49 (0.06)
Folate (µg DFE/d) 225 (43) 292 (35) 382 (34) 409 (21)
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 1.7 (0.45) 2.5 (0.43) 3.8 (0.48) 4.3 (0.32)
Choline (mg/d) 147 (25) 187 (21) 238 (19) 246.7 (10.6)

NOTES: N = 62. See additional notes following Table J-44.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
75th 90th EAR or AI* (NPNL/P/BF) % Inadeq (SE) UL % > UL (SE)
979 (92) 1174 (145) 800 51.7 (9.7) 2,500 0
1.0 (0.08) 1.2 (0.14) 0.7/0.8/1.0 32.4 (11.0) 10 0
16.4 (1.8) 20.6 (3.1) 8.1/22.0/6.5 13.3 (11.9) 45 <0.1 (0.04)
259 (20.8) 305 (32.2) 255/290/255 77.6 (12.6) 350 NE
1,313 (94) 1,512 (140) 580 2.2 (5.2) 3,500 0
101 (6.9) 116 (10.3) 45/49/59 2.1 (5.1) 400 0
10.3 (0.96) 12.4 (1.5) 6.8/9.5/10.4 30.2 (11.5) 40 0
2,293 (179) 2,682 (273) 4,700/4,700/5,100* NA ND
3,274 (226) 3,757 (351) 1,500* NA 2,300 78.7 (13.3)
543 (76) 719 (132) 500/550/900 69.4 (11.7)
418 (57) 553 (99) NA NA 3,000 0
6.5 (0.60) 7.8 (0.93) 12/12/2016 99.8 (0.9) 1000 NE
112 (19.1) 156 (32.6) 60/70/100 37.5 (10.7) 2,000 0
1.5 (0.13) 1.8 (0.22) 0.9/1.2/1.2 20.3 (12.5) ND
1.8 (0.18) 2.3 (0.29) 0.9/1.2/1.2 10.8 (11.4) ND
21.6 (1.6) 25.0 (2.4) 11/14/2013 6.3 (9.4) 35 NE
1.71 (0.14) 2.1 (0.23) 1.1/1.6/1.7 19.7 (12.7) 100 0
495 (56) 627 (105) 320/520/450 32.6 (11.6) 1,000 NE
5.5 (0.86) 7.6 (1.6) 2.0/2.2/2.4 14.3 (12.3) ND
297 (28) 358 (45) 425/450/550 NA 3,500 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-44 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Nonpregnant, Postpartum, or Breastfeeding Non-WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean
Calcium (mg/d) 498 (12) 633 (10) 812 (10) 852 (6)
Copper (mg/d) 0.70 (0.01) 0.85 (0.01) 1.0 (0.01) 1.1 (0.01)
Iron (mg/d) 8.1 (0.16) 9.9 (0.13) 12.3 (0.13) 12.8 (0.08)
Magnesium (mg/d) 158 (3.0) 195 (2.5) 243 (2.4) 253 (1.6)
Phosphorus (mg/d) 766 (14) 926 (11) 1,127 (11) 1,163 (6.5)
Selenium (µg/d) 63 (1.3) 76 (1.0) 92 (0.95) 94 (0.51)
Zinc (mg/d) 6.4 (0.13) 7.7 (0.11) 9.3 (0.10) 9.7 (0.05)
Potassium (mg/d) 1,431 (25) 1,758 (23) 2,178 (22) 2,248 (13)
Sodium (mg/d) 1,947 (39) 2,379 (31) 2,918 (28) 3,013 (18)
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 246 (7.7) 332 (7.1) 461 (8.1) 531 (5.8)
Retinol (µg/d) 111 (58) 167 (55) 251 (59) 281 (35)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 3.7 (0.09) 4.7 (0.08) 6.0 (0.08) 6.5 (0.05)
Vitamin C (mg/d) 28 (1.2) 42 (1.2) 66 (1.5) 78 (0.97)
Thiamin (mg/d) 0.88 (0.02) 1.0 (0.01) 1.3 (0.01) 1.3 (0.01)
Riboflavin (mg/d) 1.1 (0.02) 1.3 (0.02) 1.7 (0.02) 1.7 (0.01)
Niacin (mg/d) 13 (0.28) 16 (0.23) 20 (0.21) 21 (0.12)
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 1.0 (0.02) 1.2 (0.02) 1.6 (0.02) 1.7 (0.01)
Folate (µg DFE/d) 273 (6.4) 341 (5.5) 433 (5.6) 459 (3.2)
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 2.5 (0.07) 3.1 (0.06) 3.9 (0.06) 4.2 (0.03)
Choline (mg/d) 173 (3.7) 210 (3.0) 259 (2.8) 268 (1.6)

NOTES: N = 2,611. See additional notes following this table.

NOTES for Tables J-40 through J-44: * = an AI value; — = not applicable due to no recommendation; % Inadeq = percentage of individuals with usual intake below the EAR; αTOC = α-tocopherol; AI = Adequate Intake; EAR = Estimated Average Requirement; NA = not applicable; ND = not determined; NE = not evaluated; NPNL/P/BF = nonpregnant, nonbreastfeeding/pregnant/breastfeeding; RAE = retinol activity equivalents; SE = standard error; UL = Tolerable Upper Limit. The ULs for folate, vitamin E, niacin, and magnesium represent intake from pharmacological agents only and do not include food intake. Vitamin D is not included because intake is a poor reflection of status. For percent inadequate calculations, the approach of IOM (2000b) was applied in which, when combining groups with different EARs, intakes in one of the groups are rescaled so they can be compared to the EAR of the other group. One value indicates that the EAR is the same across groups.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
75th 90th EAR or AI* (NPNL/P/BF) % Inadeq (SE) UL % > UL (SE)
1,028 (15) 1,258 (24) 800 48.3 (1.3) 2,500 0
1.2 (0.01) 1.6 (0.03) 0.7/0.8/1.0 10.2 (1.5) 10 0
15.2 (0.20) 18.3 (0.34) 8.1/22.0/6.5 10.1 (1.6) 45 0
300 (3.6) 362 (6.0) 255/290/255 61.0 (1.3) 350 NE
1,362 (16) 1,606 (25) 580 0 3,500 0
110 (1.3) 129 (2.1) 45/49/59 1.1 (0.5) 400 0
11.4 (0.15) 13.5 (0.25) 6.8/9.5/10.4 14.4 (2.1) 40 0
2,660 (31) 3,153 (49) 4,700/4,700/5,100* NA ND
3,536 (41) 4,189 (69) 1,500* 2.4 (0.7) 2,300 78.3 (1.7)
650 (15.0) 897 (29.6) 500/550/900 56.4 (1.5) NA
363 (99) 492 (178) NA NA 3,000 0
7.8 (0.13) 9.8 (0.24) 12/12/2016 96.4 (1.1) 1000 NE
101 (2.6) 144 (4.8) 60/70/100 43.7 (1.4) 2,000 0
1.6 (0.02) 1.9 (0.03) 0.9/1.2/1.2 11.4 (1.8) ND
2.1 (0.03) 2.6 (0.05) 0.9/1.2/1.2 4.3 (1.0) ND
24 (0.31) 29 (0.53) 11/14/2013 2.9 (1.0) 35 NE
2.0 (0.03) 2.4 (0.05) 1.1/1.6/1.7 13.6 (2.1) 100 0
548 (8.6) 676 (14.8) 320/520/450 19.8 (2.1) 1,000 NE
4.9 (0.10) 6.2 (0.19) 2.0/2.2/2.4 3.2 (1.5) ND
316 (4.2) 376 (6.7) 425/450/550 NA 3,500 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-45 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for WIC-Participating Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 6 Months, NHANES 2005–2008

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE) AI UL % > UL (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Calcium (mg/d) 433 (24) 515 (17) 610 (15) 625 (11) 718 (22) 834 (38) 200 1,000 2.2 (1.8)
Copper (mg/d) 0.5 (0.02) 0.6 (0.02) 0.7 (0.01) 0.7 (0.01) 0.8 (0.02) 0.9 (0.04) 0.2 ND
Iron (mg/d) 9.5 (0.58) 11.4 (0.38) 13.9 (0.44) 15.5 (0.45) 18.2 (0.94) 23.8 (1.83) 0.27 40 <0.01
Magnesium (mg/d) 44 (2.7) 55 (2.1) 70 (2.3) 77 (2.2) 93 (4.5) 121 (8.2) 30 ND
Phosphorus (mg/d) 241 (15) 297 (11) 367 (11) 388 (9) 461 (18) 567 (31) 100 ND
Selenium (µg/d) 12 (0.6) 14 (0.5) 17 (0.5) 18 (0.4) 21 (0.7) 25 (1.2) 15 45 <0.01
Zinc (mg/d) 4.2 (0.26) 5.1 (0.17) 6.0 (0.14) 6.2 (0.12) 7.1 (0.22) 8.3 (0.39) 2 4 92.2 (3.5)
Potassium (mg/d) 540 (30) 649 (21) 787 (20) 821 (17) 967 (34) 1,160 (54) 400 ND
Sodium (mg/d) 155 (8) 184 (6) 221 (6) 236 (6) 270 (11) 333 (22) 120 ND
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 461 (24.4) 532 (16.8) 614 (14.3) 625 (9.7) 705 (21.5) 802 (36.8) 400 NA
Retinol (µg/d) 426 (19) 483 (13) 558 (13) 573 (9) 650 (20) 748 (33) NA 600 39.2 (2.9)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 5.7 (0.29) 6.7 (0.18) 7.8 (0.19) 8.2 (0.16) 9.4 (0.34) 11.3 (0.56) 4 ND
Vitamin C (mg/d) 52 (3.3) 64 (2.3) 79 (2.2) 83 (2.0) 98 (3.8) 120 (6.9) 40 ND
Thiamin (mg/d) 0.5 (0.03) 0.6 (0.02) 0.7 (0.03) 0.8 (0.03) 1.0 (0.05) 1.3 (0.10) 0.2 ND
Riboflavin (mg/d) 0.7 (0.05) 0.9 (0.03) 1.1 (0.03) 1.1 (0.03) 1.3 (0.05) 1.6 (0.09) 0.3 ND
Niacin (mg/d) 5.7 (0.37) 7.0 (0.25) 8.7 (0.28) 9.8 (0.30) 11.5 (0.61) 15.3 (1.19) 2 ND
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 0.3 (0.02) 0.4 (0.01) 0.5 (0.01) 0.5 (0.01) 0.6 (0.02) 0.7 (0.04) 0.1 ND
Folate (µg DFE/d) 129.9 (6.3) 150.2 (4.1) 174.5 (3.9) 179.9 (3.1) 205.6 (6.5) 239.0 (10.4) 65 ND
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 1.3 (0.08) 1.5 (0.05) 1.8 (0.04) 1.9 (0.03) 2.1 (0.06) 2.5 (0.11) 0.4 ND
Choline (mg/d) 65 (3.5) 76 (2.2) 90 (2.5) 97 (2.2) 113 (5.0) 140 (8.9) 125 ND

NOTES: N = 204. See additional notes following Table J-60.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-46 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 6 Months, NHANES 2005–2008

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE) AI UL % > UL (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Calcium (mg/d) 382 (51) 449 (43) 546 (41) 582 (41) 675 (76) 829 (146) 200 1,000 3.4 (5.8)
Copper (mg/d) 0.5 (0.04) 0.5 (0.04) 0.6 (0.04) 0.6 (0.03) 0.7 (0.07) 0.8 (0.12) 0.2 ND
Iron (mg/d) 9.3 (1.28) 10.9 (1.12) 13.2 (1.16) 14.1 (1.02) 16.4 (2.11) 20.2 (4.06) 0.27 40 <0.01
Magnesium (mg/d) 38 (5.7) 46 (5.2) 59 (5.7) 68 (7.0) 80 (12.3) 107 (27.2) 30 ND
Phosphorus (mg/d) 217 (29) 257 (27) 323 (29) 365 (35) 426 (63) 565 (136) 100 ND
Selenium (µg/d) 12 (1.3) 14 (1.0) 16 (0.8) 16 (0.6) 18 (1.1) 19 (1.7) 15 45 <0.01
Zinc (mg/d) 4.1 (0.44) 4.7 (0.35) 5.4 (0.32) 5.5 (0.26) 6.2 (0.51) 7.1 (0.88) 2 4 92.8 (10.0)
Potassium (mg/d) 510 (65) 593 (54) 713 (52) 754 (46) 874 (95) 1,062 (181) 400 ND
Sodium (mg/d) 156 (13) 171 (10) 196 (15) 215 (13) 251 (33) 309 (51) 120 ND
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 415 (40.0) 466 (36.4) 545 (39.2) 584 (36.9) 660 (75.3) 804 (148.7) 400 NA
Retinol (µg/d) 387 (69.3) 461 (42.5) 536 (32.4) 552 (32.1) 623 (55.8) 735 (116.0) NA 600 30.4 (9.8)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 4.8 (0.83) 5.9 (0.71) 7.6 (0.69) 8.2 (0.72) 9.8 (1.30) 12.5 (2.57) 4 ND
Vitamin C (mg/d) 58 (9.7) 67 (8.1) 79 (7.9) 82 (4.8) 94 (12.6) 111 (21.7) 40 ND
Thiamin (mg/d) 0.4 (0.07) 0.5 (0.06) 0.7 (0.07) 0.7 (0.07) 0.9 (0.13) 1.1 (0.26) 0.2 ND
Riboflavin (mg/d) 0.7 (0.07) 0.8 (0.06) 0.9 (0.05) 1.0 (0.04) 1.1 (0.08) 1.2 (0.14) 0.3 ND
Niacin (mg/d) 4.8 (0.78) 5.9 (0.74) 7.7 (0.84) 9.0 (1.03) 10.6 (1.83) 14.7 (4.11) 2 ND
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 0.3 (0.04) 0.4 (0.03) 0.4 (0.03) 0.5 (0.03) 0.5 (0.06) 0.6 (0.12) 0.1 ND
Folate (µg DFE/d) 112.6 (21.2) 135.9 (13.2) 159.8 (10.2) 165.5 (10.42) 188.3 (17.8) 225.0 (37.3) 65 ND
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 1.1 (0.18) 1.3 (0.15) 1.7 (0.15) 1.8 (0.14) 2.1 (0.27) 2.6 (0.51) 0.4 ND
Choline (mg/d) 68 (6.5) 74 (5.5) 83 (5.6) 86 (3.4) 94 (9.2) 106 (15.9) 125 ND

NOTES: N = 21. See additional notes following Table J-60.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-47 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for WIC-Participating Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 6 Months, NHANES 2011–2012

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE) AI UL % > UL (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Calcium (mg/d) 429 (29) 513 (26) 637 (26) 689.7 (26.3) 808 (49) 1,016 (94) 200 1,000 10.8 (4.9)
Copper (mg/d) 0.44 (0.03) 0.51 (0.02) 0.61 (0.02) 0.62 (0.02) 0.71 (0.03) 0.81 (0.04) 0.2 ND
Iron (mg/d) 8.8 (0.67) 10.7 (0.57) 13.4 (0.58) 14.8 (0.6) 17.2 (1.1) 22.3 (2.4) 0.27 40 0.6 (0.9)
Magnesium (mg/d) 46 (3.3) 56 (2.9) 70 (3.3) 77.5 (3.1) 93 (6.6) 120 (11.4) 30 ND
Phosphorus (mg/d) 220 (18) 265 (16) 355 (18) 401.0 (19.6) 477 (35) 635 (74) 100 ND
Selenium (µg/d) 11 (0.75) 13 (0.63) 16 (0.6) 16.9 (0.6) 20 (1.0) 24 (1.8) 15 45 0.07 (0.2)
Zinc (mg/d) 3.8 (0.26) 4.6 (0.21) 5.5 (0.19) 5.7 (0.2) 6.6 (0.3) 7.8 (0.51) 2 4 87.6 (5.1)
Potassium (mg/d) 541 (36) 638 (30) 769 (28) 805.6 (24.5) 934 (47) 1,116 (82) 400 ND
Sodium (mg/d) 148 (12) 180 (10.2) 223 (9.9) 236.6 (8.3) 279 (16.4) 342 (29) 120 ND
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 433 (31) 510 (22) 601 (19) 620.0 (16.9) 708 (30) 828 (55) 400 NA
Retinol (µg/d) 402 (27) 473 (21) 562 (18) 575 (15) 663 (26) 765 (42) NA 600 50.3 (5.3)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 5.2 (0.33) 6.1 (0.67) 7.3 (0.24) 7.5 (0.2) 8.7 (0.37) 10.1 (0.61) 4 ND
Vitamin C (mg/d) 50 (3.3) 59 (2.8) 71 (2.8) 75.4 (2.5) 88 (4.8) 107 (8.7) 40 ND
Thiamin (mg/d) 0.42 (0.04) 0.52 (0.03) 0.66 (0.03) 0.74 (0.04) 0.86 (0.06) 1.1 (0.13) 0.2 ND
Riboflavin (mg/d) 0.65 (0.05) 0.8 (0.04) 0.99 (0.04) 1.06 (0.04) 1.28 (0.08) 1.5 (0.15) 0.3 ND
Niacin (mg/d) 5.2 (0.39) 6.3 (0.31) 7.9 (0.38) 9.1 (0.4) 10.8 (0.87) 14.5 (1.7) 2 ND
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 0.31 (0.02) 0.36 (0.02) 0.44 (0.02) 0.47 (0.02) 0.55 (0.03) 0.67 (0.05) 0.1 ND
Folate (µg DFE/d) 123 (7.6) 143 (5.9) 168 (5.1) 171.5 (4.1) 196 (7.5) 224 (12.1) 65 ND
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 1.2 (0.09) 1.5 (0.07) 1.8 (0.07) 1.9 (0.1) 2.2 (0.11) 2.7 (0.19) 0.4 ND
Choline (mg/d) 64 (5.3) 79 (4.6) 101 (4.6) 109.3 (4.5) 130 (8.2) 165 (15.5) 125 ND

NOTES: N = 93. See additional notes following Table J-60.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-48 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Infants Ages 0 to Less Than 6 Months, NHANES 2011–2012

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE) AI UL % > UL (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Calcium (mg/d) 512 (43) 553 (36) 605 (34) 632 (28) 690 (64) 781 (119) 200 1,000 0.8 (3.4)
Copper (mg/d) 0.49 (0.09) 0.56 (0.06) 0.65 (0.04) 0.66 (0.03) 0.74 (0.06) 0.83 (0.1) 0.2 ND
Iron (mg/d) 9.9 (1.3) 11.1 (0.99) 12.6 (0.82) 12.8 (0.62) 14.3 (1.3) 16 (2.1) 0.27 40 0.11 (0.21)
Magnesium (mg/d) 64 (7.7) 71 (5.4) 78 (4.1) 79 (3.0) 87 (5.9) 94 (9.2) 30 ND
Phosphorus (mg/d) 252 (29) 279 (22) 313 (16) 322 (19) 342 (29) 399 (81) 100 ND
Selenium (µg/d) 13 (1.2) 14 (0.96) 16 (0.89) 16 (0.72) 18 (1.6) 20 (2.9) 15 45 0.03 (0.08)
Zinc (mg/d) 4.7 (0.5) 5.2 (0.42) 5.9 (0.42) 6.1 (0.36) 6.8 (0.78) 8 (1.5) 2 4 99.3 (3.0)
Potassium (mg/d) 632 (108) 726 (74) 833 (55) 836 (41) 943 (77) 1,043 (118) 400 ND
Sodium (mg/d) 193 (25) 213 (16) 234 (11) 232 (7.9) 254 (14) 271 (21) 120 ND
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 497 (65) 555 (51) 633 (44) 651 (34) 728 (74) 830 (130) 400 NA
Retinol (µg/d) 460 (62) 519 (52) 606 (51) 640 (14) 725 (95) 865 (184) NA 600 ND
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 5.6 (1.5) 7.0 (1.1) 8.8 (0.94) 9.0 (0.73) 10.8 (1.5) 12.8 (2.5) 4 ND
Vitamin C (mg/d) 66 (5.8) 72 (5.3) 21 (5.6) 85 (4.9) 94 (11) 110 (22) 40 ND
Thiamin (mg/d) 0.48 (0.11) 0.58 (0.09) 0.71 (0.07) 0.73 (0.05) 0.86 (0.1) 1.0 (0.17) 0.2 ND
Riboflavin (mg/d) 0.67 (0.21) 0.85 (0.13) 1.0 (0.08) 1.0 (0.06) 1.2 (0.1) 1.3 (0.13) 0.3 ND
Niacin (mg/d) 5.7 (1.2) 6.7 (0.85) 8.0 (0.66) 8.1 (0.51) 9.4 (1.0) 10.7 (1.6) 2 ND
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 0.37 (0.07) 0.43 (0.05) 0.5 (0.04) 0.51 (0.03) 0.58 (0.05) 0.66 (0.09) 0.1 ND
Folate (µg DFE/d) 144 (19) 162 (15) 186 (13) 192 (11) 216 (23) 249 (41) 65 ND
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 1.3 (0.16) 1.5 (0.13) 1.7 (0.13) 1.7 (0.1) 1.9 (0.23) 2.3 (0.44) 0.4 ND
Choline (mg/d) 87 (6.8) 94 (6.1) 104 (4.6) 105 (4.3) 112 (7.4) 129 (23) 125 ND

NOTES: N = 15. See additional notes following Table J-60.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-49 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for WIC-Participating Infants Ages 6 to Less Than 12 Months, NHANES 2005–2008

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean
Calcium (mg/d) 496 (25) 593 (19) 719 (19) 752 (14)
Copper (mg/d) 0.5 (0.02) 0.6 (0.02) 0.7 (0.01) 0.8 (0.01)
Iron (mg/d) 9.2 (0.69) 12 (0.54) 15.7 (0.49) 16.5 (0.40)
Magnesium (mg/d) 75 (3.9) 92 (3.3) 116 (3.1) 122 (2.6)
Phosphorus (mg/d) 354 (20) 442 (17) 573 (18) 618 (15)
Selenium (µg/d) 19 (1.2) 24 (1.1) 32 (1.2) 35 (1.0)
Zinc (mg/d) 4.7 (0.27) 5.7 (0.20) 7.0 (0.18) 7.3 (0.15)
Potassium (mg/d) 862 (42) 1,041 (34) 1,278 (32) 1,353 (29)
Sodium (mg/d) 259 (21) 378 (26) 611 (35) 780 (36)
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 438 (25.6) 538 (20.1) 661 (17.7) 676 (12.3)
Retinol (µg/d) 340 (20) 420 (16) 516 (13) 524 (9)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 4.4 (0.39) 6.1 (0.31) 8.0 (0.23) 8.0 (0.18)
Vitamin C (mg/d) 72 (5.1) 90 (3.9) 112 (3.6) 119 (2.7)
Thiamin (mg/d) 0.6 (0.04) 0.8 (0.03) 1.0 (0.03) 1.0 (0.02)
Riboflavin (mg/d) 1.0 (0.05) 1.2 (0.04) 1.4 (0.04) 1.5 (0.03)
Niacin (mg/d) 7.1 (0.47) 9.1 (0.39) 11.8 (0.36) 12.3 (0.28)
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 0.5 (0.03) 0.6 (0.02) 0.8 (0.02) 0.8 (0.02)
Folate (µg DFE/d) 149 (7.84) 180 (6.08) 223 (6.26) 239 (5.29)
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 1.4 (0.09) 1.8 (0.07) 2.4 (0.08) 2.6 (0.07)
Choline (mg/d) 89 (5.1) 110 (4.2) 140 (4.3) 149 (3.3)

NOTES: N = 252. See additional notes following Table J-60.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
75th 90th EAR or AI* % Inadeq (SE) UL % > UL (SE)
883 (31) 1,058 (49) 260* NA 1,500 0.4 (0.44)
0.9 (0.02) 1 (0.04) 0.22* NA ND
20 (0.77) 24.8 (1.35) 6.9 5 (2) 40 0.4 (0.40)
145 (4.8) 176 (8.2) 75* NA ND
755 (32) 955 (50) 275* NA ND
44 (2.1) 57 (3.4) 20* NA 60 7.6 (2.86)
8.5 (0.28) 10.3 (0.52) 2.5 0.3 (0.4) 5 86.1 (3.86)
1,577 (53) 1,930 (101) 700* NA ND
1,000 (73) 1,520 (143) 370* NA ND
798 (25.1) 934 (38.7) 500* NA NA
620 (18) 720 (27) NA NA 600 29.2 (4.15)
9.8 (0.29) 11.6 (0.50) 5* NA ND
140 (6.0) 174 (11.7) 50* NA ND
1.2 (0.04) 1.5 (0.08) 0.3* NA ND
1.7 (0.06) 2.1 (0.10) 0.4* NA ND
14.9 (0.54) 18.1 (0.89) 4* NA ND
1.0 (0.04) 1.2 (0.08) 0.3* NA ND
281 (11.1) 349 (20.1) 80 0.25 (0.31) ND
3.2 (0.15) 4.1 (0.25) 0.5* NA ND
179 (7.2) 221 (11.6) 150* NA ND
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-50 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Infants Ages 6 to Less Than 12 Months, NHANES 2005–2008

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean
Calcium (mg/d) 400 (69) 528 (64) 734 (70) 858 (83)
Copper (mg/d) 0.5 (0.05) 0.5 (0.04) 0.6 (0.03) 0.6 (0.02)
Iron (mg/d) 7.2 (1.54) 9.8 (1.28) 13.4 (1.17) 14.1 (1.00)
Magnesium (mg/d) 74 (9.7) 91 (8.4) 115 (8.2) 124 (7.9)
Phosphorus (mg/d) 334 (51) 429 (49) 586 (55) 690 (67)
Selenium (µg/d) 18 (2.59) 22 (2.44) 29 (2.73) 34 (2.94)
Zinc (mg/d) 4.9 (0.47) 5.6 (0.37) 6.4 (0.32) 6.5 (0.22)
Potassium (mg/d) 796 (121) 1,007 (102) 1,301 (96) 1,389 (90)
Sodium (mg/d) 236 (56) 345 (57) 531 (66) 667 (85)
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 515 (70.0) 620 (54.3) 749 (46.6) 764 (34.3)
Retinol (µg/d) 329 (61.2) 426 (44.8) 539 (35.5) 544 (28.6)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 2.9 (0.61) 4.0 (0.53) 5.5 (0.51) 5.9 (0.44)
Vitamin C (mg/d) 35 (12.5) 56 (10.9) 85 (10.4) 92 (8.1)
Thiamin (mg/d) 0.6 (0.08) 0.7 (0.07) 0.9 (0.06) 0.9 (0.05)
Riboflavin (mg/d) 0.9 (0.14) 1.1 (0.13) 1.5 (0.13) 1.7 (0.13)
Niacin (mg/d) 6.9 (0.82) 8.0 (0.69) 9.5 (0.67) 9.9 (0.44)
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 0.5 (0.06) 0.6 (0.04) 0.7 (0.04) 0.7 (0.03)
Folate (µg DFE/d) 136 (19.0) 158 (15.4) 184 (14.0) 189 (7.44)
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 1.2 (0.24) 1.7 (0.24) 2.4 (0.28) 3.1 (0.38)
Choline (mg/d) 86 (11.4) 106 (10.4) 136 (11.1) 151 (11.0)

NOTES: N = 35. See additional notes following Table J-60.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
75th 90th EAR or AI* % Inadeq (SE) UL % > UL (SE)
1,046 (144) 1,461 (311) 260* NA 1,500 9.2 (6.93)
0.7 (0.04) 0.8 (0.06) 0.22* NA ND
17.6 (1.86) 22.1 (3.15) 6.9 7 (6) 40 0.1 (0.31)
147 (14.6) 184 (27.6) 75* NA ND
831 (117) 1,168 (259) 275* NA ND
41 (5.47) 55 (11.53) 20* NA 60 7.5 (7.25)
7.3 (0.46) 8.2 (0.72) 2.5 0 5 88.5 (11.45)
1,674 (164) 2,094 (298) 700* NA ND
830 (144) 1,249 (325) 370* NA ND
892 (66.7) 1,032 (104.1) 500* NA NA
656 (48.7) 765 (73.1) NA NA 600 36.1 (8.90)
7.3 (0.84) 9.4 (1.48) 5* NA ND
120 (16.3) 156 (27.2) 50* NA ND
1.1 (0.10) 1.3 (0.18) 0.3* NA ND
2.0 (0.25) 2.7 (0.49) 0.4* NA ND
11.3 (1.06) 13.4 (1.81) 4* NA ND
0.9 (0.06) 1.0 (0.09) 0.3* NA ND
215 (20.4) 247 (32.5) 80 0.01 (0.13) ND
3.7 (0.63) 5.6 (1.47) 0.5* NA ND
179 (20.9) 233 (41.7) 150* NA ND
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-51 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for WIC-Participating Infants Ages 6 to Less Than 12 Months, NHANES 2011–2012

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean
Calcium (mg/d) 524 (42) 630 (34) 766 (31) 788.6 (22.4)
Copper (mg/d) 0.54 (0.04) 0.62 (0.03) 0.72 (0.02) 0.73 (0.02)
Iron (mg/d) 9.1 (1.2) 12.3 (0.95) 16.4 (0.86) 17.6 (0.8)
Magnesium (mg/d) 84 (6.9) 101 (5.7) 123 (5.2) 126.9 (3.6)
Phosphorus (mg/d) 345 (33) 436 (28) 561 (27) 595.3 (22.4)
Selenium (µg/d) 17 (1.7) 22 (1.6) 30 (1.7) 32.9 (1.5)
Zinc (mg/d) 4.6 (0.37) 5.5 (0.30) 6.6 (0.27) 6.8 (0.2)
Potassium (mg/d) 859 (61) 1,015 (52) 1,224 (49) 1,276 (37)
Sodium (mg/d) 269 (35) 374 (35) 547 (41) 656.3 (43.0)
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 426 (38) 527 (32) 664 (21) 698.3 (24.1)
Retinol (µg/d) 351 (30) 425 (23) 515 (20) 524 (14)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 4.9 (0.55) 6.3 (0.42) 7.9 (0.36) 8.1 (0.3)
Vitamin C (mg/d) 66 (6.4) 81 (5.1) 100 (4.6) 102.4 (3.0)
Thiamin (mg/d) 0.63 (0.06) 0.79 (0.05) 1.0 (0.05) 1.07 (0.04)
Riboflavin (mg/d) 0.95 (0.08) 1.1 (0.06) 1.4 (0.06) 1.50 (0.05)
Niacin (mg/d) 7.1 (0.84) 9.3 (0.71) 12.3 (0.66) 12.9 (0.5)
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 0.5 (0.04) 0.6 (0.04) 0.75 (0.04) 0.81 (0.03)
Folate (µg DFE/d) 156 (14) 187 (11) 227 (10) 237.2 (7.5)
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 1.3 (0.12) 1.7 (0.11) 2.1 (0.11) 2.30 (0.09)
Choline (mg/d) 85 (7.2) 104 (6.2) 130 (6.1) 137.5 (4.8)

NOTES: N = 98. See additional notes following Table J-60.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
75th 90th EAR or AI* % Inadeq (SE) UL % > UL (SE)
922 (45) 1,083 (72) 260* NA 1,500 0.5 (0.9)
0.83 (0.03) 0.92 (0.04) 0.22* NA ND
21.5 (1.4) 27.6 (2.7) 6.9 4.2 (3.4) 40 1.5 (1.7)
148 (7.7) 175 (12.3) 75* NA ND
717 (43) 889 (75) 275* NA ND
40 (3.0) 52 (5.7) 20* NA 60 5.4 (4.1)
7.9 (0.39) 9.2 (0.62) 2.5 0.08 (0.2) 5 84.5 (7.4)
1,480 (77) 1,758 (132) 700* NA ND
812 (82) 1,168 (174) 370* NA ND
832 (49) 1,014 (83) 500* NA NA
614 (28) 710 (43) NA NA 600 28.1 (6.0)
9.7 (0.49) 11.4 (0.75) 5* NA ND
121 (6.5) 172 (11.1) 50* NA ND
1.3 (0.08) 1.6 (0.13) 0.3* NA ND
1.7 (0.1) 2.1 (0.16) 0.4* NA ND
15.9 (1.0) 19.6 (1.6) 4* NA ND
0.95 (0.07) 1.2 (0.12) 0.3* NA ND
275 (16) 331 (30.2) 80* NA ND
2.7 (0.17) 3.4 (0.31) 0.5* NA ND
162 (9.9) 199 (17.5) 150* NA ND
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-52 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Infants Ages 6 to Less Than 12 Months, NHANES 2011–2012

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean
Calcium (mg/d) 620 (97) 708 (83) 833 (82) 875 (59)
Copper (mg/d) 0.49 (0.07) 0.56 (0.05) 0.63 (0.04) 0.64 (0.03)
Iron (mg/d) 8.6 (2.6) 10.5 (1.9) 13.6 (1.6) 13.9 (1.1)
Magnesium (mg/d) 87 (17.3) 103 (13.2) 122 (11.1) 125 (7.9)
Phosphorus (mg/d) 337 (94) 427 (83) 564 (83) 627 (72)
Selenium (µg/d) 13 (3.8) 17 (3.8) 24 (4.6) 30 (4.8)
Zinc (mg/d) 5.0 (0.34) 5.3 (0.28) 5.7 (0.26) 5.8 (0.18)
Potassium (mg/d) 922 (142) 1,057 (121) 1,253 (120) 1,329 (96)
Sodium (mg/d) 256 (81) 341 (86) 508 (114) 688 (149)
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 568 (99) 659 (86) 819 (98) 961 (155)
Retinol (µg/d) 406 (74) 463 (40) 513 (28) 515 (23)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 4.6 (1.4) 5.9 (1.0) 7.5 (0.89) 7.7 (0.62)
Vitamin C (mg/d) 55 (11.5) 64 (7.6) 73 (5.4) 73 (3.3)
Thiamin (mg/d) 0.61 (0.13) 0.72 (0.1) 0.87 (0.08) 0.89 (0.05)
Riboflavin (mg/d) 1.1 (0.12) 1.2 (0.11) 1.4 (0.11) 1.4 (0.09)
Niacin (mg/d) 6.9 (1.7) 8.4 (1.3) 10.2 (1.1) 10.3 (0.69)
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 0.54 (0.09) 0.63 (0.07) 0.74 (0.06) 1.76 (0.04)
Folate (µg DFE/d) 108 (32) 137 (24) 171 (20) 175 (12)
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 1.8 (0.3) 2.2 (0.28) 2.6 (0.32) 2.9 (0.28)
Choline (mg/d) 79 (18) 97 (16) 123 (16) 135 (14)

NOTES: N = 16. See additional notes following Table J-60.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
75th 90th EAR or AI* % Inadeq (SE) UL % > UL (SE)
996 (141) 1,184 (256) 260* NA 1,500 1.9 (7.4)
0.71 (0.06) 0.79 (0.09) 0.22* NA ND
16.7 (2.3) 19.7 (3.7) 6.9 3.6 (10.3) 40 0.11 (0.21)
145 (16.9) 167 (27.8) 75* NA ND
757 (162) 994 (329) 275* NA ND
36 (10.3) 52 (24) 20* NA 60 6.8 (13.9)
6.2 (0.4) 6.8 (0.68) 2.5 0 5 90.2 (17.1)
1,519 (218) 1,832 (416) 700* NA ND
815 (288) 1,305 (750) 370* NA ND
1,042 (219) 1,413 (607) 500* NA NA
565 (44) 628 (84) NA NA 600 ND
9.3 (1.3) 11 (2.1) 5* NA ND
82 (6.5) 89 (8.7) 50* NA ND
1.0 (0.12) 1.2 (0.19) 0.3* NA ND
1.6 (0.21) 1.9 (0.4) 0.4* NA ND
12.1 (1.5) 14 (2.3) 4* NA ND
0.87 (0.1) 1.0 (0.16) 0.3* NA ND
208 (28) 243 (42) 80* NA ND
3.1 (0.53) 4.3 (1.3) 0.5* NA ND
160 (32) 207 (66) 150* NA ND
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-53 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean
Calcium (mg/d) 655 (34) 808 (29) 1,018 (28) 1,053 (19)
Copper (mg/d) 0.5 (0.02) 0.6 (0.02) 0.7 (0.01) 0.7 (0.01)
Iron (mg/d) 5.8 (0.36) 7.3 (0.31) 9.4 (0.30) 9.9 (0.20)
Magnesium (mg/d) 129 (5.1) 149 (3.8) 173 (3.3) 177 (2.3)
Phosphorus (mg/d) 698 (29) 826 (24) 1,000 (24) 1,029 (16)
Selenium (µg/d) 45 (2.0) 53 (1.6) 62 (1.4) 63 (0.9)
Zinc (mg/d) 5.0 (0.23) 5.9 (0.19) 7.2 (0.18) 7.4 (0.12)
Potassium (mg/d) 1,471 (58) 1,699 (46) 1,983 (40) 2,021 (26)
Sodium (mg/d) 1,131 (60) 1,373 (48) 1,685 (44) 1,756 (31)
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 339 (20.8) 413 (17.2) 510 (16.0) 534 (9.9)
Retinol (µg/d) 265 (17) 332 (14) 425 (15) 450 (10)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 2.1 (0.12) 2.6 (0.10) 3.2 (0.10) 3.4 (0.07)
Vitamin C (mg/d) 36 (3.87) 55 (3.82) 84 (4.24) 97 (3.35)
Thiamin (mg/d) 0.8 (0.03) 0.9 (0.03) 1.1 (0.03) 1.1 (0.01)
Riboflavin (mg/d) 1.4 (0.06) 1.6 (0.05) 1.9 (0.05) 2.0 (0.03)
Niacin (mg/d) 8.1 (0.44) 9.9 (0.37) 12.1 (0.34) 12.5 (0.21)
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 0.8 (0.04) 1.0 (0.03) 1.2 (0.03) 1.2 (0.02)
Folate (µg DFE/d) 197 (12.0) 243 (10.5) 306 (10.4) 324 (6.45)
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 2.8 (0.15) 3.4 (0.13) 4.3 (0.13) 4.5 (0.08)
Choline (mg/d) 143 (6.8) 171 (5.7) 208 (5.3) 215 (3.5)

NOTES: N = 311. See additional notes following Table J-60.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
75th 90th EAR or AI* % Inadeq (SE) UL % > UL (SE)
1,261 (40) 1,498 (60) 500 2.2 (1.58) 2,500 0.1 (0.11)
0.8 (0.02) 1.0 (0.05) 0.26 0 1 0
11.8 (0.47) 14.6 (0.80) 3 0 40 0
200 (5.0) 230 (8.6) 65 0 65 NE
1,202 (33) 1,399 (50) 380 0.2 (0.2) 3,000 0
73 (2.0) 83 (3.1) 17 0 90 5.0 (3.25)
8.6 (0.27) 10.1 (0.44) 2.5 0 7 53.3 (3.66)
2,301 (57) 2,618 (88) 3,000* NA ND
2,058 (69) 2,468 (119) 1,000* NA 1,500 65.0 (4.01)
626 (24.6) 755 (43.9) 210 0.5 (0.7) NA
540 (22) 664 (38) NA NA 600 16.3 (4.89)
4.0 (0.16) 4.9 (0.29) 5 91.2 (4.36) 200 NE
125 (7.42) 174 (13.64) 13 0.6 (0.60) 400 0
1.3 (0.04) 1.5 (0.06) 0.4 0 ND
2.3 (0.07) 2.7 (0.10) 0.4 0 ND
14.6 (0.49) 17.3 (0.79) 5 0.3 (0.5) 10 NE
1.4 (0.04) 1.6 (0.07) 0.4 0 30 0
386 (16.3) 474 (27.9) 120 0.4 (0.6) 300 NE
5.3 (0.19) 6.4 (0.32) 0.7 0 ND
251 (8.0) 296 (12.9) 200* NA 1,000 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-54 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean
Calcium (mg/d) 680 (67) 815 (50) 980 (43) 1,010 (28)
Copper (mg/d) 0.5 (0.04) 0.6 (0.03) 0.7 (0.03) 0.7 (0.02)
Iron (mg/d) 6.8 (0.63) 8 (0.44) 9.4 (0.37) 9.6 (0.24)
Magnesium (mg/d) 136 (10.3) 155 (7.6) 178 (6.5) 182 (3.8)
Phosphorus (mg/d) 723 (61) 858 (46) 1,020 (39) 1,042 (26)
Selenium (µg/d) 41 (3.9) 51 (3.1) 64 (2.6) 66 (1.9)
Zinc (mg/d) 5.7 (0.43) 6.4 (0.30) 7.2 (0.24) 7.3 (0.13)
Potassium (mg/d) 1,492 (106) 1,715 (83) 1,993 (73) 2,032 (44)
Sodium (mg/d) 1,021 (123) 1,352 (97) 1,768 (84) 1,820 (63)
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 332 (37.4) 414 (28.2) 515 (25.1) 539 (17.8)
Retinol (µg/d) 267 (31) 335 (23) 418 (21) 435 (14)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 2.5 (0.25) 3.0 (0.20) 3.7 (0.18) 3.8 (0.11)
Vitamin C (mg/d) 48 (7.84) 65 (7.01) 90 (7.02) 97 (4.31)
Thiamin (mg/d) 0.8 (0.06) 0.9 (0.04) 1.1 (0.04) 1.1 (0.02)
Riboflavin (mg/d) 1.3 (0.12) 1.6 (0.08) 1.8 (0.07) 1.9 (0.04)
Niacin (mg/d) 8.1 (0.76) 9.8 (0.56) 12.0 (0.48) 12.4 (0.36)
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 0.8 (0.07) 1.0 (0.06) 1.2 (0.05) 1.2 (0.03)
Folate (µg DFE/d) 217 (21.3) 260 (16.9) 314 (15.0) 322 (8.41)
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 2.6 (0.30) 3.2 (0.20) 3.9 (0.17) 4.1 (0.13)
Choline (mg/d) 142 (10.8) 168 (8.8) 201 (8.1) 208 (5.4)

NOTES: N = 106. See additional notes following Table J-60.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
75th 90th EAR or AI* % Inadeq (SE) UL % > UL (SE)
1,170 (66) 1,376 (116) 500 1.6 (2.9) 2,500 0.03 (0.12)
0.8 (0.04) 1.0 (0.09) 0.26 0 1 0
11 (0.58) 12.8 (1.04) 3 1 (1) 40 0
204 (9.8) 232 (16.8) 65 0 65 NE
1,201 (57) 1,388 (94) 380 0.1 (0.3) 3,000 0
78 (3.7) 92 (5.7) 17 0.1 (0.2) 90 11.6 (5.59)
8.1 (0.35) 9.0 (0.59) 2.5 0 7 56.5 (8.37)
2,307 (106) 2,623 (168) 3,000* ND
2,230 (121) 2,685 (188) 1,000* 1,500 66.4 (5.71)
636 (40.5) 774 (74.3) 210 1.1 (2.0) NA
515 (32) 623 (58) NA NA 600 12.2 (7.79)
4.5 (0.27) 5.3 (0.42) 5 85.1 (8.88) 200 NE
121 (11.40) 156 (19.79) 13 0.02 (0.08) 400 0
1.2 (0.05) 1.4 (0.09) 0.4 0 ND
2.1 (0.10) 2.4 (0.17) 0.4 0 ND
14.5 (0.74) 17.2 (1.30) 5 0.8 (1.3) 10 NE
1.4 (0.08) 1.6 (0.12) 0.4 0 30 0
375 (21.6) 436 (34.1) 120 0.1 (0.5) 300 NE
4.8 (0.27) 5.7 (0.50) 0.7 0.04 (0.15) ND
240 (12.3) 282 (20.3) 200* NA 1,000 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-55 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean
Calcium (mg/d) 624 (67) 768 (52) 946 (45) 964 (28)
Copper (mg/d) 0.41 (0.04) 0.51 (0.03) 0.65 (0.03) 0.67 (0.02)
Iron (mg/d) 4.8 (0.61) 6.4 (0.51) 8.6 (0.48) 9.1 (0.38)
Magnesium (mg/d) 125 (10.1) 149 (7.7) 177 (6.5) 179 (4.4)
Phosphorus (mg/d) 683 (56) 809 (43) 961 (36) 973 (24)
Selenium (µg/d) 43 (3.7) 51 (2.8) 61 (2.3) 62 (1.5)
Zinc (mg/d) 4.5 (0.38) 5.4 (0.31) 6.5 (0.27) 6.7 (0.18)
Potassium (mg/d) 1,375 (101) 1,599 (76) 1,864 (63) 1,881 (41)
Sodium (mg/d) 1,070 (96) 1,311 (76) 1,615 (67) 1,660 (49.8)
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 316 (38) 402 (32) 510 (27) 526 (18)
Retinol (µg/d) 252 (34) 334 (28) 439 (25) 454 (17)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 2.2 (0.26) 3.8 (0.21) 3.8 (0.21) 4.0 (0.16)
Vitamin C (mg/d) 33 (5.7) 47 (4.9) 66 (5.0) 73 (4.0)
Thiamin (mg/d) 0.6 (0.05) 0.74 (0.04) 0.93 (0.04) 0.95 (0.03)
Riboflavin (mg/d) 1.1 (0.1) 1.3 (0.08) 1.6 (0.07) 1.7 (0.04)
Niacin (mg/d) 6.6 (0.71) 8.1 (0.59) 10.5 (0.51) 10.8 (0.35)
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 0.73 (0.06) 0.88 (0.05) 1.1 (0.04) 1.1 (0.03)
Folate (µg DFE/d) 170 (19) 218 (16) 281 (15) 293 (10)
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 2.4 (0.28) 3.0 (0.23) 3.9 (0.2) 4.0 (0.14)
Choline (mg/d) 140 (13) 169 (10.3) 206 (9.1) 211.0 (6.0)

NOTES: N = 96. See additional notes following Table J-60.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
75th 90th EAR or AI* % Inadeq (SE) UL % > UL (SE)
1,140 (63) 1,329 (95) 500 3.2 (4.2) 2,500 0
0.81 (0.04) 0.98 (0.07) 0.26 0.7 (1.1) 1 8.6 (5.3)
11.3 (0.75) 14.1 (1.2) 3 1.7 (2.0) 40 0
207 (8.8) 236 (13.3) 65 0.07 (0.2) 65 NE
1,125 (49) 1,281 (74) 380 0.1 (0.4) 3,000 0
71 (3.1) 81 (4.7) 17 0 90 3.4 (4.2)
7.8 (0.39) 9.0 (0.62) 2.5 0.09 (0.3) 7 39.2 (6.8)
2,144 (86) 2,410 (127) 3,000* NA ND
1,960 (97) 2,306 (154) 1,000* NA 1,500 58.6 (6.0)
627 (38) 748 (67) 210 1.2 (2.3)
558 (36) 667 (56) NA NA 600 18.5 (7.5)
4.9 (0.33) 6.1 (0.56) 5 76.1 (6.8) 200 NE
91 (8.8) 123 (17.4) 13 0.5 (1.1) 400 0
1.1 (0.05) 1.3 (0.09) 0.4 1.1 (1.5) ND
2.0 (0.09) 2.3 (0.15) 0.4 0 ND
13 (0.79) 15.5 (1.1) 5 2.5 (3.1) 10 NE
1.3 (0.06) 1.5 (0.1) 0.4 0.2 (0.5) 30 0
355 (22) 432 (36) 120 2.0 (2.7) 300 NE
4.8 (0.29) 5.8 (0.45) 0.7 0.02 (0.06) ND
248 (12.9) 289 (20.1) 200* NA 1,000 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-56 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean
Calcium (mg/d) 588 (93) 727 (73) 900 (63) 923 (43)
Copper (mg/d) 0.43 (0.05) 0.51 (0.04) 0.59 (0.03) 0.62 (0.03)
Iron (mg/d) 6.1 (0.85) 7.3 (0.74) 9.1 (0.74) 9.7 (0.52)
Magnesium (mg/d) 113 (16.5) 137 (13) 168 (11.3) 172 (7.7)
Phosphorus (mg/d) 691 (96) 820 (67) 965 (51) 966 (33.5)
Selenium (µg/d) 46 (5.9) 54 (4.4) 64 (3.7) 65 (2.4)
Zinc (mg/d) 5.5 (0.52) 6.2 (0.38) 7.0 (0.31) 7.1 (0.19)
Potassium (mg/d) 1,131 (171) 1,386 (135) 1,709 (118) 1,758 (81)
Sodium (mg/d) 1,181 (141) 1,383 (116) 1,657 (109) 1,729 (76)
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 348 (51.4) 418 (37) 499 (30) 503 (19)
Retinol (µg/d) 297 (43) 356 (33) 429 (27) 436 (17)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 2.5 (0.52) 3.3 (0.44) 4.3 (0.42) 4.6 (0.29)
Vitamin C (mg/d) 40 (10.8) 56 (8.9) 76 (8.2) 80 (5.3)
Thiamin (mg/d) 0.75 (0.09) 0.87 (0.07) 1.0 (0.07) 1.1 (0.004)
Riboflavin (mg/d) 1.2 (0.16) 1.4 (0.11) 1.7 (0.09) 1.7 (0.06)
Niacin (mg/d) 7.5 (1.2) 9.3 (1.0) 11.7 (0.97) 12.4 (0.68)
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 0.75 (0.1) 0.92 (0.08) 1.1 (0.08) 1.2 (0.68)
Folate (µg DFE/d) 218 (29 ) 259 (24) 312 (21) 321 (14)
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 2.7 (0.44) 3.3 (0.32) 4.0 (0.26) 4.1 (0.17)
Choline (mg/d) 144 (26) 181 (19) 224 (16) 227 (10)

NOTES: N = 41. See additional notes following Table J-60.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
75th 90th EAR or AI* % Inadeq (SE) UL % > UL (SE)
1,094 (92) 1,288 (145) 500 4.3 (7.0) 2,500 0
0.7 (0.06) 0.84 (0.12) 0.26 0.2 (0.9) 1 3.7 (6.9)
11.4 (1.3) 14.1 (2.4) 3 0 40 0
203 (16.8) 238 (26.9) 65 0.3 (1.0) 65 NE
1,110 (68) 1,242 (99) 380 0.2 (1.0) 3,000 0
75 (5.2) 85 (7.9) 17 0 90 6.2 (9.1)
7.9 (0.42) 8.7 (0.64) 2.5 0 7 50.7 (10.0)
2,077 (175) 2,448 (280) 3,000* NA ND
1,995 (178) 2,367 (312) 1,000* NA 1,500 64.4 (11.2)
584 (41) 664 (62) 210 0.4 (1.6) NA
508 (39) 585 (60) NA NA 600 8.1 (10.5)
5.6 (0.68) 7.1 (1.2) 5 64.1 (11.2) 200 NE
101 (12.6) 126 (20.8) 13 0.2 (1.0) 400 0
1.2 (0.11) 1.4 (0.21) 0.4 0 ND
2.0 (0.13) 2.2 (0.21) 0.4 0 ND
14.7 (1.6) 18.1 (2.8) 5 0.7 (2.3) 10 NE
1.4 (0.13) 1.7 (0.24) 0.4 <0.01 30 0
374 (32) 438 (53) 120 <0.01 300 NE
4.8 (0.35) 5.5 (0.53) 0.7 NA ND
271 (22) 305 (33) 200* NA 1,000 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-57 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean
Calcium (mg/d) 549 (26) 686 (22) 869 (21) 908 (14)
Copper (mg/d) 0.6 (0.02) 0.7 (0.02) 0.8 (0.01) 0.8 (0.01)
Iron (mg/d) 7.3 (0.32) 8.9 (0.27) 11.1 (0.26) 11.6 (0.17)
Magnesium (mg/d) 133 (4.61) 157 (3.78) 190 (3.50) 196 (2.44)
Phosphorus (mg/d) 701 (26.43) 834 (20.53) 1,000 (18.47) 1,032 (13.09)
Selenium (µg/d) 48 (1.73) 56 (1.40) 67 (1.28) 69 (0.78)
Zinc (mg/d) 5.9 (0.23) 7.0 (0.18) 8.3 (0.17) 8.6 (0.11)
Potassium (mg/d) 1,417 (54.12) 1,693 (41.98) 2,040 (37.94) 2,114 (27.91)
Sodium (mg/d) 1,430 (57.97) 1,721 (46.05) 2,091 (42.13) 2,168 (29.32)
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 328 (17.04) 403 (13.56) 499 (12.71) 525 (8.12)
Retinol (µg/d) 283 (14.60) 345 (11.64) 425 (10.75) 442 (6.35)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 2.6 (0.11) 3.2 (0.10) 4.0 (0.10) 4.3 (0.08)
Vitamin C (mg/d) 45 (3.69) 66 (3.48) 98 (3.78) 113 (3.11)
Thiamin (mg/d) 0.9 (0.03) 1.0 (0.03) 1.2 (0.02) 1.3 (0.02)
Riboflavin (mg/d) 1.3 (0.05) 1.6 (0.04) 1.9 (0.04) 1.9 (0.02)
Niacin (mg/d) 10.6 (0.43) 12.6 (0.35) 15.1 (0.32) 15.5 (0.19)
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 1.0 (0.04) 1.2 (0.03) 1.5 (0.03) 1.5 (0.02)
Folate (µg DFE/d) 261 (13.3) 327 (11.4) 417 (11.2) 439 (7.14)
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 2.9 (0.14) 3.5 (0.11) 4.3 (0.10) 4.5 (0.07)
Choline (mg/d) 145 (5.9) 175 (4.9) 214 (4.6) 223 (3.2)

NOTES: N = 474. For percent inadequate calculations, the approach of IOM (2000b) was applied in which, when combining groups with different EARs, intakes in one of the groups are rescaled so they can be compared to the EAR of the other group. One value indicates that the EAR is the same across groups. See additional notes following Table J-60.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
75th 90th EAR or AI* (Ages 1–3/Age 4) % Inadeq (SE) UL (Ages 1–3/Age 4) % > UL (SE)
1,087 (31) 1,317 (51) 500/800 16.7 (2.99) 2,500 0.1 (0.07)
1.0 (0.02) 1.2 (0.05) 0.26/0.34 0.1 (0.07) 1/3 15.5 (3.13)
13.7 (0.39) 16.4 (0.63) 3.0/4.1 0 40 0
227 (5.19) 266 (8.38) 65/110 0.6 (0.5) 65/110 NE
1,195 (27.91) 1,403 (47.56) 380/405 0.1 (0.2) 3,000 0
79 (1.85) 91 (2.92) 17/23 0 90/150 6.6 (2.77)
9.9 (0.26) 11.8 (0.46) 2.5/4.0 0.1 (0.1) 7/12 54.3 (2.96)
2,451 (58.46) 2,900 (102.27) 3,000/3,800* NA ND
2,529 (63.97) 3,000 (108.98) 1,000/1,200* 1,500/1,900 82.4 (3.59)
617 (20.26) 751 (36.81) 210/275 1.5 (1.4) NA
519 (16.31) 621 (27.99) NA NA 600/900 12.1 (4.51)
5.0 (0.17) 6.4 (0.33) 5.0/6.0 79.2 (3.62) 200/300 NE
143 (6.76) 198 (13.22) 13/22 0.6 (0.5) 400/650 0.4 (0.37)
1.5 (0.03) 1.7 (0.06) 0.4/0.5 0 ND
2.2 (0.05) 2.6 (0.08) 0.4/0.5 0 ND
18.0 (0.45) 21.0 (0.71) 5.0/6.0 0 10/15 NE
1.8 (0.05) 2.1 (0.07) 0.4/0.5 0 30/40 0
526 (17.1) 645 (28.6) 120/160 0 300/400 NE
5.2 (0.16) 6.3 (0.30) 0.7/1.0 0 ND
261 (7.1) 313 (12.1) 200/250* NA 1,000 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-58 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean
Calcium (mg/d) 522 (27) 661 (22) 838 (20) 866 (14)
Copper (mg/d) 0.6 (0.02) 0.7 (0.02) 0.8 (0.02) 0.8 (0.01)
Iron (mg/d) 7.3 (0.31) 8.7 (0.25) 10.4 (0.24) 10.8 (0.15)
Magnesium (mg/d) 123 (5.1) 147 (3.7) 176 (3.2) 180 (2.4)
Phosphorus (mg/d) 682 (28) 813 (21) 971 (18) 996 (13)
Selenium (µg/d) 49 (2.20) 58 (1.64) 69 (1.41) 70 (0.90)
Zinc (mg/d) 5.6 (0.24) 6.6 (0.20) 8.0 (0.19) 8.3 (0.12)
Potassium (mg/d) 1,214 (54) 1,472 (42) 1,792 (37) 1,847 (27)
Sodium (mg/d) 1,448 (68) 1,765 (53) 2,152 (45) 2,191 (30)
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 322 (19.8) 406 (16.1) 514 (14.9) 536 (9.2)
Retinol (µg/d) 265 (16) 329 (13) 409 (11) 422 (7)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 2.8 (0.14) 3.3 (0.11) 4.0 (0.10) 4.1 (0.06)
Vitamin C (mg/d) 39 (3.68) 54 (3.36) 77 (3.44) 83 (2.01)
Thiamin (mg/d) 0.8 (0.04) 1.0 (0.03) 1.2 (0.02) 1.2 (0.02)
Riboflavin (mg/d) 1.2 (0.05) 1.5 (0.04) 1.8 (0.04) 1.8 (0.03)
Niacin (mg/d) 10.4 (0.48) 12.3 (0.36) 14.7 (0.31) 15.1 (0.20)
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 0.9 (0.04) 1.0 (0.03) 1.3 (0.03) 1.3 (0.02)
Folate (µg DFE/d) 253 (14.4) 315 (11.7) 397 (11.0) 417 (7.27)
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 2.7 (0.16) 3.4 (0.13) 4.3 (0.12) 4.4 (0.07)
Choline (mg/d) 142 (6.4) 168 (5.2) 203 (5.0) 210 (2.9)

NOTES: N = 397. For percent inadequate calculations, the approach of IOM (2000b) was applied in which, when combining groups with different EARs, intakes in one of the groups are rescaled so they can be compared to the EAR of the other group. One value indicates that the EAR is the same across groups. See additional notes following Table J-60.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
75th 90th EAR or AI* (Ages 1–3/Age 4) % Inadeq (SE) UL (Ages 1–3/Age 4) % > UL (SE)
1,040 (29) 1,245 (46) 500/800 21.9 (3.04) 2,500 0
0.9 (0.02) 1.1 (0.04) 0.26/0.34 0.3 (0.3) 1/3 11.5 (3.21)
12.5 (0.35) 14.7 (0.56) 3.0/4.1 0 40 0
207 (4.7) 241 (7.8) 65/110 2.5 (1.2) 65/110 NE
1,151 (27) 1,339 (45) 380/405 0.3 (0.3) 3,000 0
81 (2.03) 94 (3.29) 17/23 0 90/150 5.9 (2.94)
9.6 (0.27) 11.3 (0.44) 2.5/4.0 0.7 (0.6) 7/12 45.4 (2.98)
2,160 (55) 2,546 (92) 3,000/3,800* NA ND
2,575 (63) 2,985 (95) 1,000/1,200* NA 1,500/1,900 83.7 (3.75)
641 (22.4) 777 (37.4) 210/275 2.5 (1.9) NA
500 (16) 595 (27) NA NA 600/900 9.4 (4.30)
4.8 (0.15) 5.6 (0.23) 5.0/6.0 87.6 (5.42) 200/300 NE
105 (5.50) 137 (9.40) 13/22 1 (1) 400/650 0
1.4 (0.03) 1.6 (0.06) 0.4/0.5 0.2 (0.3) ND
2.1 (0.05) 2.5 (0.09) 0.4/0.5 0 ND
17.4 (0.45) 20.2 (0.73) 5.0/6.0 0.1 (0.2) 10/15 NE
1.6 (0.05) 1.9 (0.08) 0.4/0.5 0.2 (0.3) 30/40 0
495 (17.0) 604 (30.0) 120/160 0 300/400 NE
5.2 (0.17) 6.3 (0.29) 0.7/1.0 0 ND
245 (7.7) 289 (12.0) 200/250* NA 1,000 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-59 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean
Calcium (mg/d) 590 (41) 753 (33) 961 (30) 994 (21)
Copper (mg/d) 0.54 (0.02) 0.64 (0.02) 0.76 (0.02) 0.78 (0.01)
Iron (mg/d) 8.1 (0.46) 9.6 (0.36) 11.4 (0.32) 11.7 (0.19)
Magnesium (mg/d) 150 (6.5) 174 (4.8) 203 (4.1) 207 (3.0)
Phosphorus (mg/d) 758 (37) 901 (29) 1,081 (26) 1,105 (17.7)
Selenium (µg/d) 52 (2.4) 60 (1.8) 70 (1.7) 72 (1.0)
Zinc (mg/d) 5.9 (0.31) 6.9 (0.24) 8.1 (0.21) 8.2 (0.12)
Potassium (mg/d) 1,536 (69) 1,780 (52) 2,071 (45) 2,110 (29)
Sodium (mg/d) 1,476 (70) 1,755 (58) 2,118 (54) 2,190 (38)
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 324 (25) 416 (20) 532 (18) 547 (11)
Retinol (µg/d) 276 (20) 351 (16) 443 (14) 452 (8.8)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 3.2 (0.2) 4.0 (0.17) 5.0 (0.16) 5.2 (0.1)
Vitamin C (mg/d) 59 (5.1) 73 (4.3) 92 (4.1) 96 (1.9)
Thiamin (mg/d) 0.85 (0.04) 0.99 (0.03) 1.2 (0.04) 1.2 (0.02)
Riboflavin (mg/d) 1.2 (0.06) 1.4 (0.05) 1.7 (0.4) 1.7 (0.03)
Niacin (mg/d) 11 (0.56) 13 (0.44) 15 (0.4) 15 (0.21)
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 1.0 (0.05) 1.2 (0.04) 1.4 (0.03) 1.5 (0.02)
Folate (µg DFE/d) 261 (16) 322 (13) 401 (12) 416 (8)
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 2.8 (0.19) 3.4 (0.15) 4.2 (0.13) 4.3 (0.07)
Choline (mg/d) 153 (8.2) 183 (6.7) 221 (6.2) 228 (3.9)

NOTES: N = 263. For percent inadequate calculations, the approach of IOM (2000b) was applied in which, when combining groups with different EARs, intakes in one of the groups are rescaled so they can be compared to the EAR of the other group. One value indicates that the EAR is the same across groups. See additional notes following Table J-60.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
75th 90th EAR or AI* (Ages 1–3/Age 4) % Inadeq (SE) UL (Ages 1–3/Age 4) % > UL (SE)
1,200 (43) 1,441 (68) 500/800 2.0 (1.4) 2,500 4.8 (2.5)
0.91 (0.03) 1.0 (0.04) 0.26/0.34 0 1/3 9.8 (5.4)
13.5 (0.49) 15.8 (0.82) 3.0/4.1 0 40 0
236 (6.1) 270 (10.2) 65/110 0 65/110 NE
1,283 (37) 1,485 (57) 380/405 0.02 (0.04) 3,000 0
82 (2.5) 95 (4.1) 17/23 0 90/150 11.0 (5.8)
9.5 (0.3) 10.8 (0.46) 2.5/4.0 0 7/12 95.0 (3.5)
2,396 (64) 2,730 (105) 3,000/3,800* NA ND
2,546 (80) 2,995 (131) 1,000/1,200* 0 1,500/1,900 65.2 (4.0)
663 (25) 793 (39) 210/275 0.9 (1.0) NA
544 (19) 641 (29) NA NA 600/900 15.1 (4.9)
6.2 (0.24) 7.4 (0.4) 5.0/6.0 34.9 (4.5) 200/300 NE
114 (6.0) 137 (9.6) 13/22 0 400/650 0.1 (0.3)
1.4 (0.04) 1.6 (0.07) 0.4/0.5 0 ND
2.0 (0.06) 2.4 (0.09) 0.4/0.5 0 ND
18 (0.57) 20 (0.88) 5.0/6.0 0 10/15 NE
1.7 (0.05) 1.9 (0.09) 0.4/0.5 0 30/40 0
494 (19) 592 (30) 120/160 0 300/400 NE
5.0 (0.17) 5.8 (0.26) 0.7/1.0 0 ND
266 (9.1) 313 (14.4) 200/250* NA 1,000 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-60 Usual Intake Distributions of Selected Micronutrients for Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

Nutrient Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean
Calcium (mg/d) 583 (49) 745 (40) 953 (36) 986 (23)
Copper (mg/d) 0.56 (0.03) 0.66 (0.02) 0.77 (0.02) 0.79 (0.01)
Iron (mg/d) 7.9 (0.49) 9.1 (0.4) 10.8 (0.36) 11 (0.18)
Magnesium (mg/d) 156 (7.1) 175 (5.4) 199 (4.6) 201 (2.5)
Phosphorus (mg/d) 797 (42) 918 (32) 1,069 (29) 1,088 (16)
Selenium (µg/d) 58 (3.1) 64 (2.3) 70 (1.9) 71 (0.69)
Zinc (mg/d) 6.1 (0.36) 7.0 (0.28) 8.0 (0.25) 8.1 (0.11)
Potassium (mg/d) 1,517 (77) 1,744 (57) 2,013 (48) 2,031 (28)
Sodium (mg/d) 1,783 (92) 1,987 (69) 2,227 (57) 2,242 (25)
Vitamin A (µg RAE/d) 395 (34) 471 (27) 567 (24) 583 (11)
Retinol (µg/d) 291 (29) 372 (24) 476 (21) 493 (11)
Vitamin E mg (αTOC/d) 4.1 (0.28) 4.7 (0.22) 5.5 (0.2) 5.6 (0.08)
Vitamin C (mg/d) 40 (4.9) 56 (4.5) 80 (4.7) 88 (3.0)
Thiamin (mg/d) 0.93 (0.05) 1.0 (0.04) 1.2 (0.03) 1.2 (0.02)
Riboflavin (mg/d) 1.2 (0.07) 1.4 (0.06) 1.7 (0.06) 1.8 (0.03)
Niacin (mg/d) 12 (0.68) 14 (0.51) 16 (0.45) 16 (0.22)
Vitamin B6 (mg/d) 1.0 (0.06) 1.2 (0.05) 1.4 (0.04) 1.4 (0.02)
Folate (µg DFE/d) 295 (21) 341 (16) 399 (15) 408 (6.4)
Vitamin B12 (mg/d) 3.0 (0.15) 3.5 (0.12) 4.3 (0.12) 4.4 (0.08)
Choline (mg/d) 159 (8.8) 179 (6.9) 205 (6.4) 210 (2.9)

NOTES: N = 217. For percent inadequate calculations, the approach of IOM (2000b) was applied in which, when combining groups with different EARs, intakes in one of the groups are rescaled so they can be compared to the EAR of the other group. See additional notes following this table.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
75th 90th EAR or AI* (Ages 1–3/Age 4) % Inadeq (SE) UL (Ages 1–3/Age 4) % > UL (SE)
1,191 (52) 1,432 (83) 500/800 2.1 (1.9) 2,500 3.2 (2.6)
0.91 (0.03) 1.0 (0.06) 0.26/0.34 0 1/3 9.2 (7.7)
12.7 (0.55) 14.7 (0.9) 3.0/4.1 0 40 0
224 (6.4) 249 (9.8) 65/110 0 65/110 NE
1,239 (41) 1,408 (63) 380/405 0 3,000 0
77 (2.6) 84 (3.9) 17/23 0 90/150 5.3 (9.0)
9.2 (0.35) 10.3 (0.55) 2.5/4.0 0 7/12 95.7 (5.0)
2,298 (65) 2,569 (97) 3,000/3,800* NA ND
2,481 (77) 2,721 (114) 1,000/1,200* NA 1,500/1,900 82.2 (10.9)
677 (36) 793 (60) 210/275 0.05 (0.2) NA
597 (31) 719 (50) NA NA 600/900 24.4 (7.5)
6.4 (0.28) 7.3 (0.45) 5.0/6.0 17.4 (11.8) 200/300 NE
112 (7.7) 148 (13.7) 13/22 0.04 (0.12) 400/650 0.21 (0.44)
1.4 (0.05) 1.6 (0.08) 0.4/0.5 0 ND
2.1 (0.08) 2.4 (0.13) 0.4/0.5 0 ND
18 (0.66) 20 (1.1) 5.0/6.0 0 10/15 NE
1.6 (0.07) 1.8 (0.11) 0.4/0.5 0 30/40 0
466 (22) 535 (36) 120/160 0 300/400 NE
5.2 (0.17) 6.1 (0.26) 0.7/1.0 0 ND
236 (9.6) 268 (14.9) 200/250* NA 1,000 0
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

NOTES for Tables J-45 through J-60: — = not applicable due to no recommendation; % Inadeq = percentage of individuals with usual intake below the EAR; αTOC = α-tocopherol; AI = Adequate Intake; DFE = dietary folate equivalents; EAR = Estimated Average Requirement; NA = not available (data were inadequate to estimate); NA = not applicable; ND = not determined; NE = not evaluated; RAE = retinol activity equivalents; SE = standard error; UL = Tolerable Upper Intake Level. The ULs for folate, vitamin E, niacin, and magnesium represent intake from pharmacological agents only and do not include food intake. Vitamin D is not included because intake is a poor reflection of status.

Subgroup definitions are as follows:

WIC: the subgroup of individuals reporting participation in WIC regardless of income level Eligible non-WIC: the subgroup of individuals with incomes less than or equal to 185 percent of poverty who did not report participation in WIC

* Adequate Intake value.

SOURCES: Intake data are from NHANES 2005–2012 (USDA/ARS, 2005–2012). Intake recommendations from Dietary Reference Intake reports (IOM, 1997, 1998, 2000a, 2001, 2002/2005, 2005, 2011b).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-61 Distributions of Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin D of WIC Participants, NHANES 2005–2006

WIC Participant Category N 25(OH)D Percentiles and Means (nmol/L) (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th % < 40 nmol/L*
Women, P 120 41 (3.5) 52 (2.6) 66 (2.3) 72.8 (2.9) 83 (4.6) 111 (10.5) 8.6 (3.6)
Women, BF 19 33 (7.8) 42 (5.6) 53 (4.3) 54 (3.9) 65 (6.7) 77 (11.1) 21.2 (12.2)
Women, PP 38 37 (7.5) 49 (4.7) 62 (3.1) 61 (2.8) 73 (4.0) 82 (5.8) 12.6 (7.6)
Children, 1 to <2 Years 101 55.2 (3.4) 64.3 (2.2) 74.3 (1.6) 74.0 (1.4) 83.9 (2.1) 92.5(3.2) 1.1 (1.2)
Children, 2 to <5 Years 201 49 (2.0) 57 (1.5) 67 (1.2) 68.9 (1.2) 79 (2.0) 91 (3.3) 2.1 (1.3)

NOTES: 25(OH)D = 25-hydroxy-vitamin D; BF = breastfeeding, nonpregnant WIC-participating women; N = sample size; P = pregnant WIC-participating women; PP = WIC-participating women who are 6 months postpartum, not pregnant, and not breastfeeding; SE = standard error. Distributions were adjusted according to the method of Jahns et al. (2005), borrowing within-person variance from NHANES 2001–2002, for which two serum values were obtained. Serum data for 25(OH)D were only available in NHANES 2005–2006.

* A serum 25(OH)D level of 40 nmol/L was established by the Institute of Medicine (2011b) as an average requirement that meets the needs of approximately half the population, used to establish EARs for dietary intake of vitamin D.

SOURCE: USDA/ARS, 2005–2006.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-62 Food Group Intake Distributions of Pregnant WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median
Total fruit (c-eq/d) 101 0.24 (0.19) 0.57 (0.18) 1.23 (0.16)
Whole fruit (c-eq/d) 75 0.11 (0.17) 0.27 (0.17) 0.65 (0.17)
Fruit juice (c-eq/d) 54 0.14 (0.05) 0.30 (0.07) 0.59 (0.10)
Total vegetables (c-eq/d) 122 0.62 (0.13) 0.91 (0.11) 1.33 (0.09)
Dark green vegetables (c-eq/wk) 5 0.09 (0.19) 0.20 (0.19) 0.44 (0.19)
Total red and orange vegetables (c-eq/wk) 94 0.91 (0.17) 1.45 (0.19) 2.32 (0.21)
Beans and peas Computed as vegetables (c-eq/wk) 9 NA NA NA
Total starchy vegetables (c-eq/wk) 46 1.25 (0.38) 2.36 (0.58) 4.72 (0.98)
Other vegetables (c-eq/wk) 94 0.61 (0.33) 1.22 (0.36) 2.41 (0.39)
Total grains (oz-eq/d) 138 4.92 (0.45) 6.11 (0.38) 7.62 (0.35)
Whole grains (oz-eq/d) 46 0.34 (0.11) 0.56 (0.10) 0.83 (0.12)
Refined grains (oz-eq/d) 138 4.46 (0.36) 5.52 (0.31) 6.86 (0.32)
Total protein foods (oz-eq/d) 137 2.97 (0.39) 3.90 (0.320 5.10 (0.26)
Meat, poultry, and eggs (not seafood) (oz-eq/wk) 135 17.28 (2.20) 22.55 (1.94) 29.33 (1.65)
Seafood (oz-eq/wk) 5 0.12 (1.07) 0.69 (1.22) 2.85 (1.27)
Nuts, seeds, and soy (oz-eq/wk) 23 0.12 (0.18) 0.51 (0.34) 1.60 (0.51)
Total dairy (c-eq/d) 132 1.18 (0.21) 1.58 (0.15) 2.10 (0.11)
Oils (g-eq/d) 129 9.81 (1.56) 14.08 (1.40) 20.11 (1.33)
Solid fats (g-eq/d) 137 22.36 (3.31) 29.68 (2.50) 39.14 (1.77)
Added sugars (g-eq/d) 134 34.83 (6.27) 56.38 (6.08) 88.89 (6.34)

NOTES: N = 139. The reference food intake pattern used was 2,600 kcals, which was approximately the calculated EER for pregnant women in NHANES 2005–2012. See additional notes following Table J-74.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Mean 75th 90th Recommended Intake % Below Recommended Intake (SE)
1.73 (0.15) 2.34 (0.20) 3.83 (0.34) 2.00 69.05 (6.60)
1.14 (0.16) 1.41 (0.20) 2.68 (0.33) 1.00 64.38 (12.08)
0.72 (0.10) 0.98 (0.15) 1.47 (0.23) 1.00 75.76 (7.11)
1.44 (0.08) 1.84 (0.11) 2.39 (0.18) 3.50 98.93 (0.28)
0.66 (0.18) 0.88 (0.27) 1.50 (0.56) 2.50 97.41 (3.65)
2.73 (0.22) 3.55 (0.29) 5.05 (0.46) 7.00 97.02 (1.51)
NA NA NA 2.50 NA
7.72 (1.71) 9.32 (1.93) 17.03 (4.04) 7.00 65.16 (8.02)
3.29 (0.39) 4.37 (0.50) 7.07 (0.79) 5.50 83.07 (4.81)
7.84 (0.35) 9.32 (0.45) 11.03 (0.67) 9.00 71.00 (5.61)
0.85 (0.11) 1.11 (0.16) 1.35 (0.22) 4.50 100.00 (0.01)
7.06 (0.33) 8.39 (0.43) 9.92 (0.63) 4.50 10.42 (3.87)
5.30 (0.25) 6.48 (0.28) 7.88 (0.40) 6.50 75.30 (5.08)
30.38 (1.55) 37.06 (1.78) 44.81 (2.53) 31.00 56.08 (5.41)
5.47 (1.24) 7.53 (2.17) 14.27 (5.01) 10.00 82.14 (8.73)
2.34 (0.53) 3.38 (0.91) 5.55 (1.38) 5.00 87.21 (6.61)
2.21 (0.10) 2.73 (0.16) 3.38 (0.29) 3.00 82.49 (6.88)
21.79 (1.34) 27.66 (1.70) 35.84 (2.53) 34.00 87.57 (3.74)
% Above Recommended Intake (SE)
40.68 (1.71) 50.00 (2.19) 60.98 (3.60) <28.9 76.87 (6.17)
100.02 (6.53) 131.45 (8.28) 179.20 (11.94) <65 68.27 (5.08)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-63 Food Group Intake Distributions of Pregnant, Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median
Total fruit (c-eq/d) 40 0.22 (0.08) 0.46 (0.12) 0.94 (0.17)
Whole fruit (c-eq/d) 18 0.07 (0.05) 0.26 (0.09) 0.63 (0.17)
Fruit juice (c-eq/d) 28 0.07 (0.05) 0.15 (0.08) 0.31 (0.13)
Total vegetables (c-eq/d) 53 0.76 (0.14) 1.11 (0.11) 1.58 (0.11)
Dark green vegetables (c-eq/wk) 4 0.00 (NA) 0.03 (NA) 0.35 (NA)
Total red and orange vegetables (c-eq/wk) 35 1.48 (0.31) 2.04 (0.33) 2.84 (0.34)
Beans and peas Computed as vegetables (c-eq/wk) 8 0.03 (0.20) 0.14 (0.23) 0.48 (0.27)
Total starchy vegetables (c-eq/wk) 25 0.73 (0.48) 1.70 (0.62) 3.18 (0.98)
Other vegetables (c-eq/wk) 43 1.33 (0.40) 2.09 (0.43) 3.31 (0.46)
Total grains (oz-eq/d) 58 4.75 (0.64) 5.83 (0.46) 7.21 (0.39)
Whole grains (oz-eq/d) 16 0.06 (0.10) 0.16 (0.12) 0.35 (0.15)
Refined grains (oz-eq/d) 57 4.28 (0.65) 5.40 (0.50) 6.80 (0.42)
Total protein foods (oz-eq/d) 56 3.42 (0.59) 4.35 (0.42) 5.54 (0.36)
Meat, poultry, and eggs (not seafood) (oz-eq/wk) 55 16.75 (4.48) 22.62 (3.51) 30.35 (2.40)
Seafood (oz-eq/wk) 2 1.09 (NA) 2.08 (NA) 4.09 (NA)
Nuts, seeds, and soy (oz-eq/wk) 9 0.04 (0.56) 0.27 (0.61) 1.29 (1.01)
Total dairy (c-eq/d) 56 1.11 (0.20) 1.44 (0.16) 1.88 (0.14)
Oils (g-eq/d) 54 13.32 (6.27) 17.58 (4.76) 23.51 (3.02)
Solid fats (g-eq/d) 58 26.21 (3.63) 32.20 (2.93) 40.24 (2.26)
Added sugars (g-eq/d) 57 40.55 (14.09) 61.83 (10.26) 91.61 (6.88)

NOTES: N = 58. The reference food intake pattern used was 2,600 kcals, which was approximately the calculated EER for pregnant women in NHANES 2005–2012. See additional notes following Table J-74.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Mean 75th 90th Recommended Intake % Below Recommended Intake (SE)
1.32 (0.21) 1.74 (0.28) 2.87 (0.46) 2.00 79.81 (5.45)
0.80 (0.18) 1.15 (0.28) 1.76 (0.41) 1.00 69.26 (10.55)
0.43 (0.11) 0.57 (0.17) 0.93 (0.27) 1.00 91.49 (7.31)
1.69 (0.12) 2.16 (0.17) 2.77 (0.26) 3.50 97.23 (0.65)
0.97 (NA) 1.41 (NA) 3.03 (NA) 2.50 86.44 NA
3.10 (0.34) 3.87 (0.44) 5.05 (0.77) 7.00 98.12 (2.67)
0.77 (0.18) 1.13 (0.31) 1.95 (0.78) 2.50 94.81 (5.44)
3.71 (0.81) 5.06 (1.24) 7.28 (1.56) 7.00 88.70 (9.93)
3.87 (0.47) 5.04 (0.62) 7.13 (1.08) 5.50 79.51 (5.47)
7.45 (0.42) 8.81 (0.65) 10.44 (1.06) 9.00 77.31 (10.02)
0.50 (0.16) 0.67 (0.24) 1.12 (0.39) 4.50 99.95 (0.35)
6.98 (0.42) 8.36 (0.56) 9.90 (0.84) 4.50 12.35 (6.50)
5.71 (0.37) 6.88 (0.56) 8.22 (0.88) 6.50 68.86 (10.55)
31.68 (2.16) 39.28 (2.87) 48.32 (5.05) 31.00 52.10 (8.10)
6.31 (NA) 7.88 (NA) 13.75 (NA) 10.00 82.22 NA
3.87 (1.58) 4.21 (2.21) 10.09 (4.25) 5.00 78.44 (10.64)
1.96 (0.14) 2.39 (0.19) 2.92 (0.31) 3.00 91.36 (4.65)
25.13 (2.64) 30.90 (3.31) 39.00 (6.38) 34.00 82.13 (17.12)
% Above Recommended Intake
42.17 (2.16) 50.03 (2.74) 60.58 (4.56) <28.9 84.01 (8.08)
98.86 (6.79) 127.96 (9.78) 166.40 (17.13) <65 72.41 (9.91)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-64 Food Group Intake Distributions of Breastfeeding, WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median
Total fruit (c-eq/d) 18 0.38 (0.08) 0.65 (0.14) 1.12 (0.22)
Whole fruit (c-eq/d) 14 0.03 (0.10) 0.10 (0.12) 0.34 (0.18)
Fruit juice (c-eq/d) 7 0.18 (0.10) 0.38 (0.17) 0.90 (0.36)
Total vegetables (c-eq/d) 25 1.69 (0.19) 1.69 (0.13) 1.69 (0.16)
Dark green vegetables (c-eq/wk) 1 NA NA NA
Total red and orange vegetables (c-eq/wk) 22 1.25 (0.49) 1.93 (0.41) 2.89 (0.37)
Beans and peas Computed as vegetables (c-eq/wk) 1 NA NA NA
Total starchy vegetables (c-eq/wk) 11 1.29 (0.49) 2.04 (0.58) 3.38 (0.75)
Other vegetables (c-eq/wk) 19 2.60 (0.69) 3.12 (0.59) 3.79 (0.52)
Total grains (oz-eq/d) 25 4.44 (0.81) 5.30 (0.57) 6.44 (0.54)
Whole grains (oz-eq/d) 10 0.00 (0.02) 0.01 (0.04) 0.22 (0.19)
Refined grains (oz-eq/d) 25 4.21 (0.83) 5.04 (0.55) 6.11 (0.52)
Total protein foods (oz-eq/d) 24 3.19 (0.97) 4.08 (0.70) 5.20 (0.43)
Meat, poultry, and eggs (not seafood) (oz-eq/wk) 22 16.80 (7.11) 23.22 (5.13) 31.47 (3.02)
Seafood (oz-eq/wk) 1 NA NA NA
Nuts, seeds, and soy (oz-eq/wk) 1 NA NA NA
Total dairy (c-eq/d) 23 0.67 (0.43) 1.20 (0.37) 2.02 (0.39)
Oils (g-eq/d) 20 19.13 (3.81) 19.13 (2.9) 19.13 (2.71)
Solid fats (g-eq/d) 25 20.21 (3.71) 27.45 (3.39) 37.57 (4.28)
Added sugars (g-eq/d) 25 41.85 (7.71) 63.28 (8.56) 93.22 (10.82)

NOTES: N = 25. The reference food intake pattern used was 2,600 kcals, which was approximately the calculated EER for breastfeeding women in NHANES 2005–2012. See additional notes following Table J-74.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Mean 75th 90th Recommended Intake % Below Recommended Intake (SE)
1.40 (0.28) 1.84 (0.38) 2.77 (0.67) 2.00 78.67 (6.21)
1.11 (0.36) 1.04 (0.37) 2.65 (0.89) 1.00 74.15 (9.28)
2.03 (1.59) 2.13 (0.90) 4.61 (2.59) 1.00 53.14 (12.90)
1.69 (0.18) 1.69 (0.29) 1.69 (0.46) 3.50 50.00 (16.08)
NA NA NA 2.50 NA
3.15 (0.36) 4.09 (0.49) 5.38 (0.74) 7.00 97.40 (9.75)
NA NA NA 2.50 NA
4.41 (1.06) 5.56 (1.22) 8.67 (2.51) 7.00 83.84 (6.82)
3.89 (0.54) 4.55 (0.70) 5.32 (1.12) 5.50 92.12 (10.24)
6.72 (0.65) 7.83 (1.02) 9.34 (1.75) 9.00 87.58 (16.02)
0.46 (0.14) 0.99 (0.30) 1.21 (0.29) 4.50 100.00 (0.00)
6.32 (0.63) 7.38 (1.05) 8.69 (1.78) 4.50 14.43 (16.75)
5.34 (0.39) 6.44 (0.44) 7.67 (0.78) 6.50 75.95 (12.35)
32.70 (2.78) 40.83 (3.04) 50.16 (5.54) 31.00 48.55 (12.62)
NA NA NA 10.00 NA
NA NA NA 5.00 NA
2.32 (0.43) 3.12 (0.64) 4.35 (1.04) 3.00 72.86 (13.09)
19.13 (3.24) 19.13 (5.14) 19.13 (9.14) 34.00 50.00 (15.83)
% Above Recommended Intake (SE)
40.35 (4.87) 50.20 (7.04) 64.03 (10.92) <28.9 71.49 (8.32)
100.55 (11.43) 129.80 (14.92) 168.55 (20.16) <65 73.61 (7.05)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-65 Food Group Intake Distributions of Postpartum, WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median
Total fruit (c-eq/d) 20 0.08 (0.05) 0.21 (0.08) 0.52 (0.16)
Whole fruit (c-eq/d) 6 0.02 (NA) 0.05 (NA) 0.12 (NA)
Fruit juice (c-eq/d) 12 0.02 (0.02) 0.06 (0.04) 0.22 (0.12)
Total vegetables (c-eq/d) 43 0.44 (0.19) 0.62 (0.13) 0.87 (0.09)
Dark green vegetables (c-eq/wk) 2 0.00 (NA) 0.01 (NA) 0.18 (NA)
Total red and orange vegetables (c-eq/wk) 31 0.58 (0.30) 1.01 (0.29) 1.82 (0.27)
Beans and peas Computed as vegetables (c-eq/wk) 1 NA NA NA
Total starchy vegetables (c-eq/wk) 14 0.35 (0.21) 0.64 (0.23) 1.16 (0.27)
Other vegetables (c-eq/wk) 29 0.74 (0.50) 1.26 (0.46) 2.21 (0.44)
Total grains (oz-eq/d) 53 4.06 (0.83) 5.31 (0.62) 6.97 (0.47)
Whole grains (oz-eq/d) 15 0.04 (0.06) 0.18 (0.09) 0.58 (0.15)
Refined grains (oz-eq/d) 52 3.45 (0.91) 4.65 (0.68) 6.27 (0.50)
Total protein foods (oz-eq/d) 51 2.25 (0.46) 3.26 (0.39) 4.63 (0.36)
Meat, poultry, and eggs (not seafood) (oz-eq/wk) 49 15.59 (3.93) 21.10 (2.83) 28.34 (2.23)
Seafood (oz-eq/wk) 1 NA NA NA
Nuts, seeds, and soy (oz-eq/wk) 7 0.11 (0.27) 0.34 (0.29) 0.96 (0.34)
Total dairy (c-eq/d) 48 0.95 (0.40) 1.23 (0.33) 1.62 (0.23)
Oils (g-eq/d) 50 10.72 (3.41) 14.19 (2.49) 18.99 (1.77)
Solid fats (g-eq/d) 52 17.28 (4.92) 23.93 (3.70) 32.72 (2.45)
Added sugars (g-eq/d) 54 40.74 (18.84) 61.15 (13.59) 90.82 (8.19)

NOTES: N = 54. The reference food intake pattern used was 2,300 kcals, which was approximately the calculated EER for postpartum women in NHANES 2005–2012. See additional notes following Table J-74.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Mean 75th 90th Recommended Intake % Below Recommended Intake (SE)
0.85 (0.28) 1.11 (0.36) 2.02 (0.72) 2.00 89.87 (6.70)
0.24 (NA) 0.29 (NA) 0.59 (NA) 1.00 96.13 (NA)
0.54 (0.31) 0.61 (0.34) 1.38 (0.82) 1.00 84.64 (8.92)
0.94 (0.09) 1.19 (0.14) 1.54 (0.24) 3.00 99.87 (25.10)
0.67 (NA) 0.90 (NA) 2.10 (NA) 2.00 89.15 (NA)
2.41 (0.30) 3.13 (0.42) 4.95 (0.83) 6.00 93.90 (7.08)
NA NA NA 2.00 NA
1.52 (0.31) 1.99 (0.39) 3.10 (0.74) 6.00 98.79 (1.69)
2.92 (0.48) 3.76 (0.63) 5.92 (1.20) 5.00 85.38 (9.29)
7.30 (0.47) 8.93 (0.66) 10.96 (1.09) 7.50 57.63 (9.78)
0.68 (0.11) 1.06 (0.23) 1.45 (0.26) 3.75 100.00 (0.29)
6.64 (0.49) 8.23 (0.64) 10.30 (1.06) 3.75 13.22 (9.71)
4.93 (0.36) 6.27 (0.46) 7.99 (0.66) 6.25 74.71 (7.82)
29.64 (2.26) 36.77 (3.23) 45.37 (5.05) 29.50 53.94 (12.98)
NA NA NA 9.50 NA
1.97 (0.86) 2.33 (0.81) 4.74 (2.23) 5.00 90.74 (6.51)
1.70 (0.20) 2.08 (0.20) 2.57 (0.34) 3.00 95.96 (10.31)
20.26 (1.74) 24.94 (2.26) 31.42 (3.68) 30.00 87.64 (22.52)
% Above Recommended Intake (SE)
34.33 (2.26) 42.97 (2.60) 53.42 (4.34) <25.6 70.44 (11.75)
99.92 (7.73) 128.72 (12.67) 170.57 (24.53) <57.5 77.98 (13.20)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-66 Food Group Intake Distributions of Nonpregnant, Postpartum, or Breastfeeding Non-WIC-Participating Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median
Total fruit (c-eq/d) 986 0.11 (0.02) 0.27 (0.03) 0.69 (0.05)
Whole fruit (c-eq/d) 422 0.07 (0.01) 0.16 (0.01) 0.34 (0.02)
Fruit juice (c-eq/d) 598 0.03 (0.00) 0.08 (0.01) 0.19 (0.01)
Total vegetables (c-eq/d) 1,737 0.62 (0.02) 0.86 (0.02) 1.19 (0.02)
Dark green vegetables (c-eq/wk) 101 0.09 (0.03) 0.20 (0.04) 0.44 (0.04)
Total red and orange vegetables (c-eq/wk) 1,152 0.76 (0.07) 1.27 (0.07) 2.15 (0.08)
Beans and peas Computed as vegetables (c-eq/wk) 124 0.09 (0.03) 0.23 (0.04) 0.52 (0.04)
Total starchy vegetables (c-eq/wk) 611 1.22 (0.10) 1.75 (0.09) 2.48 (0.09)
Other vegetables (c-eq/wk) 1,221 1.03 (0.09) 1.70 (0.09) 2.86 (0.09)
Total grains (oz-eq/d) 1,927 3.33 (0.10) 4.34 (0.09) 5.64 (0.07)
Whole grains (oz-eq/d) 488 0.10 (0.01) 0.23 (0.02) 0.47 (0.02)
Refined grains (oz-eq/d) 1,899 2.87 (0.09) 3.82 (0.08) 5.06 (0.07)
Total protein foods (oz-eq/d) 1,886 2.62 (0.11) 3.49 (0.09) 4.65 (0.07)
Meat, poultry, and eggs (not seafood) (oz-eq/wk) 1,818 11.42 (0.87) 17.36 (0.74) 26.53 (0.51)
Seafood (oz-eq/wk) 71 0.42 (0.17) 1.00 (0.21) 2.24 (0.19)
Nuts, seeds, and soy (oz-eq/wk) 276 0.26 (0.05) 0.67 (0.08) 1.66 (0.14)
Total dairy (c-eq/d) 1,740 0.56 (0.04) 0.84 (0.03) 1.25 (0.03)
Oils (g-eq/d) 1,848 9.16 (0.42) 12.76 (0.38) 17.85 (0.35)
Solid fats (g-eq/d) 1,941 17.04 (0.68) 22.53 (0.56) 29.83 (0.48)
Added sugars (g-eq/d) 1,935 32.89 (1.86) 52.07 (1.58) 81.12 (1.49)

NOTES: N = 1,983. The reference food intake pattern used was 2,200 kcals, which was approximately the calculated EER for this subgroup of women in NHANES 2005–2012. See additional notes following Table J-74.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Mean 75th 90th Recommended Intake % Below Recommended Intake (SE)
1.42 (0.06) 1.64 (0.08) 3.40 (0.15) 2.00 79.89 (1.46)
0.46 (0.02) 0.63 (0.03) 1.00 (0.05) 1.00 90.11 (1.29)
0.31 (0.02) 0.41 (0.02) 0.73 (0.04) 1.00 95.00 (0.83)
1.27 (0.02) 1.59 (0.03) 2.02 (0.04) 3.00 99.18 (0.12)
0.65 (0.04) 0.87 (0.06) 1.46 (0.14) 2.00 95.31 (1.50)
2.68 (0.09) 3.49 (0.13) 5.25 (0.24) 6.00 93.18 (1.06)
0.75 (0.03) 1.03 (0.05) 1.72 (0.11) 2.00 93.01 (1.28)
2.69 (0.10) 3.40 (0.14) 4.43 (0.23) 6.00 97.90 (0.85)
3.54 (0.10) 4.61 (0.12) 6.88 (0.23) 5.00 78.67 (1.39)
5.85 (0.07) 7.13 (0.09) 8.63 (0.14) 7.00 73.17 (1.64)
0.59 (0.02) 0.82 (0.03) 1.21 (0.06) 3.50 99.97 (0.03)
5.28 (0.07) 6.50 (0.09) 7.96 (0.13) 3.50 19.26 (1.47)
4.88 (0.07) 6.02 (0.10) 7.43 (0.16) 6.00 74.71 (1.83)
30.28 (0.45) 39.08 (0.67) 53.88 (1.45) 28.00 53.60 (1.53)
3.17 (0.19) 4.32 (0.27) 7.12 (0.68) 9.00 94.53 (1.72)
2.93 (0.23) 3.60 (0.28) 6.91 (0.61) 5.00 83.60 (1.91)
1.39 (0.03) 1.79 (0.04) 2.40 (0.06) 3.00 96.24 (0.40)
19.26 (0.35) 24.20 (0.43) 31.14 (0.66) 29.00 86.55 (1.16)
% Above Recommended Intake (SE)
31.32 (0.48) 38.47 (0.64) 47.45 (1.00) <24 68.79 (2.16)
91.44 (1.59) 119.51 (2.25) 163.03 (3.65) <55 72.45 (1.55)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-67 Food Group Intake Distributions of WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Total fruit (c-eq/d) 231 0.55 (0.10) 0.84 (0.08) 1.26 (0.06) 1.39 (0.06) 1.79 (0.09) 2.37 (0.15)
Whole fruit (c-eq/d) 156 0.09 (0.04) 0.20 (0.04) 0.44 (0.05) 0.66 (0.05) 0.87 (0.07) 1.50 (0.12)
Fruit juice (c-eq/d) 178 0.17 (0.09) 0.34 (0.07) 0.64 (0.04) 0.84 (0.04) 1.12 (0.06) 1.75 (0.13)
Total vegetables (c-eq/d) 229 0.27 (0.05) 0.36 (0.04) 0.49 (0.03) 0.52 (0.02) 0.64 (0.03) 0.80 (0.05)
Dark green vegetables (c-eq/wk) 7 0.00 (0.01) 0.00 (0.01) 0.03 (0.02) 0.13 (0.03) 0.12 (0.02) 0.35 (0.08)
Total red and orange vegetables (c-eq/wk) 142 0.38 (0.11) 0.63 (0.11) 1.06 (0.10) 1.33 (0.10) 1.73 (0.14) 2.61 (0.26)
Beans and peas computed as vegetables (c-eq/wk) 21 0.00 (0.01) 0.03 (0.03) 0.18 (0.05) 0.35 (0.03) 0.52 (0.05) 0.97 (0.14)
Total starchy vegetables (c-eq/wk) 118 0.57 (0.31) 0.94 (0.26) 1.61 (0.21) 2.09 (0.19) 2.68 (0.27) 4.16 (0.51)
Other vegetables (c-eq/wk) 108 0.26 (0.10) 0.48 (0.12) 0.92 (0.17) 1.37 (0.25) 1.72 (0.32) 2.97 (0.60)
Total grains (oz-eq/d) 259 1.68 (0.16) 2.21 (0.12) 2.89 (0.09) 3.02 (0.09) 3.69 (0.12) 4.51 (0.21)
Whole grains (oz-eq/d) 122 0.13 (0.02) 0.21 (0.02) 0.34 (0.03) 0.39 (0.03) 0.52 (0.04) 0.72 (0.08)
Refined grains (oz-eq/d) 257 1.41 (0.16) 1.88 (0.12) 2.50 (0.08) 2.62 (0.08) 3.23 (0.12) 4.00 (0.20)
Total protein foods (oz-eq/d) 240 0.83 (0.18) 1.27 (0.14) 1.93 (0.09) 2.13 (0.09) 2.77 (0.13) 3.70 (0.22)
Meat, poultry, and eggs (not seafood) (oz-eq/wk) 236 5.31 (1.19) 8.18 (0.88) 12.40 (0.63) 13.72 (0.62) 17.80 (0.89) 23.75 (1.52)
Seafood (oz-eq/wk) 1 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Nuts, seeds, and soy (oz-eq/wk) 31 0.03 (0.04) 0.15 (0.09) 0.49 (0.14) 0.84 (0.13) 1.14 (0.24) 2.08 (0.34)
Total dairy (c-eq/d) 259 1.32 (0.12) 1.85 (0.10) 2.55 (0.08) 2.67 (0.08) 3.35 (0.11) 4.16 (0.15)
Oils (g-eq/d) 236 3.03 (0.67) 4.73 (0.55) 7.32 (0.44) 8.27 (0.42) 10.78 (0.54) 14.74 (0.86)
Solid fats (g-eq/d) 262 15.62 (1.20) 20.29 (0.96) 26.29 (0.85) 27.25 (0.85) 33.17 (1.09) 40.11 (1.57)
Added sugars (g-eq/d) 254 12.28 (2.97) 19.59 (2.29) 30.77 (1.62) 34.87 (1.53) 45.66 (2.09) 62.64 (3.68)

NOTES: N = 263. See additional notes following Table J-74.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-68 Food Group Intake Distributions of Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Total fruit (c-eq/d) 73 0.40 (0.20) 0.71 (0.17) 1.22 (0.12) 1.43 (0.10) 1.91 (0.11) 2.72 (0.18)
Whole fruit (c-eq/d) 53 0.09 (0.09) 0.20 (0.10) 0.44 (0.10) 0.70 (0.09) 0.90 (0.11) 1.60 (0.15)
Fruit juice (c-eq/d) 59 0.10 (0.05) 0.24 (0.06) 0.55 (0.07) 0.82 (0.08) 1.09 (0.11) 1.87 (0.18)
Total vegetables (c-eq/d) 73 0.21 (0.07) 0.35 (0.06) 0.54 (0.05) 0.61 (0.05) 0.80 (0.06) 1.10 (0.10)
Dark green vegetables (c-eq/wk) 4 0.00 (NA) 0.00 (NA) 0.03 (NA) 0.27 (NA) 0.23 (NA) 0.78 (NA)
Total red and orange vegetables (c-eq/wk) 55 0.29 (0.17) 0.55 (0.15) 1.03 (0.13) 1.38 (0.14) 1.82 (0.19) 2.88 (0.36)
Beans and peas computed as vegetables (c-eq/wk) 2 0.14 (NA) 0.22 (NA) 0.34 (NA) 0.37 (NA) 0.50 (NA) 0.66 (NA)
Total starchy vegetables (c-eq/wk) 38 1.04 (0.14) 1.49 (0.19) 2.20 (0.27) 2.57 (0.35) 3.24 (0.44) 4.54 (0.80)
Other vegetables (c-eq/wk) 34 0.27 (0.22) 0.48 (0.27) 0.93 (0.37) 1.51 (0.47) 1.81 (0.57) 3.29 (1.05)
Total grains (oz-eq/d) 79 1.39 (0.28) 2.12 (0.23) 3.14 (0.19) 3.38 (0.17) 4.38 (0.21) 5.69 (0.33)
Whole grains (oz-eq/d) 34 0.10 (0.03) 0.18 (0.04) 0.33 (0.06) 0.41 (0.07) 0.55 (0.10) 0.83 (0.16)
Refined grains (oz-eq/d) 78 1.05 (0.35) 1.71 (0.27) 2.66 (0.19) 2.95 (0.17) 3.88 (0.20) 5.21 (0.35)
Total protein foods (oz-eq/d) 76 0.84 (0.27) 1.30 (0.19) 1.96 (0.13) 2.15 (0.14) 2.80 (0.21) 3.71 (0.36)
Meat, poultry, and eggs (not seafood) (oz-eq/wk) 72 5.44 (2.14) 8.17 (1.46) 12.14 (0.86) 13.31 (0.85) 17.15 (1.33) 22.62 (2.39)
Seafood (oz-eq/wk) 1 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Nuts, seeds, and soy (oz-eq/wk) 8 0.27 (0.49) 0.53 (0.49) 0.99 (0.51) 1.29 (0.50) 1.70 (0.63) 2.70 (0.98)
Total dairy (c-eq/d) 79 1.08 (0.19) 1.64 (0.16) 2.38 (0.14) 2.53 (0.14) 3.26 (0.17) 4.16 (0.24)
Oils (g-eq/d) 72 4.22 (0.77) 5.97 (0.70) 8.47 (0.69) 9.20 (0.72) 11.63 (0.94) 15.09 (1.44)
Solid fats (g-eq/d) 80 14.08 (2.83) 19.59 (2.06) 26.64 (1.44) 27.63 (1.38) 34.58 (1.84) 42.44 (2.97)
Added sugars (g-eq/d) 80 12.13 (4.74) 21.21 (3.98) 36.13 (3.48) 43.04 (3.51) 57.32 (4.69) 82.79 (7.59)

NOTES: N = 82. See additional notes following Table J-74.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-69 Food Group Intake Distributions of WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Total fruit (c-eq/d) 72 0.49 (0.10) 0.78 (0.10) 1.20 (0.11) 1.36 (0.12) 1.77 (0.16) 2.41 (0.27)
Whole fruit (c-eq/d) 46 0.11 (0.07) 0.22 (0.08) 0.44 (0.08) 0.62 (0.07) 0.81 (0.09) 1.34 (0.15)
Fruit juice (c-eq/d) 61 0.16 (0.09) 0.32 (0.08) 0.62 (0.08) 0.83 (0.10) 1.10 (0.15) 1.75 (0.29)
Total vegetables (c-eq/d) 58 0.23 (0.09) 0.32 (0.07) 0.44 (0.04) 0.47 (0.04) 0.59 (0.06) 0.76 (0.11)
Dark green vegetables (c-eq/wk) 4 0.00 (NA) 0.01 (NA) 0.04 (NA) 0.14 (NA) 0.16 (NA) 0.39 (NA)
Total red and orange vegetables (c-eq/wk) 36 0.19 (0.17) 0.39 (0.20) 0.85 (0.25) 1.57 (0.30) 1.82 (0.38) 3.56 (0.70)
Beans and peas computed as vegetables (c-eq/wk) 6 0.37 (0.15) 0.61 (0.14) 0.99 (0.13) 1.11 (0.14) 1.48 (0.20) 2.01 (0.32)
Total starchy vegetables (c-eq/wk) 21 0.05 (0.17) 0.15 (0.16) 0.37 (0.12) 0.45 (0.12) 0.68 (0.18) 0.99 (0.34)
Other vegetables (c-eq/wk) 28 0.27 (0.15) 0.42 (0.14) 0.65 (0.14) 0.78 (0.15) 1.00 (0.21) 1.44 (0.36)
Total grains (oz-eq/d) 79 1.85 (0.39) 2.45 (0.25) 3.23 (0.17) 3.36 (0.18) 4.13 (0.33) 5.03 (0.55)
Whole grains (oz-eq/d) 36 0.09 (0.09) 0.19 (0.11) 0.41 (0.15) 0.83 (0.20) 0.92 (0.24) 1.88 (0.47)
Refined grains (oz-eq/d) 78 1.67 (0.39) 2.14 (0.23) 2.74 (0.13) 2.83 (0.14) 3.42 (0.31) 4.10 (0.54)
Total protein foods (oz-eq/d) 73 1.03 (0.26) 1.42 (0.17) 1.94 (0.13) 2.05 (0.13) 2.56 (0.21) 3.21 (0.33)
Meat, poultry, and eggs (not seafood) (oz-eq/wk) 69 4.84 (1.98) 7.59 (1.33) 11.69 (0.83) 12.98 (0.83) 16.94 (1.30) 22.71 (2.27)
Seafood (oz-eq/wk) 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Nuts, seeds, and soy (oz-eq/wk) 11 0.16 (0.20) 0.36 (0.23) 0.72 (0.27) 0.81 (0.27) 1.19 (0.40) 1.61 (0.55)
Total dairy (c-eq/d) 80 1.42 (0.27) 1.85 (0.18) 2.40 (0.12) 2.48 (0.12) 3.03 (0.19) 3.65 (0.31)
Oils (g-eq/d) 73 4.47 (1.62) 6.01 (1.17) 8.11 (0.68) 8.62 (0.60) 10.67 (0.78) 13.40 (1.53)
Solid fats (g-eq/d) 80 14.82 (2.93) 19.22 (2.02) 25.10 (1.68) 26.37 (1.72) 32.14 (2.66) 39.56 (4.16)
Added sugars (g-eq/d) 80 15.11 (6.64) 22.69 (4.53) 34.12 (2.72) 38.35 (2.69) 49.38 (4.49) 66.99 (8.30)

NOTES: N = 81. See additional notes following Table J-74.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-70 Food Group Intake Distributions of Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 1 to Less Than 2 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median Mean 75th 90th
Total fruit (c-eq/d) 20 0.51 (0.31) 0.74 (0.25) 1.06 (0.18) 1.16 (0.16) 1.48 (0.20) 1.93 (0.35)
Whole fruit (c-eq/d) 15 0.08 (0.19) 0.19 (0.15) 0.42 (0.12) 0.63 (0.11) 0.85 (0.13) 1.45 (0.22)
Fruit juice (c-eq/d) 14 0.08 (0.25) 0.18 (0.25) 0.43 (0.30) 0.87 (0.38) 0.98 (0.49) 2.02 (0.88)
Total vegetables (c-eq/d) 18 0.19 (0.13) 0.32 (0.10) 0.53 (0.09) 0.63 (0.09) 0.83 (0.14) 1.20 (0.27)
Dark green vegetables (c-eq/wk) 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Total red and orange vegetables (c- eq/wk) 13 1.11 (0.20) 1.11 (0.18) 1.11 (0.17) 1.11 (0.19) 1.11 (0.26) 1.11 (0.48)
Beans and peas computed as vegetables (c-eq/wk) 0 NA NA NA NA NA NA
Total starchy vegetables (c-eq/wk) 8 0.40 (0.37) 0.73 (0.39) 1.31 (0.39) 1.58 (0.40) 2.14 (0.54) 3.14 (0.88)
Other vegetables (c-eq/wk) 5 0.15 (NA) 0.48 (NA) 1.14 (NA) 1.22 (NA) 1.91 (NA) 2.42 (NA)
Total grains (oz-eq/d) 24 1.83 (0.37) 2.40 (0.35) 3.12 (0.34) 3.24 (0.33) 3.95 (0.37) 4.79 (0.45)
Whole grains (oz-eq/d) 12 0.10 (0.05) 0.19 (0.07) 0.36 (0.10) 0.50 (0.14) 0.64 (0.18) 1.07 (0.33)
Refined grains (oz-eq/d) 24 1.74 (0.31) 2.18 (0.30) 2.75 (0.30) 2.83 (0.29) 3.39 (0.33) 4.04 (0.41)
Total protein foods (oz-eq/d) 22 1.34 (0.30) 1.80 (0.28) 2.43 (0.37) 2.56 (0.39) 3.17 (0.55) 3.95 (0.76)
Meat, poultry, and eggs (not seafood) (oz-eq/wk) 21 7.58 (2.10) 10.45 (1.95) 14.43 (2.44) 15.45 (2.59) 19.34 (3.62) 24.62 (5.14)
Seafood (oz-eq/wk) 2 0.00 (NA) 0.00 (NA) 0.00 (NA) 0.81 (NA) 0.16 (NA) 2.76 (NA)
Nuts, seeds, and soy (oz-eq/wk) 5 0.10 (NA) 0.18 (NA) 0.33 (NA) 0.41 (NA) 0.55 (NA) 0.83 (NA)
Total dairy (c-eq/d) 25 1.11 (0.18) 1.48 (0.16) 1.98 (0.15) 2.09 (0.15) 2.58 (0.18) 3.22 (0.23)
Oils (g-eq/d) 25 6.49 (2.00) 7.85 (1.56) 9.60 (1.10) 9.89 (1.02) 11.60 (1.15) 13.65 (1.91)
Solid fats (g-eq/d) 25 12.52 (2.50) 17.12 (2.34) 22.92 (2.38) 23.65 (2.39) 29.38 (2.84) 35.72 (3.61)
Added sugars (g-eq/d) 25 21.53 (8.19) 26.77 (6.09) 33.62 (3.86) 34.94 (3.71) 41.67 (5.19) 50.04 (9.94)

NOTES: N = 25. See additional notes following Table J-74.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-71 Food Group Intake Distributions of WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median
Total fruit (c-eq/d) 335 0.48 (0.09) 0.81 (0.07) 1.35 (0.05)
Fruit juice (c-eq/d) 259 0.16 (0.07) 0.33 (0.06) 0.67 (0.05)
Whole fruit (c-eq/d) 209 0.12 (0.06) 0.26 (0.06) 0.56 (0.05)
Total vegetables (c-eq/d) 347 0.28 (0.05) 0.43 (0.04) 0.64 (0.02)
Dark green vegetables (c-eq/wk) 12 0.02 (0.02) 0.05 (0.03) 0.12 (0.03)
Total red and orange vegetables (c-eq/wk) 218 0.40 (0.14) 0.69 (0.12) 1.24 (0.10)
Beans and peas computed as vegetables (c-eq/wk) 26 0.05 (0.03) 0.13 (0.05) 0.33 (0.05)
Total starchy vegetables (c-eq/wk) 149 0.70 (0.27) 1.28 (0.30) 2.46 (0.33)
Other vegetables (c-eq/wk) 191 0.30 (0.09) 0.59 (0.11) 1.21 (0.13)
Total grains (oz-eq/d) 398 2.52 (0.21) 3.25 (0.15) 4.18 (0.10)
Whole grains (oz-eq/d) 160 0.16 (0.02) 0.25 (0.02) 0.38 (0.02)
Refined grains (oz-eq/d) 393 2.20 (0.24) 2.89 (0.16) 3.77 (0.10)
Total protein foods (oz-eq/d) 378 1.69 (0.20) 2.23 (0.13) 2.93 (0.08)
Meat, poultry, and eggs (not seafood) (oz-eq/wk) 365 10.22 (1.02) 13.56 (0.68) 17.95 (0.51)
Seafood (oz-eq/wk) 6 0.14 (0.18) 0.33 (0.19) 0.68 (0.15)
Nuts, seeds, and soy (oz-eq/wk) 59 0.18 (0.08) 0.43 (0.12) 1.05 (0.22)
Total dairy (c-eq/d) 394 1.09 (0.13) 1.49 (0.08) 2.00 (0.06)
Oils (g-eq/d) 382 5.44 (0.73) 7.88 (0.53) 11.37 (0.41)
Solid fats (g-eq/d) 401 18.38 (0.98) 22.61 (0.73) 27.90 (0.68)
Added sugars (g-eq/d) 398 28.76 (3.03) 39.95 (2.31) 55.35 (1.83)

NOTES: N = 402. The reference food intake pattern used was 1,300 kcals. See additional notes following Table J-74.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Mean 75th 90th Recommended Intake % Below Recommended Intake (SE)
1.57 (0.05) 2.09 (0.07) 2.94 (0.13) 1.25 45.45 (4.92)
0.94 (0.05) 1.25 (0.07) 2.05 (0.15) 0.625 47.34 (6.36)
0.88 (0.05) 1.12 (0.07) 1.98 (0.14) 0.625 54.17 (5.75)
0.71 (0.03) 0.91 (0.04) 1.22 (0.08) 1.5 95.93 (0.99)
0.19 (0.03) 0.25 (0.04) 0.45 (0.09) 1 98.63 (1.20)
1.63 (0.10) 2.12 (0.13) 3.33 (0.24) 3 87.23 (2.60)
0.50 (0.04) 0.68 (0.06) 1.18 (0.13) 0.5 64.54 (3.55)
3.79 (0.43) 4.67 (0.53) 8.21 (1.18) 3.5 64.40 (5.28)
1.90 (0.16) 2.37 (0.20) 4.21 (0.41) 2.5 76.77 (2.98)
4.32 (0.10) 5.24 (0.15) 6.30 (0.25) 4.5 58.41 (5.16)
0.43 (0.03) 0.55 (0.04) 0.75 (0.06) 2.25 99.99 (0.01)
3.91 (0.10) 4.78 (0.16) 5.80 (0.28) 2.25 10.81 (2.09)
3.05 (0.08) 3.75 (0.14) 4.57 (0.26) 3.5 68.46 (7.15)
18.76 (0.55) 23.08 (0.98) 28.33 (1.70) 16.5 41.65 (4.60)
0.90 (0.09) 1.24 (0.16) 1.97 (0.45) 5 99.79 (0.68)
1.81 (0.29) 2.28 (0.40) 4.26 (0.74) 2.5 77.57 (4.98)
2.10 (0.06) 2.61 (0.10) 3.24 (0.17) 2.5 71.09 (7.80)
12.41 (0.46) 15.80 (0.76) 20.67 (1.35) 17 79.81 (5.10)
% Above Recommended Intake (SE)
28.61 (0.72) 33.84 (1.06) 39.75 (1.63) <14.4 97.36 (0.43)
59.10 (1.87) 74.14 (2.76) 94.15 (4.62) <32.5 85.62 (2.29)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-72 Food Group Intake Distributions of Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2005–2008

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median
Total fruit (c-eq/d) 250 0.39 (0.06) 0.67 (0.06) 1.12 (0.06)
Fruit juice (c-eq/d) 166 0.13 (0.03) 0.26 (0.04) 0.53 (0.05)
Whole fruit (c-eq/d) 176 0.13 (0.06) 0.27 (0.06) 0.58 (0.06)
Total vegetables (c-eq/d) 291 0.32 (0.06) 0.45 (0.04) 0.64 (0.03)
Dark green vegetables (c-eq/wk) 6 0.01 (0.04) 0.04 (0.04) 0.11 (0.05)
Total red and orange vegetables (c-eq/wk) 202 0.58 (0.08) 0.91 (0.08) 1.44 (0.08)
Beans and peas computed as vegetables (c-eq/wk) 13 0.84 (0.13) 1.28 (0.11) 1.90 (0.13)
Total starchy vegetables (c-eq/wk) 122 0.22 (0.06) 0.47 (0.10) 1.08 (0.17)
Other vegetables (c-eq/wk) 150 0.04 (0.05) 0.10 (0.06) 0.24 (0.05)
Total grains (oz-eq/d) 324 2.74 (0.18) 3.53 (0.13) 4.53 (0.10)
Whole grains (oz-eq/d) 133 0.12 (0.04) 0.23 (0.05) 0.48 (0.07)
Refined grains (oz-eq/d) 322 2.47 (0.16) 3.18 (0.12) 4.08 (0.09)
Total protein foods (oz-eq/d) 315 1.84 (0.19) 2.32 (0.12) 2.92 (0.08)
Meat, poultry, and eggs (not seafood) (oz-eq/wk) 306 10.36 (0.91) 13.43 (0.68) 17.41 (0.56)
Seafood (oz-eq/wk) 8 0.00 (0.05) 0.05 (0.11) 0.35 (0.18)
Nuts, seeds, and soy (oz-eq/wk) 50 0.57 (0.21) 0.93 (0.24) 1.58 (0.27)
Total dairy (c-eq/d) 323 1.01 (0.09) 1.41 (0.07) 1.95 (0.05)
Oils (g-eq/d) 312 7.29 (0.95) 9.28 (0.65) 11.88 (0.42)
Solid fats (g-eq/d) 327 18.17 (1.15) 22.95 (0.96) 28.90 (0.83)
Added sugars (g-eq/d) 328 34.44 (3.57) 46.32 (2.69) 62.40 (2.10)

NOTES: N = 329. The reference food intake pattern used was 1,300 kcals. See additional notes following Table J-74.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Mean 75th 90th Recommended Intake % Below Recommended Intake (SE)
1.32 (0.06) 1.75 (0.08) 2.50 (0.14) 1.25 56.37 (3.62)
0.81 (0.08) 1.03 (0.10) 1.79 (0.19) 0.625 56.53 (4.63)
0.91 (0.06) 1.16 (0.08) 2.08 (0.16) 0.625 52.99 (5.60)
0.69 (0.03) 0.87 (0.04) 1.12 (0.08) 1.5 98.11 (7.02)
0.21 (0.04) 0.27 (0.05) 0.52 (0.14) 1 97.54 (2.08)
1.71 (0.09) 2.21 (0.13) 3.15 (0.23) 3 88.37 (2.54)
2.07 (0.14) 2.67 (0.20) 3.50 (0.33) 0.5 90.02 (3.62)
2.06 (0.30) 2.40 (0.34) 4.77 (0.73) 3.5 76.12 (4.19)
0.31 (0.04) 0.45 (0.07) 0.70 (0.16) 2.5 78.91 (6.17)
4.67 (0.10) 5.66 (0.14) 6.79 (0.23) 4.5 49.35 (4.04)
0.79 (0.08) 0.97 (0.10) 1.77 (0.17) 2.25 93.66 (1.37)
4.22 (0.10) 5.11 (0.14) 6.14 (0.22) 2.25 6.79 (1.01)
3.00 (0.08) 3.60 (0.14) 4.27 (0.24) 3.5 71.93 (7.22)
18.08 (0.56) 21.99 (0.82) 26.65 (1.31) 16.5 44.22 (5.09)
0.94 (0.16) 1.28 (0.21) 2.80 (0.69) 5 97.80 (2.27)
2.03 (0.31) 2.60 (0.40) 4.01 (0.79) 2.5 73.21 (6.47)
2.05 (0.05) 2.57 (0.07) 3.21 (0.11) 2.5 72.74 (3.23)
12.36 (0.42) 14.91 (0.67) 18.03 (1.17) 17 86.21 (7.40)
% Above Recommended Intake (SE)
29.63 (0.81) 35.51 (0.91) 42.02 (1.22) <14.4 96.56 (0.61)
66.04 (2.09) 81.77 (2.89) 102.24 (4.65) <32.5 91.83 (0.65)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-73 Food Group Intake Distributions of WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median
Total fruit (c-eq/d) 209 0.69 (0.10) 0.97 (0.08) 1.37 (0.06)
Whole fruit (c-eq/d) 137 0.29 (0.06) 0.45 (0.06) 0.71 (0.06)
Fruit juice (c-eq/d) 166 0.22 (0.10) 0.36 (0.07) 0.59 (0.04)
Total vegetables (c-eq/d) 194 0.31 (0.04) 0.43 (0.03) 0.61 (0.03)
Dark green vegetables (c-eq/wk) 5 0.00 (NA) 0.03 (NA) 0.13 (NA)
Total red and orange vegetables (c-eq/wk) 130 0.34 (0.08) 0.60 (0.09) 1.08 (0.10)
Beans and peas computed as vegetables (c-eq/wk) 27 0.01 (0.01) 0.06 (0.04) 0.33 (0.07)
Total starchy vegetables (c-eq/wk) 80 1.11 (0.13) 1.61 (0.15) 2.42 (0.20)
Other vegetables (c-eq/wk) 94 0.35 (0.09) 0.67 (0.14) 1.34 (0.24)
Total grains (oz-eq/d) 226 3.12 (0.28) 3.81 (0.19) 4.67 (0.14)
Whole grains (oz-eq/d) 115 0.15 (0.09) 0.29 (0.08) 0.58 (0.07)
Refined grains (oz-eq/d) 224 2.47 (0.34) 3.11 (0.23) 3.92 (0.12)
Total protein foods (oz-eq/d) 218 1.65 (0.27) 2.20 (0.18) 2.93 (0.12)
Meat, poultry, and eggs (not seafood) (oz-eq/wk) 212 8.63 (1.63) 12.38 (1.13) 17.52 (0.74)
Seafood (oz-eq/wk) 5 0.08 (0.19) 0.26 (0.23) 0.70 (0.26)
Nuts, seeds, and soy (oz-eq/wk) 32 0.36 (0.17) 0.74 (0.21) 1.40 (0.27)
Total dairy (c-eq/d) 221 1.00 (0.10) 1.40 (0.08) 1.94 (0.07)
Oils (g-eq/d) 221 8.98 (1.20) 11.16 (0.85) 13.97 (0.59)
Solid fats (g-eq/d) 227 15.15 (1.66) 19.29 (1.19) 24.67 (0.87)
Added sugars (g-eq/d) 226 25.64 (2.58) 35.44 (2.15) 48.58 (1.82)

NOTES: N = 228. The reference food intake pattern used was 1,300 kcals. See additional notes following Table J-74.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Mean 75th 90th Recommended Intake % Below Recommended Intake (SE)
1.47 (0.06) 1.85 (0.08) 2.37 (0.13) 1.25 42.58 (7.20)
0.83 (0.06) 1.07 (0.07) 1.52 (0.13) 0.625 42.49 (5.84)
0.71 (0.04) 0.93 (0.07) 1.33 (0.13) 0.625 52.95 (10.78)
0.65 (0.03) 0.82 (0.05) 1.06 (0.09) 1.50 98.67 (1.13)
0.28 (NA) 0.38 (NA) 0.76 (NA) 1.00 94.28 (NA)
1.43 (0.11) 1.86 (0.14) 2.94 (0.26) 3.00 90.49 (2.19)
0.62 (0.07) 0.93 (0.14) 1.68 (0.27) 0.50 58.82 (3.47)
2.88 (0.35) 3.62 (0.40) 5.18 (0.94) 3.50 73.14 (4.39)
2.13 (0.41) 2.62 (0.49) 4.70 (1.00) 2.50 73.40 (7.45)
4.76 (0.15) 5.61 (0.23) 6.52 (0.37) 4.50 44.99 (7.13)
0.86 (0.07) 1.10 (0.10) 1.87 (0.18) 2.25 93.34 (1.68)
4.03 (0.11) 4.82 (0.18) 5.72 (0.35) 2.25 6.55 (12.84)
3.06 (0.12) 3.77 (0.19) 4.63 (0.33) 3.50 67.99 (8.01)
18.69 (0.73) 23.72 (1.15) 30.21 (2.00) 16.50 45.08 (1.70)
1.01 (0.20) 1.44 (0.29) 2.37 (0.65) 5.00 99.52 (7.61)
1.73 (0.27) 2.38 (0.41) 3.54 (0.59) 2.50 77.28 (5.02)
2.04 (0.07) 2.57 (0.10) 3.21 (0.16) 2.50 72.82 (8.39)
14.44 (0.58) 17.20 (0.84) 20.50 (1.42) 17.00 73.74 (8.39)
% Above recommended intake
25.62 (0.88) 30.90 (1.30) 37.29 (2.16) <14.4 91.96 (1.85)
51.24 (1.77) 64.12 (2.05) 80.21 (2.88) <32.5 80.09 (3.04)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-74 Food Group Intake Distributions of Eligible Non-WIC-Participating Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

Food Group N Percentiles and Mean (SE)
10th 25th Median
Total fruit (c-eq/d) 125 0.39 (0.11) 0.68 (0.10) 1.13 (0.09)
Whole fruit (c-eq/d) 89 0.14 (0.09) 0.28 (0.09) 0.55 (0.08)
Fruit juice (c-eq/d) 88 0.07 (0.05) 0.16 (0.08) 0.38 (0.10)
Total vegetables (c-eq/d) 125 0.36 (0.04) 0.48 (0.04) 0.65 (0.04)
Dark green vegetables (c-eq/wk) 5 0.38 (NA) 0.62 (NA) 1.04 (NA)
Total red and orange vegetables (c-eq/wk) 80 0.34 (0.06) 0.58 (0.07) 1.00 (0.10)
Beans and peas computed as vegetables (c-eq/wk) 10 0.04 (0.08) 0.11 (0.09) 0.24 (0.08)
Total starchy vegetables (c-eq/wk) 57 1.00 (0.27) 1.44 (0.24) 2.07 (0.28)
Other vegetables (c-eq/wk) 67 0.97 (0.13) 1.43 (0.20) 2.16 (0.32)
Total grains (oz-eq/d) 148 3.25 (0.19) 3.90 (0.17) 4.73 (0.18)
Whole grains (oz-eq/d) 76 0.13 (0.04) 0.25 (0.05) 0.51 (0.07)
Refined grains (oz-eq/d) 147 2.66 (0.18) 3.30 (0.18) 4.12 (0.18)
Total protein foods (oz-eq/d) 144 1.68 (0.15) 2.27 (0.14) 3.03 (0.15)
Meat, poultry, and eggs (not seafood) (oz-eq/wk) 140 8.00 (0.86) 12.00 (0.85) 17.65 (0.98)
Seafood (oz-eq/wk) 5 0.00 (NA) 0.00 (NA) 0.02 (NA)
Nuts, seeds, and soy (oz-eq/wk) 29 0.73 (0.30) 1.35 (0.34) 2.41 (0.49)
Total dairy (c-eq/d) 145 1.07 (0.11) 1.48 (0.10) 2.03 (0.11)
Oils (g-eq/d) 145 7.61 (0.86) 10.51 (0.78) 14.49 (0.82)
Solid fats (g-eq/d) 147 17.90 (1.56) 22.30 (1.37) 27.91 (1.25)
Added sugars (g-eq/d) 146 32.37 (4.23) 44.06 (3.37) 60.21 (3.33)

NOTES: N = 148. The reference food intake pattern used was 1,300 kcals. See additional notes following this table.

NOTES for Tables J-62 through J-74: c-eq = cup-equivalents; d = day; g-eq = gram-equivalents; N = sample size; NA = data not available; oz-eq = ounce-equivalents; SE = standard error; wk = week. NA = estimate could not be obtained because the Statistical Program for Age-adjusted Dietary Assessment (SPADE) requires more than two observations per group with two non-zero intakes in order to estimate a within-person variance, or, for median standard errors, a sample size of 30 is required to estimate this value from mean standard error.

SOURCES: Intake data are from NHANES 2005–2012 (USDA/ARS, 2005–2012). Reference values are the USDA food patterns from the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015–2020 (USDA/HHS, 2016).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
Mean 75th 90th Recommended Intake % Below Recommended Intake (SE)
1.32 (0.09) 1.76 (0.12) 2.47 (0.20) 1.25 55.66 (5.88)
0.75 (0.07) 0.65 (0.10) 0.99 (0.13) 0.83 (0.08) 1.61 (0.19) 1.54 (0.16) 0.625 0.625 55.73 (9.23) 66.24 (8.00)
0.68 (0.04) 0.85 (0.06) 1.06 (0.09) 1.50 99.10 (1.03)
1.32 (NA) 1.70 (NA) 2.59 (NA) 1.00 93.29 (NA)
1.30 (0.15) 1.68 (0.20) 2.61 (0.40) 3.00 93.06 (3.08)
0.30 (0.06) 0.42 (0.08) 0.64 (0.20) 0.50 81.33 (8.42)
2.24 (0.31) 2.86 (0.45) 3.71 (0.69) 3.50 87.20 (7.81)
2.55 (0.48) 3.22 (0.58) 4.58 (1.12) 2.50 59.68 (6.89)
4.88 (0.19) 5.70 (0.25) 6.70 (0.37) 4.50 42.90 (4.83)
0.78 (0.09) 0.99 (0.11) 1.74 (0.21) 2.25 94.18 (1.71)
4.26 (0.18) 5.07 (0.22) 6.05 (0.30) 2.25 4.24 (2.07)
3.15 (0.16) 3.90 (0.21) 4.79 (0.29) 3.50 64.63 (5.02)
19.12 (1.05) 24.64 (1.43) 32.09 (2.11) 16.50 45.00 (4.60)
0.67 (NA) 0.38 (NA) 1.97 (NA) 5.00 96.66 (NA)
2.94 (0.51) 3.94 (0.78) 5.82 (1.15) 2.50 51.98 (12.57)
2.13 (0.11) 2.66 (0.14) 3.31 (0.19) 2.50 69.49 (5.81)
15.42 (0.87) 19.30 (1.20) 24.38 (1.84) 17.00 64.33 (5.07)
% Above Recommended Intake (SE)
28.80 (1.23) 34.33 (1.45) 40.82 (2.00) <14.4 96.68 (1.50)
64.32 (3.52) 80.10 (5.02) 101.53 (7.66) <32.5 89.86 (1.01)
Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

DIET QUALITY OF WIC SUBGROUPS

The committee was tasked with evaluating the diet quality of WIC-eligible subpopulations using the Healthy Eating Index–2010 (HEI–2010) and one additional index of the committee’s choosing. This appendix describes the methods applied in these analyses.

The Healthy Eating Index–2010

Because it is based on the DGA food patterns, which apply only to individuals ages 2 and older, the HEI–2010 was likewise applied only to individuals ages 2 year and older (Guenther et al., 2013). The HEI–2010 was designed to measure compliance with the key recommendations in the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). The HEI–2010 has not yet been updated to reflect the 2015–2020 DGA. The HEI–2010 covers 12 components as shown in Table J-75. Adequate consumption of all components except refined grains, sodium, and empty calories raises scores. Over-consumption of these three components lowers scores. A perfect overall score for the HEI–2010 is 100. Subscores for the components can be up to 20, with the ranges for each individual component being 0 to 5, 0 to 10, or 0 to 20. The HEI–2010 is the only metric in this report that applies the 2010 DGA as a point of comparison. Only data from the first 24-hour recall was used to calculate HEI–2010.6

Nutrient-Based Diet Quality Index

As described in the phase I report (NASEM, 2016), options for a second index were considered by the committee based on its evaluation of the literature on existing diet quality indexes other than the HEI–2010 and with consideration to three criteria: (1) the index can be applied to adults and children, (2) 24-hour recall data are applied, and (3) the index is based on a metric other than comparison to the DGA. After reviewing potential indexes, the committee determined that responding to the task

__________________

6 The committee computed the distribution of HEI–2010 scores using the HEI–2010 Statistical Analysis System (SAS) macros that were posted by the National Cancer Institute (NCI, 2016). At the time these analyses were conducted, NCI had not yet updated the code to compute the HEI–2010; therefore, in cooperation with researchers at NCI, the macros were modified as appropriate. The updated macros now available through NCI are essentially identical to those used for the analyses in this report. The HEI–2010 SAS macros were used to implement the ratio method (Freedman et al., 2008), and provide a mean score with its standard error (SE) for each of the 12 HEI–2010 components as well as for the total score. The SE is computed using a Monte Carlo approach that permits accounting for the complex survey design of NHANES. For the time being, the NCI macros use only the first 24-hour recall for each person.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-75 HEI–2010 Components and Scoring System

HEI–2010 Componenta Maximum Standard for Maximum Score Standard for Minimum Score of Zero
Adequacy
Total fruitb 5 ≥0.8 c-eq / 1,000 kcal No fruit
Whole fruitc 5 ≥0.4 c-eq / 1,000 kcal No whole fruit
Total vegetablesd 5 ≥1.1 c-eq / 1,000 kcal No vegetables
Greens and beansd 5 ≥0.2 c-eq / 1,000 kcal No dark-green vegetables, beans, or peas
Whole grains 10 ≥1.5 c-eq / 1,000 kcal No whole grains
Dairye 10 ≥1.3 c-eq / 1,000 kcal No dairy
Total protein foodsf 5 ≥2.5 c-eq / 1,000 kcal No protein foods
Seafood and plant proteinsf,g 5 ≥0.8 c-eq / 1,000 kcal No seafood or plant proteins
Fatty acidsh 10 (PUFAs + MUFAs) / SFAs ≥2.5 (PUFAs + MUFAs) / SFAs ≤1.2
Moderation
Refined grains 10 ≤1.8 oz-eq / 1,000 kcal ≥4.3 oz-eq / 1,000 kcal
Sodium 10 ≤1.1 g / 1,000 kcal ≥2.0 g / 1,000 kcal
Empty caloriesi 20 ≤19% of energy ≥50% of energy

NOTES: c-eq = cup-equivalent; kcal = kilocalorie; oz-eq = ounce-equivalent; MUFAs = monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFAs = polyunsaturated fatty acids; SFAs = saturated fatty acids.

a Intakes between the minimum and maximum standards are scored proportionately.

b Includes 100 percent fruit juice.

c Includes all forms except juice.

d Includes any beans and peas not counted as total protein foods.

e Includes all milk products such as fluid milk, yogurt, and cheese, and fortified soy beverages.

f Beans and peas are included here (not with vegetables) when the total protein foods standard is otherwise not met.

g Includes seafood, nuts, seeds, soy products (other than beverages) as well as beans and peas counted as Total Protein Foods.

h Ratio of poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs and MUFAs) to saturated fatty acids (SFAs).

i Calories from solid fats, alcohol, and added sugars; threshold for counting alcohol is >13 g /1,000 kcal.

SOURCE: Guenther et al., 2013.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-76 Summary of Mean HEI–2010 Scores for Women Ages 19 to 50 Years, NHANES 2005–2012

HEI–2010 Component Maximum Score Pregnant WIC (N = 169) Pregnant Non-WIC (N = 90) Any Breastfeeding WIC (N = 54) Postpartum WIC (N = 62) Nonpregnant, Breastfeeding, or Postpartum, Non-WIC (N = 2,666)
Mean Score (SE)
Adequacy
Total vegetables 5 2.66 (0.32) 3.20 (0.37) 3.16 (0.40) 2.50 (0.34) 3.13 (0.06)
Greens and beans 5 2.11 (0.88) 2.12 (1.04) 2.62 (1.12) 2.14 (1.04) 2.61 (0.14)
Total fruit 5 4.50 (0.37) 3.81 (0.51) 4.62 (0.52) 3.90 (1.23) 2.50 (0.10)
Whole fruit 5 3.84 (0.41) 3.71 (0.69) 4.95 (0.23) 2.19 (0.50) 2.78 (0.12)
Whole grains 10 2.08 (0.29) 1.46 (0.38) 2.80 (0.82) 2.31 (0.63) 1.83 (0.09)
Dairy 10 7.30 (0.50) 6.52 (0.62) 7.87 (0.89) 5.54 (0.79) 5.68 (0.11)
Total protein foods 5 4.87 (0.19) 4.85 (0.23) 4.96 (0.12) 4.97 (0.09) 5.0 (0.0)
Seafood and plant proteins 5 3.63 (0.64) 3.71 (0.77) 2.84 (0.84) 2.37 (0.88) 3.08 (0.13)
Fatty acids 10 3.57 (0.54) 3.99 (0.60) 2.86 (0.62) 4.79 (0.67) 4.32 (0.14)
Moderation
Sodium 10 5.76 (0.71) 5.22 (0.59) 5.40 (0.56) 5.23 (0.74) 4.61 (0.11)
Refined grains 10 5.78 (0.49) 4.48 (0.60) 5.79 (1.03) 5.63 (0.88) 5.86 (0.14)
Empty calories 20 10.94 (1.01) 11.48 (0.72) 12.73 (1.36) 10.26 (1.48) 10.74 (0.26)
Total HEI–2010 Score 100 57.04 (2.35) 54.55 (2.84) 60.60 (3.30) 51.83 (3.26) 52.13 (0.60)

NOTES: HEI–2010 = Healthy Eating Index–2010; N = sample size; SE = standard error. Sample sizes may differ from other analyses because the methodology uses reported intake on day 1 only.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

TABLE J-77 Summary of Mean HEI–2010 Scores for Children Ages 2 to Less Than 5 Years, NHANES 2011–2012

HEI–2010 Component Maximum Score WIC, 2005–2008 (N = 477) Eligible Non-WIC, 2005–2008 (N = 448) WIC, 2011–2012 (N = 263) Eligible Non-WIC, 2011–2012 (N = 216)
Mean Score (SE)
Adequacy
Total vegetables 5 2.2 (0.10) 2.1 (0.10) 2.1 (0.18) 1.8 (0.13)
Greens and beans 5 0.3 (0.12) 0.7 (0.18) 1.1 (0.76) 0.5 (0.21)
Total fruit 5 5.0 (0.00) 5.0 (0.08) 5.0 (0.05) 5.0 (0.12)
Whole fruit 5 5.0 (0.07) 5.0 (0.03) 5.0 (0.08) 4.9 (0.20)
Whole grains 10 1.8 (0.15) 2.2 (0.29) 3.1 (0.35) 2.5 (0.33)
Dairy 10 10.0 (0.01) 9.9 (0.15) 10.0 (0.09) 9.9 (0.33)
Total protein foods 5 4.1 (0.13) 4.3 (0.15) 4.4 (0.21) 3.9 (0.40)
Seafood and plant proteins 5 2.2 (0.22) 2.7 (0.37) 3.0 (0.43) 2.2 (0.63)
Fatty acids 10 2.1 (0.22) 2.2 (0.23) 3.6 (0.50) 2.8 (0.63)
Moderation
Sodium 10 6.7 (0.25) 5.9 (0.25) 6.1 (0.24) 6.7 (0.42)
Refined grains 10 7.4 (0.31) 6.6 (0.26) 6.8 (0.45) 6.7 (0.39)
Empty calories 20 13.2 (0.34) 12.0 (0.41) 14.7 (0.64) 12.8 (0.68)
Total HEI–2010 Score 100 59.8 (0.66) 58.7 (1.08) 65.0 (0.86) 59.6 (1.61)

NOTES: HEI–2010 = Healthy Eating Index–2010; N = sample size; SE = standard error. Sample sizes may differ from other analyses because the methodology uses reported intake on day 1 only.

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×

would require an index that focuses mainly on nutrient content to provide a contrast to the food-group focus of the HEI–2010. However, the committee found that existing nutrient-based indexes could not be applied directly for two reasons. First, they could not be applied because they use daily values based on a 2,000-calorie diet as reference standards for nutrient intake rather than age-appropriate DRI values. Second, they do not necessarily include all of the nutrients and dietary components the committee was interested in assessing, based on current knowledge about nutrients of concern in the diets of young children and women of childbearing age (noted in the DGA) and the committee’s assessment of the nutrient intakes of WIC-eligible populations. The committee developed an adapted nutrient-based diet quality (NBDQ) index based on the mean probability of adequacy for the nine shortfall nutrients, calculated for each individual (see Box 3-2).7

The index examined the following “positive” nutrients included in the DGA as shortfall nutrients and nutrients of concern:

  • Potassium
  • Dietary fiber
  • Calcium
  • Iron
  • Vitamin C
  • Folate
  • Vitamin A
  • Vitamin E
  • Magnesium

The index is the mean percentage adequacy for these nine nutrients, calculated for each individual. Thus, the NBDQ can take on values between 0 and 100 for a person.

  • For nutrients with an EAR: the percentage adequacy was calculated for each individual for each day. To do this, the method described in IOM (2000b) was applied using the DRI for assessment of intake of individuals and groups and z-scores were computed for each respondent as follows:
    1. Usual intake at the individual level was first estimated as the best linear unbiased predictor (BLUP) of intake. The BLUP has the smallest prediction error variance among all linear predictors.

__________________

7 There are ample precedents for the use of a composite nutrient adequacy index. Mean adequacy ratios have been used for many years and have more recently been updated to reflect the DRIs. The NDBQ is essentially the same as the indexes used in several published studies (Foote et al., 2004; Murphy et al., 2006).

Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
×
    1. The difference between the individual’s estimated usual intake of the nutrient and the EAR for the nutrient was then computed.
    2. A z-score was computed as the ratio of the difference to the standard error of that difference.
    3. Finally, the probability of observing a z-value that was at least as large as the one we observed for the individual was computed and multiplied by 100. These calculations were repeated for all the nutrients included in the index. The possible range is from 0 to 100.
  • For the nutrients with an AI value (potassium and dietary fiber), reasonable intake ranges based on the AI were applied, to assign 0, 25, 50 and 100 percentage adequacy as follows:
    1. Intake equal to or above the AI, percentage adequacy = 100
    2. Intake below the AI but equal to or above 75 of the AI, percentage adequacy = 75
    3. Intake below 75 percentage of the AI but equal to or above 50 percent of the AI, percentage adequacy = 50
    4. Intake below 50 percent of the AI but equal to or above 25 percent of the AI, percentage adequacy = 25
    5. Intake below 25 percent of the AI, percentage adequacy = 0
  • The mean percentage adequacy for each individual was calculated by averaging the nutrient-wise percentage adequacy.
  • The mean percentage adequacy for population subgroups was then calculated using individual survey weights.
    Initial descriptive statistics were generated to validate the index:
    1. As a first step, the mean and standard deviation of the index were evaluated.
    2. Second, the association of the index with energy intake was examined.
  • This approach is very similar to that published by Verger et al. (2012), except that the NBDQ includes only shortfall nutrients as defined by the 2015 DGA. When tracked with energy intake, the association between the NBDQ index and energy intake was not strong, which suggests that the index is a summary measure that predicts dietary quality beyond simply being a measure of overall energy intakes. NBDQ was applied to all subpopulations excluding infants.

    Additional Adjustments for Within-Person Variance

    One challenge with calculating the NBDQ is that within-person variance in intake must be estimated for each person although it is known

    Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
    ×

    that this within-person variance may not be constant across population subgroups or even across individuals within population subgroups. Given only 1 or 2 days of intake information for each person, it is not possible to estimate within-person variances at the individual level with confidence.

    Instead of attempting to compute a within-person variance in intake for each person individually, a hierarchical model was applied to intake data. This allows for estimation of individual and subpopulation-level variances more precisely by using information across individuals and across groups. As a result, an individual’s estimated within-person variance in intake is based not only on the individual’s 2 days of data but also on the measurements taken on other individuals. The resulting estimate “shrinks” an individual’s naïve estimate (based on the person’s 2 days) toward the group’s mean. In this light, the estimated variances are similar (in terms of methodology) to the estimated usual intakes that are obtained using the ISU (Nusser et al., 1996), the NCI (Dekkers et al., 2014), or other methods.

    Once having these estimated within-person variances, the analysis proceeded as described in the 2000 IOM report (2000b) with two minor differences: first, the best linear unbiased predictor was used to estimate the person’s usual intake of a nutrient, and second, the statistic was compared to a t-distribution to account for the fact that the within-person variances in intake are estimates.

    For results of the NBDQ analysis, see Chapter 4, Tables 4-30 and 4-31.

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    Carriquiry, A. L. 1999. Assessing the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy. Public Health Nutrition 2(1):23–33.

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    Cashman, K. D., K. M. Seamans, A. J. Lucey, E. Stocklin, P. Weber, M. Kiely, and T. R. Hill. 2012. Relative effectiveness of oral 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and vitamin D3 in raising wintertime serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in older adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 95(6):1350–1356.

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    Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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    Suggested Citation:"Appendix J: Nutrient and Food Intake of WIC Subgroups: Analytical Methods and Results." National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Review of WIC Food Packages: Improving Balance and Choice: Final Report. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23655.
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    Next: Appendix K: Study Design Strategies for Reducing the Effects of Selection Bias in Studies Comparing WIC Participants to Others »
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    The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) began 40 years ago as a pilot program and has since grown to serve over 8 million pregnant women, and mothers of and their infants and young children. Today the program serves more than a quarter of the pregnant women and half of the infants in the United States, at an annual cost of about $6.2 billion. Through its contribution to the nutritional needs of pregnant, breastfeeding, and post-partum women; infants; and children under 5 years of age; this federally supported nutrition assistance program is integral to meeting national nutrition policy goals for a significant portion of the U.S. population.

    To assure the continued success of the WIC, Congress mandated that the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) reevaluate the program's food packages every 10 years. In 2014, the USDA asked the Institute of Medicine to undertake this reevaluation to ensure continued alignment with the goals of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. In this third report, the committee provides its final analyses, recommendations, and the supporting rationale.

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